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Katharina Dorn, Sabine Weinert, Terje Falck-Ytter
Investigating infants' ability to match visual and auditory speech segments presented sequentially allows us to understand more about the type of information they encode in each domain, as well as their ability to relate the information. One previous study found that 4.5- month-old infants' preference for visual French or German speech depended on whether they had previously heard the respective language, suggesting a remarkable ability to encode and relate audio-visual speech cues and to use these to guide their looking behavior...
July 11, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Frank Boutsen, Eunsun Park, Justin Dvorak, Christina Cid
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson disease (PD) hinders the ability to verbally communicate and interferes with activities of daily living. SPEAK OUT!® is a therapy program designed to improve functional communicative ability. In contrast to the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment program, SPEAK OUT!® promotes speaking with intent to effect loud speech. This study evaluated the efficacy of SPEAK OUT!® in persons with idiopathic PD in 3 domains: self-reported voice handicap, clinical ratings of dysarthria and prosody, and acoustic analysis of prosody...
July 11, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Patricia Garrido-Vásquez, Marc D Pell, Silke Paulmann, Sonja A Kotz
Evidence suggests that emotion is represented supramodally in the human brain. Emotional facial expressions, which often precede vocally expressed emotion in real life, can modulate event-related potentials (N100 and P200) during emotional prosody processing. To investigate these cross-modal emotional interactions, two lines of research have been put forward: cross-modal integration and cross-modal priming. In cross-modal integration studies, visual and auditory channels are temporally aligned, while in priming studies they are presented consecutively...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Eszter Varga, Szilvia Endre, Titusz Bugya, Tamás Tényi, Róbert Herold
Schizophrenic patients have serious impairments in social cognition, which often persists after significant reduction in clinical symptoms. Community-based psychosocial treatments aim to recover social functioning for mentally ill individuals. Our aim was to examine prospective changes in social cognition and functional outcomes in two groups of schizophrenic patients involved in two forms of community-based psychosocial treatments namely case management (CM) and community-based club (CC) compared to a matched, treatment as usual (TAU) group of patients...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Adi Lausen, Annekathrin Schacht
The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Shannon M Sheppard, Katherine J Midgley, Tracy Love, Lewis P Shapiro, Phillip J Holcomb
This study investigated the interaction of prosody and thematic fit/plausibility information during the processing of sentences containing temporary early closure (correct) or late closure (incorrect) syntactic ambiguities using event-related potentials (ERPs). Early closure sentences with congruent and incongruent prosody were presented where the temporarily ambiguous NP was either a plausible or an implausible continuation for the subordinate verb (e.g. "While the band played the song/beer pleased all the customers...
2018: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Emmanuel Ponsot, Juan José Burred, Pascal Belin, Jean-Julien Aucouturier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Emila Łojek, Natalia Żurner, Marta Gawłowska-Sawosz, Tomasz Pawełczyk
The purpose of the study was to examine the presence of pragmatic dysfunctions in first episode (FE) subjects and their healthy first degree relatives as a potential endophenotype for schizophrenia. Thirty-four FE patients, 34 parents of the patients (REL) and 32 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. Pragmatic language functions were evaluated with the Right Hemisphere Language Battery, attention and executive functions were controlled, as well as age and education level. The parents differed from HC but not from their FE offspring with regard to overall level of language and communication and the general knowledge component of language processing...
May 31, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Xiaoluan Liu, Yi Xu, Kai Alter, Jyrki Tuomainen
Music and speech both communicate emotional meanings in addition to their domain-specific contents. But it is not clear whether and how the two kinds of emotional meanings are linked. The present study is focused on exploring the emotional connotations of musical timbre of isolated instrument sounds through the perspective of emotional speech prosody. The stimuli were isolated instrument sounds and emotional speech prosody categorized by listeners into anger, happiness and sadness, respectively. We first analyzed the timbral features of the stimuli, which showed that relations between the three emotions were relatively consistent in those features for speech and music...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yong-Cheol Lee, Satoshi Nambu, Sunghye Cho
Using production and perception experiments, this study examined whether the prosodic structure inherent to telephone numbers in Tokyo Japanese affects the realization of focus prosody as well as its perception. It was hypothesized that prosodic marking of focus differs by position within the digit groups of phone number strings. Overall, focus prosody of telephone numbers was not clearly marked, resulting in poor identification in perception. However, a difference between positions within digit groups was identified, reflecting a prosodic structure where one position is assigned an accentual peak instead of the other...
May 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Kara Hawthorne
Across languages, prosodic boundaries tend to align with syntactic boundaries, and both infant and adult language learners capitalize on these correlations to jump-start syntax acquisition. However, it is unclear which prosodic cues-pauses, final-syllable lengthening, and/or pitch resets across boundaries-are necessary for prosodic bootstrapping to occur. It is also unknown how syntax acquisition is impacted when listeners do not have access to the full range of prosodic or spectral information. These questions were addressed using 14-channel noise-vocoded (spectrally degraded) speech...
