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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227331/assessing-the-development-of-fetal-myocardial-function-by-a-novel-doppler-myocardial-performance-index
#1
Ahsan H Khandoker, F Marzbanrad, Y Kimura, Saeed Al Nuaimi, M Palaniswami, Ahsan H Khandoker, F Marzbanrad, Y Kimura, Saeed Al Nuaimi, M Palaniswami, Ahsan H Khandoker, Y Kimura, Saeed Al Nuaimi, F Marzbanrad, M Palaniswami
Doppler-derived myocardial performance index are used to assess aspects of systolic and diastolic function in adult as well as fetal heart. The Tei Index (TI) is a useful and non-invasive tool. The aim of this study was to determine normal values of fetal left ventricular (LV) TI in early (16-32 weeks) and late trimester (35-41 weeks) fetuses and to develop a new myocardial performance index (K-index; KI) which focuses on fetal diastolic interval when oxygenated blood from the placenta filled in the LV. Simultaneous recordings of Doppler Ultrasound Signal (DUS) of the LV outflow tracts and fetal electrocardiogram signals were obtained in 55 early- and late-trimester fetuses...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226311/effects-of-root-extracts-of-eurycoma-longifolia-jack-on-corpus-cavernosum-of-rat
#2
Bae Huey Tee, See Ziau Hoe, Swee Hung Cheah, Sau Kuen Lam
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms of action of Eurycoma longifolia in rat corpus cavernosum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tincture of the roots was concentrated to dryness by evaporating the ethanol in vacuo. This ethanolic extract was partitioned into five fractions sequentially with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The corpus cavernosum relaxant activity of each fraction was investigated. Dichloromethanic (DCM) fraction which showed the highest potency in relaxing phenylephrine-precontracted corpora cavernosa was purified by column chromatography...
February 22, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223475/reduced-first-phase-ejection-fraction-and-sustained-myocardial-wall-stress-in-hypertensive-patients-with-diastolic-dysfunction-a-manifestation-of-impaired-shortening-deactivation-that-links-systolic-to-diastolic-dysfunction-and-preserves-systolic-ejection-fraction
#3
Haotian Gu, Ye Li, Henry Fok, John Simpson, Jonathan C Kentish, Ajay M Shah, Philip J Chowienczyk
Impaired shortening deactivation of cardiac myocytes could sustain myocardial contraction, preserving ejection fraction at the expense of diastolic dysfunction. We examined the relationship between first-phase ejection fraction (EF1), the fraction of left ventricular volume ejected from the start of systole to the time of the first peak in left ventricular pressure (corresponding to the time of maximal ventricular shortening) to the duration of myocardial contraction and diastolic function in patients with hypertension (n=163), and varying degrees of diastolic dysfunction...
February 21, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223172/a-simple-model-of-cardiac-muscle-for-multiscale-simulation-passive-mechanics-crossbridge-kinetics-and-calcium-regulation
#4
Fyodor A Syomin, Andrey K Tsaturyan
A simple model of cardiac muscle was designed for multiscale simulation of heart mechanics. Relaxed cardiac muscle was described as a transversally isotropic hyperelastic material. Active tension caused by actin-myosin crossbridges depends on the ensemble averaged strain of myosin heads bound to actin. Calcium activation was modeled by Ca(2+) binding to troponin-C. To account for the dependence of troponin affinity for Ca(2+) on myosin heads strongly bound to actin, the kinetics of troponin binding to Ca(2+) in the overlap zone of the thin and thick filaments and outside it were separated...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222365/the-cessation-of-the-long-term-exposure-to-low-doses-of-mercury-ameliorates-the-increase-in-systolic-blood-pressure-and-vascular-damage-in-rats
#5
Danize Aparecida Rizzetti, João Guilherme Dini Torres, Alyne Goulart Escobar, Taiz Martins da Silva, Paola Zambelli Moraes, Raquel Hernanz, Franck Maciel Peçanha, Marta Miguel Castro, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Mercedes Salaices, Maria Jesús Alonso, Giulia Alessandra Wiggers
