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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915784/the-role-of-fundamental-frequency-and-temporal-envelope-in-processing-sentences-with-temporary-syntactic-ambiguities
#1
Victoria Sharpe, Daniel Fogerty, Dirk-Bart den Ouden
Previous experiments have demonstrated the impact of speech prosody on syntactic processing. The present study was designed to examine how listeners use specific acoustic properties of prosody for grammatical interpretation. We investigated the independent contributions of two acoustic properties associated with the pitch and rhythmic properties of speech; the fundamental frequency and temporal envelope, respectively. The effect of degrading these prosodic components was examined by testing listeners' ability to parse early-closure garden-path sentences...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915778/prosodic-variation-and-segmental-reduction-and-their-roles-in-cuing-turn-transition-in-swedish
#2
Margaret Zellers
Prosody has often been identified alongside syntax as a cue to turn hold or turn transition in conversational interaction. However, evidence for which prosodic cues are most relevant, and how strong those cues are, has been somewhat scattered. The current study addresses prosodic cues to turn transition in Swedish. A perception study looking closely at turn changes and holds in cases where the syntax does not lead inevitably to a particular outcome shows that Swedish listeners are sensitive to duration variations, even in the very short space of the final unstressed syllable of a turn, and that they may use pitch cues to a lesser extent...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878961/utterance-final-position-and-pitch-marking-aid-word-learning-in-school-age-children
#3
Piera Filippi, Sabine Laaha, W Tecumseh Fitch
We investigated the effects of word order and prosody on word learning in school-age children. Third graders viewed photographs belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing four-word nonsense utterances containing a target word. In the control condition, all words had the same pitch and, across trials, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance. The only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of target words and referents. This cue was present in all conditions...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873895/toward-emotionally-accessible-massive-open-online-courses-moocs
#4
Garron Hillaire, Francisco Iniesto, Bart Rienties
This paper outlines an approach to evaluating the emotional content of three Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) using the affective computing approach of prosody detection on two different text-to-speech voices in conjunction with human raters judging the emotional content of course text. The intent of this work is to establish the potential variation on the emotional delivery of MOOC material through synthetic voice.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863599/acoustic-correlates-for-perceived-effort-levels-in-male-and-female-acted-voices
#5
Mary Pietrowicz, Mark Hasegawa-Johnson, Karrie G Karahalios
The best actors, particularly classic Shakespearian actors, are experts at vocal expression. With prosodic inflection, change of voice quality, and non-textual utterances, they communicate emotion, emphasize ideas, create drama, and form a complementary language which works with the text to tell the story in the script. To begin to study selected elements of vocal expression in acted speech, corpora were curated from male actors' Hamlet and female actresses' Lady Macbeth soliloquy performances. L1 speakers of American English on Mechanical Turk listened to excerpts from the corpora, and provided descriptions of the speaker's vocal expression...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857488/preliminary-study-of-higher-order-language-and-extralinguistic-impairments-in-individuals-with-high-clinical-risk-of-psychosis-and-first-episode-of-schizophrenia
#6
Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Magdalena Kotlicka-Antczak, Emila Łojek, Tomasz Pawełczyk
AIM: Higher-order language functions are associated with understanding indirect speech acts, lexical-semantic processes, the understanding and production of prosody, discourse production and comprehension. Only a few studies imply that language abnormalities may be present in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) and first-episode of schizophrenia (FE). The purpose of this study was to test the presence of higher-order language dysfunctions in UHR and FE subjects using a standardized comprehensive test battery...
August 31, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845862/-the-neural-bases-of-social-cognition-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-review
#7
Filippo Turchi, Alessandro Cuomo, Giovanni Amodeo, Ettore Favaretto, Stefania Righini, Eugenia Mellina, Carmelo La Mela, Andrea Fagiolini
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a significant impairment of social and interpersonal functioning. Several neuroimaging studies have evaluated social cognition, i.e. how people with MDD process, store and analyze information about other people and social situations. METHODS: We conducted a focused review and selected manuscript published until August 2016 indexed on PubMed and PsycINFO, searching for the following keywords: "major depressive disorder", "major depression", "unipolar depression", "clinical depression", "fMRI", "emotion comprehension", "emotion perception", "affect comprehension", "affect perception", "facial expression", "prosody", "theory of mind", "mentalizing", "empathy"...
