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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149697/characteristics-of-motor-speech-phenotypes-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Jan Rusz, Barbora Benova, Hana Ruzickova, Michal Novotny, Tereza Tykalova, Jan Hlavnicka, Tomas Uher, Manuela Vaneckova, Michaela Andelova, Klara Novotna, Lucie Kadrnozkova, Dana Horakova
BACKGROUND: Motor speech disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are poorly understood and their quantitative, objective acoustic characterization remains limited. Additionally, little data regarding relationships between the severity of speech disorders and neurological involvement in MS, as well as the contribution of pyramidal and cerebellar functional systems on speech phenotypes, is available. METHODS: Speech data were acquired from 141 MS patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ranging from 1 to 6...
November 8, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145178/minor-hemisphere-major-syndromes
#2
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
A right "minor hemisphere" does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140781/a-generative-audio-visual-prosodic-model-for-virtual-actors
#3
Adela Barbulescu, Remi Ronfard, Gerard Bailly
An important problem in computer animation of virtual characters is the expression of complex mental states during conversation using the coordinated prosody of voice, rhythm, facial expressions, and head and gaze motion. In this work, the authors propose an expressive conversion method for generating natural speech and facial animation in a variety of recognizable attitudes, using neutral speech and animation as input. Their method works by automatically learning prototypical prosodic contours at the sentence level from an original dataset of dramatic attitudes...
November 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119657/reduced-neural-responses-to-vocal-fear-a-potential-biomarker-for-callous-uncaring-traits-in-early-childhood
#4
Caroline P Hoyniak, John E Bates, Isaac T Petersen, Chung-Lin Yang, Isabelle Darcy, Nathalie M G Fontaine
OBJECTIVE: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are characterized by a lack of guilt and empathy, and low responsiveness to distress and fear in others. Children with CU traits are at-risk for engaging in early and persistent conduct problems. Individuals showing CU traits have been shown to have reduced neural responses to others' distress (e.g., fear). However, the neural components of distress responses in children with CU traits have not been investigated in early childhood. In the current study, we examined neural responses that underlie the processing of emotionally valenced vocal stimuli using the event-related potential technique in a group of preschoolers...
November 8, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108462/the-effect-of-clear-speech-on-temporal-metrics-of-rhythm-in-spanish-accented-speakers-of-english
#5
Alison Behrman, Sarah Hargus Ferguson, Ali Akhund, Mariola Moeyaert
This paper presents a comparative analysis of temporal rhythm in native American English talkers and Spanish-accented English talkers producing clear (hyperarticulated) speech and typical, conversational-style speech. Five acoustic measures of comparative vocalic and consonantal interval duration ("temporal metrics") were obtained from speech samples of 40 adult men and women (half native and half Spanish-accented talkers). In conversational-style speech, vocalic-based metrics differed significantly between native and Spanish-accented talkers, consistent with phonotactic differences between the two native languages...
November 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102707/neurophysiological-differentiation-between-preattentive-and-attentive-processing-of-emotional-expressions-on-french-vowels
#6
Mathilde Carminati, Nicole Fiori-Duharcourt, Frédéric Isel
The present electrophysiological study investigated the processing of emotional prosody by minimizing as much as possible the effect of emotional information conveyed by the lexical-semantic context. Emotionally colored French vowels (i.e., happiness, sadness, fear, and neutral) were presented in a mismatch negativity (MMN) oddball paradigm. Both the MMN, i.e., an event-related potential (ERP) component thought to reflect preattentive change detection, and the P3a, i.e., an ERP marker of involuntary orientation of attention toward deviant stimuli, were significantly modulated by the emotional deviants compared to the neutral ones...