This study aimed to verify whether a prolonged exposure to low-level mercury promotes haemodynamic disorders and studied the reversibility of this vascular damage. Rats were divided into seven groups: three control groups received saline solution (im) for 30, 60 or 90 days; two groups received HgCl2 (im, first dose, 4.6μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07μg/kg/day) for 30 or 60 days; two groups received HgCl2 for 30 or 60 days (im, same doses) followed by a 30-day washout period. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured, along with analysis of vascular response to acetylcholine (ACh) and phenylephrine (Phe) in the absence and presence of endothelium, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, superoxide dismutase, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor and an AT1 receptor blocker...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220794/flucrypyrim-a-novel-uterine-relaxant-has-antinociceptive-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-vivo
#6
Zhongtang Li, Limei Wang, Yue Cong, Lin Guo, Xiaohui Lin, Zuyin Yu, Xingan Wu, Junxing Dong, Rifang Yang, Yuwen Cong
Consequences of primary dsysmenorrhea (PD) can be severe. Increased prostaglandin production leads to uterine contraction and insufficient blood flow to the endometrium causing ischemia and pain symptoms. Protein tyrosine kinase/phosphatase activities contribute to the modulation of uterine contraction. In our previous study, we found the synthetic β-methoxyacrylates compound Fluacrypyrim (FAPM), significantly increased protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) activity, resulting in dephosphorylation of tyrosine kinases...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220212/rho-kinase-inhibition-ameliorates-cyclophosphamide-induced-cystitis-in-rats
#7
Andrzej Wróbel, Urszula Doboszewska, Ewa Rechberger, Karol Rojek, Anna Serefko, Ewa Poleszak, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Jarosław Dudka, Piotr Wlaź
Hemorrhagic cystitis often develops in patients treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP). Studies have indicated that Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors may suppress detrusor overactivity symptoms and possess anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inhibition of ROCK reduces cystometric and histopathological changes associated with CYP-induced cystitis. The rats received GSK 269962, a ROCK inhibitor, at a dose of 30 mg/kg daily, or vehicle for 7 days. Then, acute chemical cystitis leading to bladder overactivity was induced by CYP injection (200 mg/kg i...
February 21, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216670/intraluminal-pressure-patterns-in-the-human-colon-assessed-by-high-resolution-manometry
#8
Ji-Hong Chen, Yuanjie Yu, Zixian Yang, Wen-Zhen Yu, Wu Lan Chen, Hui Yu, Marie Jeong-Min Kim, Min Huang, Shiyun Tan, Hesheng Luo, Jianfeng Chen, Jiande D Z Chen, Jan D Huizinga
Assessment of colonic motor dysfunction is rarely done because of inadequate methodology and lack of knowledge about normal motor patterns. Here we report on elucidation of intraluminal pressure patterns using High Resolution Colonic Manometry during a baseline period and in response to a meal, in 15 patients with constipation, chronically dependent on laxatives, 5 healthy volunteers and 9 patients with minor, transient, IBS-like symptoms but no sign of constipation. Simultaneous pressure waves (SPWs) were the most prominent propulsive motor pattern, associated with gas expulsion and anal sphincter relaxation, inferred to be associated with fast propagating contractions...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216625/endothelial-overexpression-of-endothelin-1-modulates-aortic-carotid-iliac-and-renal-arterial-responses-in-obese-mice
#9
Oliver Baretella, Sookja K Chung, Aimin Xu, Paul M Vanhoutte
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is essential for mammalian development and life, but it has also been implicated in increased cardiovascular risk under pathophysiological conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of endothelial overexpression of the prepro-endothelin-1 gene on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses in the conduit and renal arteries of lean and obese mice. Obesity was induced by high-fat-diet (HFD) consumption in mice with Tie-1 promoter-driven, endothelium-specific overexpression of the prepro-endothelin-1 gene (TET(het)) and in wild-type (WT) littermates on a C57BL/6N background...