July 2017: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842278/discrimination-of-emotional-prosodies-in-human-neonates-a-pilot-fnirs-study
#8
Dandan Zhang, Yu Zhou, Xinlin Hou, Yun Cui, Congle Zhou
Very early in development, vocal emotional cues are more critical than facial expressions in guiding infants' behavior. However, the processing of emotional prosody in the very early days of life is still far from clearly understood. To address the issue, this study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to examine brain response of neonates when they passively listened to fearful, angry, happy and neutral prosodies. It was found that while the right temporal cortex (mainly located in the middle temporal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus) exhibited enhanced response to emotional, relative to neutral, prosody, a right parietal area (approximately located in the supramarginal gyrus) showed a heightened sensitivity to fearful, relative to happy and neutral, prosody...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839071/intonational-speech-prosody-encoding-in-the-human-auditory-cortex
#9
C Tang, L S Hamilton, E F Chang
Speakers of all human languages regularly use intonational pitch to convey linguistic meaning, such as to emphasize a particular word. Listeners extract pitch movements from speech and evaluate the shape of intonation contours independent of each speaker's pitch range. We used high-density electrocorticography to record neural population activity directly from the brain surface while participants listened to sentences that varied in intonational pitch contour, phonetic content, and speaker. Cortical activity at single electrodes over the human superior temporal gyrus selectively represented intonation contours...
August 25, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832595/verbal-monitoring-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-comparison-between-internal-and-external-monitoring
#10
Hanna S Gauvin, Jolien Mertens, Peter Mariën, Patrick Santens, Barbara A Pickut, Robert J Hartsuiker
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) display a variety of impairments in motor and non-motor language processes; speech is decreased on motor aspects such as amplitude, prosody and speed and on linguistic aspects including grammar and fluency. Here we investigated whether verbal monitoring is impaired and what the relative contributions of the internal and external monitoring route are on verbal monitoring in patients with PD relative to controls. Furthermore, the data were used to investigate whether internal monitoring performance could be predicted by internal speech perception tasks, as perception based monitoring theories assume...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815940/production-and-perception-of-emotional-prosody-by-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Daniel J Hubbard, Daniel J Faso, Peter F Assmann, Noah J Sasson
This study examined production and perception of affective prosody by adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research has reported increased pitch variability in talkers with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) controls in grammatical speaking tasks (e.g., comparing interrogative vs. declarative sentences), but it is unclear whether this pattern extends to emotional speech. In this study, speech recordings in five emotion contexts (angry, happy, interested, sad, and neutral) were obtained from 15 adult males with ASD and 15 controls (Experiment 1), and were later presented to 52 listeners (22 with ASD) who were asked to identify the emotion expressed and rate the level of naturalness of the emotion in each recording (Experiment 2)...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810816/prosody-of-dual-focus-in-german-interaction-between-focus-and-phrasing
#12
Bei Wang, Caroline Féry
This paper studies the prosodic realization of dual-focus in German, that is, two foci in a single sentence, with special consideration of the interaction between focus assignment and phrasing. In a production experiment, dual-focus was compared with its initial, final, and all-new counterparts in sentences with subject NPs and VPs of different lengths. The results showed that there were three different patterns of dual-focus realization: (1) The most frequent one was the two-peak pattern (57.8%), that is, a falling tone on both focused words and compressed and lowered pitch in-between; (2) the second most frequent was the two-phrase realization (23...