November 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089535/language-and-music-phrase-boundary-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-erp-study
#7
John DePriest, Anastasia Glushko, Karsten Steinhauer, Stefan Koelsch
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently associated with communicative impairment, regardless of intelligence level or mental age. Impairment of prosodic processing in particular is a common feature of ASD. Despite extensive overlap in neural resources involved in prosody and music processing, music perception seems to be spared in this population. The present study is the first to investigate prosodic phrasing in ASD in both language and music, combining event-related brain potential (ERP) and behavioral methods...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086698/prosodic-impairment-in-dementia-review-of-the-literature
#8
Sylwia Misiewicz, Adam M Brickman, Giuseppe Tosto
OBJECTIVE: Prosody, an important aspect of spoken language, is defined as the emphasis placed on certain syllables, changes in tempo or timing, and variance in pitch and intonation. Most studies investigating expression and comprehension of prosody have focused primarily on emotional prosody and less extensively on supralexical prosody. The distinction is indeed important, as the latter conveys information such as interrogative or assertive mode, whereas the former delivers emotional connotation, such as happiness, anger, and sadness...
October 30, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075753/predicting-intelligibility-gains-in-individuals-with-dysarthria-from-baseline-speech-features
#9
Annalise R Fletcher, Megan J McAuliffe, Kaitlin L Lansford, Donal G Sinex, Julie M Liss
Purpose: Across the treatment literature, behavioral speech modifications have produced variable intelligibility changes in speakers with dysarthria. This study is the first of two articles exploring whether measurements of baseline speech features can predict speakers' responses to these modifications. Methods: Fifty speakers (7 older individuals and 43 speakers with dysarthria) read a standard passage in habitual, loud, and slow speaking modes. Eighteen listeners rated how easy the speech samples were to understand...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061490/electrophysiology-of-prosodic-and-lexical-semantic-processing-during-sentence-comprehension-in-aphasia
#10
Shannon M Sheppard, Tracy Love, Katherine J Midgley, Phillip J Holcomb, Lewis P Shapiro
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to examine how individuals with aphasia and a group of age-matched controls use prosody and themattic fit information in sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities. Two groups of individuals with aphasia were investigated; those demonstrating relatively good sentence comprehension whose primary language difficulty is anomia (Individuals with Anomic Aphasia (IWAA)), and those who demonstrate impaired sentence comprehension whose primary diagnosis is Broca's aphasia (Individuals with Broca's Aphasia (IWBA))...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027494/discriminating-non-native-segmental-length-contrasts-under-increased-task-demands
#11
Yuki Asano
The present study examines how vulnerable perception of second language prosody is to increased task demands. German learners of Japanese, German non-learners without exposure to Japanese, and Japanese native listeners were tested in their ability to discriminate consonant length contrasts (compared to vowel length contrasts that served as a control condition). Memory load was increased by a longer inter-stimulus interval (2500 ms compared to 300 ms) and the demand on attention control was enhanced through the addition of the acoustic complexity of the stimuli (i...
October 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023525/multisensory-emotion-perception-in-congenitally-early-and-late-deaf-ci-users
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
Ineke Fengler, Elena Nava, Agnes K Villwock, Andreas Büchner, Thomas Lenarz, Brigitte Röder
Emotions are commonly recognized by combining auditory and visual signals (i.e., vocal and facial expressions). Yet it is unknown whether the ability to link emotional signals across modalities depends on early experience with audio-visual stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the role of auditory experience at different stages of development for auditory, visual, and multisensory emotion recognition abilities in three groups of adolescent and adult cochlear implant (CI) users. CI users had a different deafness onset and were compared to three groups of age- and gender-matched hearing control participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018382/how-native-prosody-affects-pitch-processing-during-word-learning-in-limburgian-and-dutch-toddlers-and-adults
#13
Stefanie Ramachers, Susanne Brouwer, Paula Fikkert
In this study, Limburgian and Dutch 2.5- to 4-year-olds and adults took part in a word learning experiment. Following the procedure employed by Quam and Swingley (2010) and Singh et al. (2014), participants learned two novel word-object mappings. After training, word recognition was tested in correct pronunciation (CP) trials and mispronunciation (MP) trials featuring a pitch change. Since Limburgian is considered a restricted tone language, we expected that the pitch change would hinder word recognition in Limburgian, but not in non-tonal Dutch listeners...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966565/are-homophones-acoustically-distinguished-in-child-directed-speech
#14
Erin Conwell
Many approaches to early word learning posit that children assume a one-to-one mapping of form and meaning. However, children's early vocabularies contain homophones, words that violate that assumption. Children might learn such words by exploiting prosodic differences between homophone meanings that are associated with lemma frequency (Gahl, 2008). Such differences have not yet been documented in children's natural language experience and the exaggerated prosody of child-directed speech could either mask the subtle distinctions reported in adult-directed speech or enhance them...
