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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772498/test-retest-reliability-of-laser-displacement-mechanomyography-in-paraspinal-muscles-while-in-lumbar-extension-or-flexion
#1
Christian Than, Laura Seidl, Danijel Tosovic, J Mark Brown
This study investigated test-retest reliability of mechanomyography (MMG) on lumbar paraspinal muscles. Healthy male and female subjects (mean ± standard deviation, 25 ± 9.4 years, BMI 21.8 ± 2.99, n = 34) were recruited. Two test sessions (one week apart) consisted of MMG (laser displacement sensor (LDS)) muscle evaluations over the 10 lumbar facet joints, and 2 bilateral sacral sites, in anatomical extension and flexion. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc showed no significant differences between testing sessions for the same position (p > 0...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770120/multiparametric-analysis-of-sniff-nasal-inspiratory-pressure-test-in-middle-stage-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
Antonio Sarmento, Andrea Aliverti, Layana Marques, Francesca Pennati, Mario Emílio Dourado-Júnior, Guilherme Fregonezi, Vanessa Resqueti
The relaxation rates and contractile properties of inspiratory muscles are altered with inspiratory muscle weakness and fatigue. This fact plays an important role in neuromuscular disorders patients and had never been extensively studied in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this cross-sectional study, these parameters were investigated non-invasively through nasal inspiratory sniff pressure test (SNIP) in 39 middle stage spinal onset ALS subjects and compared with 39 healthy controls. ALS patients were also divided into three subgroups according to a decline in their percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%pred ) as well as a decline in the ALS functional rating scale score and its respiratory subscore (R-subscore) in order to determine the best parameter linked to early respiratory muscle weakness...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761721/association-between-serum-s100a1-level-and-global-registry-of-acute-coronary-events-score-in-patients-with-non-st-segment-elevation-acute-coronary-syndrome
#3
Yuanmin Li, Chenjun Han, Peng Zhang, Wangfu Zang, Rong Guo
Objective Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with several clinical syndromes, one of which is acute non-ST-segment ACS (NSTE-ACS). S100A1 is a calcium-dependent regulator of heart contraction and relaxation. We investigated the association between the serum S100A1 level and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score in patients with NSTE-ACS and the potential of using the serum S100A1 level to predict the 30-day prognosis of NSTE-ACS. Methods The clinical characteristics of 162 patients with NSTE-ACS were analyzed to determine the GRACE score...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748816/epicatechin-s-cardiovascular-protective-effects-are-mediated-via-opioid-receptors-and-nitric-oxide
#4
Kirsty MacRae, Kylie Connolly, Rebecca Vella, Andrew Fenning
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality globally. Epicatechin has previously been shown to improve vascular responses and possess cardioprotective properties. However, the mechanisms underpinning these cardiotropic outcomes remain unknown. The aim of this study was to further identify epicatechin's mechanism of action in the cardiovasculature. METHODS: The effects of epicatechin on isolated rat conduit arteries, resistance vessels and cardiac electrophysiology were investigated on resting tension and precontracted vessels and cardiac action potential parameters, both in the presence and in the absence of various antagonists...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745795/diastolic-stress-testing-similarities-and-differences-between-isometric-handgrip-and-cycle-echocardiography
#5
Thomas Jake Samuel, Rhys Beaudry, Mark J Haykowsky, Satyam Sarma, Michael D Nelson
BACKGROUND: Cycle echocardiography (CE) is recommended for non-invasive diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction, but can be limited by respiratory and movement artifact. Isometric handgrip echocardiography (IHE) is also a robust diastolic discriminator, while avoiding the limitations associated with dynamic exercise. This study sought to compare these two diastolic stress testing approaches. METHODS: Twelve elderly individuals were recruited from the community (age: 71 + 6 years)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740982/topology-optimization-of-fusiform-muscles-with-a-maximum-contraction
#6
Qi Chen, Xianmin Zhang, Benliang Zhu
Understanding the optimal designs in nature is critical in bionics. This paper presents a method for designing the configuration of fusiform muscle with a maximum contractile displacement based on topology optimization methods. A nearly incompressible continuum constitutive model of skeletal muscle is utilized. The contractile displacement from the relaxed state to the contracted state is regarded as the objective function. To handle the numerical difficulties that result from the existence of element density, an energy interpolation equation is employed, and a modification of the constitutive model of skeletal muscle is proposed...