May 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Angela T Morgan, Elizabeth Murray, Frederique J Liégeois
BACKGROUND: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) affects a child's ability to produce sounds and syllables precisely and consistently, and to produce words and sentences with accuracy and correct speech rhythm. It is a rare condition, affecting only 0.1% of the general population. Consensus has been reached that three core features have diagnostic validity: (1) inconsistent error production on both consonants and vowels across repeated productions of syllables or words; (2) lengthened and impaired coarticulatory transitions between sounds and syllables; and (3) inappropriate prosody (ASHA 2007)...
May 30, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Arash Aryani, Chun-Ting Hsu, Arthur M Jacobs
The long history of poetry and the arts, as well as recent empirical results suggest that the way a word sounds (e.g., soft vs. harsh) can convey affective information related to emotional responses (e.g., pleasantness vs. harshness). However, the neural correlates of the affective potential of the sound of words remain unknown. In an fMRI study involving passive listening, we focused on the affective dimension of arousal and presented words organized in two discrete groups of sublexical (i.e., sound) arousal (high vs...
May 23, 2018: Brain Sciences
Fatima Hamlaoui, Marzena Żygis, Jonas Engelmann, Michael Wagner
Languages vary in the type of contexts that affect prosodic prominence. This paper reports on a production study investigating how different types of foci influence prosody in Polish and Czech noun phrases. The results show that in both languages, focus and givenness are marked prosodically, with pitch and intensity as the main acoustic correlates. Like Germanic languages, Polish and Czech patterns show prosodic focus marking in a broad range of contexts and differ in this regard from other fixed-word-stress languages such as French...
May 1, 2018: Language and Speech
Nele Hellbernd, Daniela Sammler
Our ability to understand others' communicative intentions in speech is key to successful social interaction. Indeed, misunderstanding an 'excuse me' as apology, while meant as criticism, may have important consequences. Recent behavioural studies have provided evidence that prosody, that is, vocal tone, is an important indicator for speakers' intentions. Using a novel audio-morphing paradigm, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neurocognitive mechanisms that allow listeners to 'read' speakers' intents from vocal prosodic patterns...
June 1, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Daniela Sammler, Katrin Cunitz, Sarah M E Gierhan, Alfred Anwander, Jens Adermann, Jürgen Meixensberger, Angela D Friederici
The relevance of left dorsal and ventral fiber pathways for syntactic and semantic comprehension is well established, while pathways for prosody are little explored. The present study examined linguistic prosodic structure building in a patient whose right arcuate/superior longitudinal fascicles and posterior corpus callosum were transiently compromised by a vasogenic peritumoral edema. Compared to ten matched healthy controls, the patient's ability to detect irregular prosodic structure significantly improved between pre- and post-surgical assessment...
May 11, 2018: Brain and Language
Heming Zhang, Xuhai Chen, Shengdong Chen, Yansong Li, Changming Chen, Quanshan Long, Jiajin Yuan
Facial and vocal expressions are essential modalities mediating the perception of emotion and social communication. Nonetheless, currently little is known about how emotion perception and its neural substrates differ across facial expression and vocal prosody. To clarify this issue, functional MRI scans were acquired in Study 1, in which participants were asked to discriminate the valence of emotional expression (angry, happy or neutral) from facial, vocal, or bimodal stimuli. In Study 2, we used an affective priming task (unimodal materials as primers and bimodal materials as target) and participants were asked to rate the intensity, valence, and arousal of the targets...
May 9, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Judith Charpentier, Klara Kovarski, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Agathe Saby, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Marianne Latinus, Marie Gomot
Voices transmit social signals through speech and/or prosody. Emotional prosody conveys key information about the emotional state of a speaker and is thus a crucial cue that one has to detect in order to develop efficient social communication. Previous studies in adults reported different brain responses to emotional than to neutral prosodic deviancy. The aim of this study was to characterize such specific emotional deviancy effects in school-age children. The mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a evoked potentials, reflecting automatic change detection and automatic attention orienting, respectively, were obtained for neutral and emotional angry deviants in both school-age children (n = 26) and adults (n = 14)...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Arezoo Saffarian, Yunes Amiri Shavaki, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Zahra Jafari
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emotion perception plays a major role in proper communication with people in different social interactions. Nonverbal affect bursts can be used to evaluate vocal emotion perception. The present study was a preliminary step to establishing the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV) test, as well as to investigate the effect of Parkinson disease (PD) on vocal emotion perception. METHODS: The short, emotional sound made by pronouncing the vowel "a" in Persian was recorded by 22 actors and actresses to develop the Persian version of the MAV, the Persian Affective Voices (PAV), for emotions of happiness, sadness, pleasure, pain, anger, disgust, fear, surprise, and neutrality...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Amy Wright, Sadhvi Saxena, Shannon M Sheppard, Argye E Hillis
The intent and feelings of the speaker are often conveyed less by what they say than by how they say it, in terms of the affective prosody - modulations in pitch, loudness, rate, and rhythm of the speech to convey emotion. Here we propose a cognitive architecture of the perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes underlying recognition and generation of affective prosody. We developed the architecture on the basis of the computational demands of the task, and obtained evidence for various components by identifying neurologically impaired patients with relatively specific deficits in one component...
July 2018: Brain and Cognition
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