2017: Language Learning and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964276/a-comparison-of-speech-intonation-production-and-perception-abilities-of-farsi-speaking-cochlear-implanted-and-normal-hearing-children
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Narges Moein, Seyyedeh Maryam Khoddami, Mohammad Rahim Shahbodaghi
INTRODUCTION: Cochlear implant prosthesis facilitates spoken language development and speech comprehension in children with severe-profound hearing loss. However, this prosthesis is limited in encoding information about fundamental frequency and pitch that are essentially for recognition of speech prosody. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the perception and production of intonation in cochlear implant children and comparison with normal hearing children. METHOD: This study carried out on 25 cochlear implanted children and 50 children with normal hearing...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958627/assisted-and-unassisted-recession-of-functional-anomalies-associated-with-dysprosody-in-adults-who-stutter
#16
Katrin Neumann, Harald A Euler, Malte Kob, Alexander Wolff von Gudenberg, Anne-Lise Giraud, Tobias Weissgerber, Christian A Kell
PURPOSE: Speech in persons who stutter (PWS) is associated with disturbed prosody (speech melody and intonation), which may impact communication. The neural correlates of PWS' altered prosody during speaking are not known, neither is how a speech-restructuring therapy affects prosody at both a behavioral and a cerebral level. METHODS: In this fMRI study, we explored group differences in brain activation associated with the production of different kinds of prosody in 13 male adults who stutter (AWS) before, directly after, and at least 1 year after an effective intensive fluency-shaping treatment, in 13 typically fluent-speaking control participants (CP), and in 13 males who had spontaneously recovered from stuttering during adulthood (RAWS), while sentences were read aloud with 'neutral', instructed emotional (happy), and linguistically driven (questioning) prosody...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915784/the-role-of-fundamental-frequency-and-temporal-envelope-in-processing-sentences-with-temporary-syntactic-ambiguities
#17
Victoria Sharpe, Daniel Fogerty, Dirk-Bart den Ouden
Previous experiments have demonstrated the impact of speech prosody on syntactic processing. The present study was designed to examine how listeners use specific acoustic properties of prosody for grammatical interpretation. We investigated the independent contributions of two acoustic properties associated with the pitch and rhythmic properties of speech; the fundamental frequency and temporal envelope, respectively. The effect of degrading these prosodic components was examined by testing listeners' ability to parse early-closure garden-path sentences...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915778/prosodic-variation-and-segmental-reduction-and-their-roles-in-cuing-turn-transition-in-swedish
#18
Margaret Zellers
Prosody has often been identified alongside syntax as a cue to turn hold or turn transition in conversational interaction. However, evidence for which prosodic cues are most relevant, and how strong those cues are, has been somewhat scattered. The current study addresses prosodic cues to turn transition in Swedish. A perception study looking closely at turn changes and holds in cases where the syntax does not lead inevitably to a particular outcome shows that Swedish listeners are sensitive to duration variations, even in the very short space of the final unstressed syllable of a turn, and that they may use pitch cues to a lesser extent...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878961/utterance-final-position-and-pitch-marking-aid-word-learning-in-school-age-children
#19
Piera Filippi, Sabine Laaha, W Tecumseh Fitch
We investigated the effects of word order and prosody on word learning in school-age children. Third graders viewed photographs belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing four-word nonsense utterances containing a target word. In the control condition, all words had the same pitch and, across trials, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance. The only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of target words and referents. This cue was present in all conditions...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873895/toward-emotionally-accessible-massive-open-online-courses-moocs
#20
Garron Hillaire, Francisco Iniesto, Bart Rienties
This paper outlines an approach to evaluating the emotional content of three Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) using the affective computing approach of prosody detection on two different text-to-speech voices in conjunction with human raters judging the emotional content of course text. The intent of this work is to establish the potential variation on the emotional delivery of MOOC material through synthetic voice.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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