August 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794973/increased-glutamate-gaba-ratio-in-a-shared-autistic-and-schizotypal-trait-phenotype-termed-social-disorganisation
#13
Talitha C Ford, Richard Nibbs, David P Crewther
Autism and schizophrenia are multi-dimensional spectrum disorders that have substantial phenotypic overlap. This overlap is readily identified in the non-clinical population, and has been conceptualised as Social Disorganisation (SD). This study investigates the balance of excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in a non-clinical sample with high and low trait SD, as glutamate and GABA abnormalities are reported across the autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Participants were 18 low (10 females) and 19 high (9 females) SD scorers aged 18 to 40 years who underwent (1)H-MRS for glutamate and GABA+macromolecule (GABA+) concentrations in right and left hemisphere superior temporal (ST) voxels...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790903/increase-in-beta-band-activity-during-preparation-for-overt-speech-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Peter Sörös, Nuria Doñamayor, Catharina Wittke, Mohamed Al-Khaled, Norbert Brüggemann, Thomas F Münte
Speech impairment is a frequent and often serious symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), characterized by a disorder of phonation, articulation and prosody. While research on the pathogenesis of the prominent limb motor symptoms has made considerable progress in recent years, the pathophysiology of PD speech impairment is still incompletely understood. To investigate the neural correlates of speech production in PD, EEG was recorded in 14 non-demented patients with idiopathic PD and preserved verbal fluency on regular dopaminergic medication (8 women; mean age ± SD: 69...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774670/exploring-a-method-for-evaluation-of-preschool-and-school-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-through-checking-their-understanding-of-the-speaker-s-emotions-with-the-help-of-prosody-of-the-voice
#15
Mayumi Horie, Hitoshi Okamura
PURPOSE: We attempted to evaluate the ability of 125 preschool and school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD children) to understand the intentions of those speaking to them using prosody of the voice, by comparing it with that of 119 typically developing children (TDC) and 51 development-age-matched children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD children), and to explore, based on the results, a method for objective evaluation of children with ASD in the early and later periods of childhood...
July 31, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764593/right-ear-precedence-and-vocal-emotion-contagion-the-role-of-the-left-hemisphere
#16
Astrid Schepman, Paul Rodway, Louise Cornmell, Bethany Smith, Sabrina Lauren de Sa, Ciara Borwick, Elisha Belfon-Thompson
Much evidence suggests that the processing of emotions is lateralized to the right hemisphere of the brain. However, under some circumstances the left hemisphere might play a role, particularly for positive emotions and emotional experiences. We explored whether emotion contagion was right-lateralized, lateralized valence-specifically, or potentially left-lateralized. In two experiments, right-handed female listeners rated to what extent emotionally intoned pseudo-sentences evoked target emotions in them. These sound stimuli had a 7 ms ear lead in the left or right channel, leading to stronger stimulation of the contralateral hemisphere...
August 2, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764484/beyond-lexical-meaning-the-effect-of-emotional-prosody-on-spoken-word-recognition
#17
Seung Kyung Kim, Meghan Sumner
This study employs an auditory-visual associative priming paradigm to test whether non-emotional words uttered in emotional prosody (e.g., pineapple spoken in angry prosody or happy prosody) facilitate recognition of semantically emotional words (e.g., mad, upset or smile, joy). The results show an affective priming effect between emotional prosody and emotional words independent of lexical carriers of the prosody. Learned acoustic patterns in speech (e.g., emotional prosody) map directly to social concepts and representations, and this social information influences the spoken word recognition process...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752796/lay-listener-classification-and-evaluation-of-typical-and-atypical-children-s-speech
#18
Melissa A Redford, Vsevolod Kapatsinski, Jolynn Cornell-Fabiano
Verbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often also have atypical speech. In the context of the many challenges associated with ASD, do speech sound pattern differences really matter? The current study addressed this question. Structured spontaneous speech was elicited from 34 children: 17 with ASD, whose clinicians reported unusual speech prosody; and 17 typically-developing, age-matched controls. Multiword utterances were excerpted from each child's speech sample and presented to young adult listeners, who had no clinical training or experience...
July 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733335/motor-speech-signature-of-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-refining-the-phenotype
#19
Adam P Vogel, Matthew L Poole, Hugh Pemberton, Marja W J Caverlé, Frederique M C Boonstra, Essie Low, David Darby, Amy Brodtmann
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive description of motor speech function in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). METHODS: Forty-eight individuals (24 bvFTD and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls) provided speech samples. These varied in complexity and thus cognitive demand. Their language was assessed using the Progressive Aphasia Language Scale and verbal fluency tasks. Speech was analyzed perceptually to describe the nature of deficits and acoustically to quantify differences between patients with bvFTD and healthy controls...
August 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724589/affective-prosody-in-frontotemporal-dementia-the-importance-of-pitching-it-right
#20
EDITORIAL
Cristian E Leyton, Argye E Hillis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Neurology
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