May 9, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739973/impaired-neural-pathway-in-gastric-muscles-of-patients-with-diabetes
#7
Yang Won Min, Eun-Ju Ko, Ji-Yeon Lee, Poong-Lyul Rhee
To explore the pathogenic mechanism of diabetic gastropathy, we investigated differences in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) of gastric muscles from diabetic and non-diabetic (control) patients. Gastric specimens were obtained from 34 patients and 45 controls who underwent gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. Using organ bath techniques, we examined peak and nadir values of contraction under EFS. To examine responses to purinergic and nitrergic inhibition without cholinergic innervation, atropine, MRS2500, and N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) were added sequentially to the organ bath...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731316/the-grisel-s-syndrome-a-non-traumatic-subluxation-of-the-atlantoaxial-joint
#8
L Fath, H Cebula, M N Santin, A Coca, C Debry, F Proust
INTRODUCTION: Grisel's syndrome consists in rotational subluxation of C1-C2 following ENT infection or surgery. There is no consensus on management. We present 2 cases requiring surgical treatment in our center. CASE REPORTS: Two 10-year-old patients presented torticollis with cervical pain resistant to medical treatment, with onset a few months after tonsillectomy. In both cases, radiological assessment, comprising CT scan and MRI, showed Fielding-Hawkins type-3 C1-C2 rotational subluxation, without ligament lesion...
May 3, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729251/point-mutations-in-the-tri-helix-bundle-of-the-m-domain-of-cardiac-myosin-binding-protein-c-influence-systolic-duration-and-delay-cardiac-relaxation
#9
Sabine J van Dijk, Kristina B Kooiker, Nathaniel C Napierski, Katia D Touma, Stacy Mazzalupo, Samantha P Harris
Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is an essential regulatory protein required for proper systolic contraction and diastolic relaxation. We previously showed that N'-terminal domains of cMyBP-C stimulate contraction by binding to actin and activating the thin filament in vitro. In principle, thin filament activating effects of cMyBP-C could influence contraction and relaxation rates, or augment force amplitude in vivo. cMyBP-C binding to actin could also contribute to an internal load that slows muscle shortening velocity as previously hypothesized...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728739/decreased-contraction-induced-by-endothelium-derived-contracting-factor-in-prolonged-treatment-of-rat-renal-artery-with-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-inducer
#10
Makoto Ando, Takayuki Matsumoto, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the regulation of various physiological functions, including those of the vascular system. However, the relationship between ER stress and vascular function is poorly understood. The endothelial cells control the vascular tone by releasing endothelium-derived relaxing factors and contracting factors (EDCFs). We hypothesized that tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, modifies endothelium-dependent contraction and prostaglandins (PGs), a major class of EDCFs, induced contractions in the rat renal artery in rats...
May 4, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727040/how-is-the-human-umbilical-artery-regulated
#11
REVIEW
Margarida Lorigo, Melissa Mariana, Joana Feiteiro, Elisa Cairrao
The purpose of this review is to present an update of the main mechanisms involved in the physiological regulation of contraction and relaxation of the human umbilical artery (HUA) smooth muscle cells. A literature review was performed based on the analysis of papers available on PubMed. The most important and relevant studies regarding the regulation of the HUA are presented in this article. The vascular smooth muscle is a highly specialized structure, whose main function is to regulate the vascular tonus...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722436/cigarette-smoke-upregulates-pde3-and-pde4-to-decrease-camp-in-airway-cells
#12
Haoxiao Zuo, Bing Han, Wilfred J Poppinga, Lennard Ringnalda, Loes E M Kistemaker, Andrew J Halayko, Reinoud Gosens, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Martina Schmidt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a central second messenger that broadly regulates cell function and can underpin pathophysiology. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a lung disease primarily provoked by cigarette smoke (CS), the induction of cAMP-dependent pathways, via inhibition of hydrolyzing phosphodiesterases (PDEs), is a prime therapeutic strategy. Mechanisms that disrupt cAMP signaling in airway cells, in particular regulation of endogenous PDEs are poorly understood...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713940/effects-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-interplay-of-antioxidants-during-physical-exercise-in-skeletal-muscles
#13
REVIEW
Anand Thirupathi, Ricardo A Pinho
A large number of researches have led to a substantial growth of knowledge about exercise and oxidative stress. Initial investigations reported that physical exercise generates free radical-mediated damages to cells; however, in recent years, studies have shown that regular exercise can upregulate endogenous antioxidants and reduce oxidative damage. Yet, strenuous exercise perturbs the antioxidant system by increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. These alterations in the cellular environment seem to occur in an exercise type-dependent manner...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710541/muscarinic-receptors-nitric-oxide-formation-and-cyclooxygenase-pathway-involved-in-tracheal-smooth-muscle-relaxant-effect-of-hydro-ethanolic-extract-of-lavandula-angustifolia-flowers
#14
Farzaneh Naghdi, Zahra Gholamnezhad, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Morteza Bakhshesh
BACKGROUND: Lavandula angustifolia (L. angustifolia) Mill. (Common name Lavender) is used in traditional and folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases including respiratory disorders worldwide. The relaxant effect of the plant on the smooth muscle of some tissues was shown previously. The present study has investigated the role of different receptors and pathways in the relaxant effect of L. angustifolia on tracheal smooth muscle. METHODS: Cumulative concentrations of the hydro-ethanolic extract of L...