February 20, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214688/h2s-causes-contraction-and-relaxation-of-major-arteries-of-the-rabbit
#10
Martin Caprnda, Tawar Qaradakhi, Joanne L Hart, Nazarii Kobyliak, Radka Opatrilova, Peter Kruzliak, Anthony Zulli
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused by atherosclerosis remains a worldwide burden. Hydrogen sulfide is a promising new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of CVD, however reports show exogenous H2S has both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor effects depending on organ examined, and in vitro studies in animal models which are not resistant to developing atherosclerosis are limited. We sought to determine if rabbit arteries constricted or dilated to hydrogen sulfide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aorta, carotid, renal and iliac arteries were harvested from New Zealand White rabbits (n=4) and subjected to a concentration response curve to the fast H2S releaser NaHS...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213290/zd0947-a-sulphonylurea-receptor-modulator-detects-functional-sulphonylurea-receptor-subunits-in-murine-vascular-smooth-muscle-atp-sensitive-k-channels
#11
Tadashi Yamamoto, Kohei Takahara, Keiichiro Uchida, Noriyoshi Teramoto
In order to identify functional sulphonylurea receptor (SUR.x) subunits of native ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (KATP channels) in mouse portal vein, the effects of ZD0947, a SUR.x modulator, were investigated on spontaneous portal vein contractions, macroscopic membrane currents and unitary currents recorded (using patch-clamp techniques) in freshly dispersed mouse portal vein myocytes. Spontaneous contractions in mouse portal vein were reversibly reduced by ZD0947 in a concentration-dependent manner (Ki = 293nM)...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213289/quercetin-and-pioglitazone-synergistically-reverse-endothelial-dysfunction-in-isolated-aorta-from-fructose-streptozotocin-f-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#12
Thubasni Kunasegaran, Mohd Rais Mustafa, Francis I Achike, Dharmani Devi Murugan
Pioglitazone is an anti-diabetic drug with potential to cause adverse effects following prolonged use. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of combination treatment of a subliminal concentration of pioglitazone and quercetin, a potent antioxidant, on vascular reactivity of aorta isolated from fructose-streptozotocin (F-STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Relaxation to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, and contraction to phenylephrine were tested in organ bath chambers following pre-incubation with vehicle (DMSO; 0...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212795/nanojunctions-of-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-deliver-site-and-function-specific-calcium-signaling-in-vascular-smooth-muscles
#13
A M Evans
Vasoactive agents may induce myocyte contraction, dilation, and the switch from a contractile to a migratory-proliferative phenotype(s), which requires changes in gene expression. These processes are directed, in part, by Ca(2+) signals, but how different Ca(2+) signals are generated to select each function is enigmatic. We have previously proposed that the strategic positioning of Ca(2+) pumps and release channels at membrane-membrane junctions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) demarcates cytoplasmic nanodomains, within which site- and function-specific Ca(2+) signals arise...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209080/antispasmodic-and-bronchorelaxant-activities-of-salsola-imbricata-are-mediated-through-dual-ca-2-antagonistic-and-%C3%AE-adrenergic-agonistic-effects
#14
Naveed Aslam, Khalid Hussain Janbaz
CONTEXT: Salsola imbricata Forssk. (Chenopodiaceae) has folkloric repute for the treatment of various gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates spasmolytic and bronchorelaxant effects of S. imbricata. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crude aqueous-ethanol extract of the aerial parts of S. imbricata and its fractions, in cumulative concentrations (0.01-10 mg/mL), were tested on contractions of isolated rabbit jejunum and tracheal preparations...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208012/hypothermia-inhibits-endothelium-independent-vascular-contractility-via-rho-kinase-inhibition
#15
Yoon Hee Chung, Keon Woong Oh, Sung Tae Kim, Eon Sub Park, Hyun Dong Je, Hyuk-Jun Yoon, Uy Dong Sohn, Ji Hoon Jeong, Hyen-Oh La
The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of hypothermia on endothelium-independent vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism underlying the relaxation. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Hypothermia significantly inhibited fluoride-, thromboxane A₂-, phenylephrine-, and phorbol ester-induced vascular contractions regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, suggesting that another pathway had a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle...
February 17, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196770/effect-of-low-intensity-cavitation-on-the-isolated-human-thoracic-artery-in%C3%A2-vitro
#16
Algimantas Bubulis, Vida Garalienė, Vytautas Jurėnas, Jonas Navickas, Saulius Giedraitis
Reported here are the results of an experimental study on the response to low-intensity cavitation induced by low-frequency (4-6 W/cm(2), 20 kHz and 32.6 kHz) ultrasound of isolated human arterial samples taken during conventional myocardial revascularization operations. Studies have found that low-frequency ultrasound results in a significant (48%-54%) increase in isometric contraction force and does not depend on the number of exposures (10 or 20) or the time passed since the start of ultrasound (0, 10 and 20 min), but does depend on the frequency and location (internal or external) of the blood vessels for the application of ultrasound...
February 10, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194519/electromechanical-delays-during-a-fatiguing-exercise-and-recovery-in-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#17
Fabio Esposito, Emiliano Cè, Susanna Rampichini, Elena Monti, Eloisa Limonta, Barbara Fossati, Giovanni Meola
PURPOSE: The partitioning of the electromechanical delay by an electromyographic (EMG), mechanomyographic (MMG) and force combined approach can provide further insight into the electrochemical and mechanical processes involved with skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation. The aim of the study was to monitor by this combined approach the changes in delays' electrochemical and mechanical components throughout a fatiguing task and during recovery in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), who present at the skeletal muscle level fibres rearrangement, muscle weakness and myotonia, especially in the distal muscles...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192151/angiotensin-1-7-dependent-vasorelaxation-of-the-renal-artery-exhibits-unique-angiotensin-and-bradykinin-receptor-selectivity
#18
Mariam H M Yousif, Ibrahim F Benter, Debra I Diz, Mark C Chappell
Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] exhibits blood pressure lowering actions, inhibits cell growth, and reduces tissue inflammation and fibrosis which may functionally antagonize an activated Ang II-AT1 receptor axis. Since the vascular actions of Ang-(1-7) and the associated receptor/signaling pathways varies in different vascular beds, the current study established the vasorelaxant properties of the heptapeptide in the renal artery of male Wistar male rats. Ang-(1-7) produced an endothelium-dependent vasodilator relaxation of isolated renal artery segments pre-contracted by a sub-maximal concentration of phenylephrine (PE) (10(-7)M)...
February 9, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190822/phloridzin-inhibits-high-k-induced-contraction-via-the-inhibition-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-1-in-rat-ileum
#19
Hidenori Kanda, Takeharu Kaneda, Akira Kawaguchi, Noriyasu Sasaki, Tsuyoshi Tajima, Norimoto Urakawa, Kazumasa Shimizu, Hiroetsu Suzuki
Recent studies have shown that phloridzin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), strongly decreases high K(+)-induced contraction in phasic muscle, such as tenia coli, but slightly affects tonic muscle, such as trachea . In this study, we examined the inhibitory mechanism of phloridzin on high K(+)-induced muscle contraction in rat ileum, a phasic muscle. Phloridzin inhibited the high K(+)-induced contraction in the ileum and the aorta, and the relaxing effect of phloridzin at 1 mM in the ileum was approximately five-fold more potent than that in the aorta...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187467/protective-effects-of-ellagic-acid-on-cardiovascular-injuries-caused-by-hypertension-in-rats
#20
Juliana Bahia Reis Jordão, Hellen Karine Paes Porto, Flávio Marques Lopes, Aline Carvalho Batista, Matheus Lavorenti Rocha
Ellagic acid is described as having antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. Hence, it was hypothesized that ellagic acid could improve cardiovascular damage caused by hypertension. In this work, hypertension was induced in rats with Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (60 mg/kg/day in drinking water) for 6 weeks. Ellagic acid was coadministered (10 or 30 mg/kg/day by gavage) between the second and sixth week. Blood pressure was recorded every week by tail-cuff plethysmography. After 6 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, the hearts and kidneys were weighed, and blood was collected...
February 10, 2017: Planta Medica
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