April 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709583/seeing-action-simulation-as-it-unfolds-the-implicit-effects-of-action-scenes-on-muscle-contraction-evidenced-through-the-use-of-a-grip-force-sensor
#15
J Blampain, L Ott, Y N Delevoye-Turrell
Action simulation is a cognitive process that mentally simulates a motor act without performing it in the true external world. Simulation mechanisms play a key role in perceiving, feeling and understanding actions executed by others. However, very little is known about the process dynamics because of the absence of a behavioral tool to probe directly the action simulation process as it unfolds. Twenty-seven healthy adults were required to hold a force sensor in a relaxed pinch-grip while viewing action videos of different intensities: wait (null); touch (low); move (medium); crush (high)...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709439/vasodilator-effects-and-putative-guanylyl-cyclase-stimulation-by-2-nitro-1-phenylethanone-and-2-nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1-3-diol-on-rat-aorta
#16
Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos, Helder Veras Ribeiro Filho, Saad Lahlou, José Geraldo de Carvalho Pereira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães
Compounds containing a nitro group may reveal vasodilator properties. Several nitro compounds have a NO2 group in a short aliphatic chain connected to an aromatic group. In this study, we evaluated in rat aorta the effects of two nitro compounds, with emphasis on a putative recruitment of a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) pathway to induce vasodilation. Isolated aortic rings were obtained from male Wistar rats to compare the effects induced by 2-nitro-1-phenylethanone (NPeth) or 2-nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1,3-diol (NPprop)...
April 27, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708304/casein-kinase-2-inhibition-impairs-spontaneous-and-oxytocin-induced-contractions-in-late-pregnant-mouse-uterus
#17
K S Suhas, Subhashree Parida, Chandrasekaran Gokul, Vivek Srivastava, E Prakash, Sakshi Chauhan, Thakur Uttam Singh, Manjit Panigrahi, Avinash G Telang, Santosh K Mishra
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does the inhibition of the protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) alter the uterine contractility? What is the main finding and its importance? Inhibition of CK2 impaired the spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility in late pregnant mouse uterus. This finding suggests that CK2 is a novel pathway mediating oxytocin-induced contractility in the uterus and thus opens up the possibility for this class of drugs to be developed as a new class of tocolytics...
May 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702296/advances-in-management-of-esophageal-motility-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Peter J Kahrilas, Albert J Bredenoord, Dustin A Carlson, John E Pandolfino
The widespread adoption of high-resolution manometry (HRM) has led to a restructuring in the classification of esophageal motility disorder classification summarized in the Chicago Classification, currently in version 3.0. It has become apparent that the cardinal feature of achalasia, impaired lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, can occur in several disease phenotypes: without peristalsis, with premature (spastic) distal esophageal contractions, with panesophageal pressurization, or even with preserved peristalsis...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698717/inhibition-of-prostatic-smooth-muscle-contraction-by-the-inhibitor-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-3-cmpd101
#19
Qingfeng Yu, Christian Gratzke, Yiming Wang, Annika Herlemann, Frank Strittmatter, Beata Rutz, Christian G Stief, Martin Hennenberg
Alpha1-adrenoceptors induce prostate smooth muscle contraction, and hold a prominent role for pathophysiology and therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia. G protein-coupled receptors are regulated by posttranslational regulation, including phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 (GRK2/3). Although posttranslational adrenoceptor regulation has been recently suggested to occur in the prostate, this is still marginally understood. With the newly developed CMPD101, a small molecule with assumed specificity for GRK2/3 is now available...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695144/speckle-tracking-analysis-of-myocardial-deformation-in-correlation-to-age-in-healthy-horses
#20
Heidrun Gehlen, Lisa-Marie Bildheim
An effect of aging on cardiac morphology and function has been shown in humans. In horses, cardiac wall-motion analysis has not been performed using two-dimensional speckle tracking (2D-ST) so far. Our study included 57 horses of different warmblood breeds between 3 and 30 years of age. Age had a significant influence on left ventricular (LVFW) systolic strain rate (P ≤ 0.05) and early diastolic relaxation (P ≤ 0.01). In the interventricular septum (IVS), systolic (P ≤ 0.01) and late diastolic (P ≤ 0...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
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