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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817840/nuciferine-relaxes-tracheal-rings-via-the-blockade-of-vdlcc-and-nscc-channels
#1
Xiao Yang, Meng-Fei Yu, Jun Lei, Yong-Bo Peng, Ping Zhao, Lu Xue, Weiwei Chen, Li-Qun Ma, Qing-Hua Liu, Jinhua Shen
This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms of nuciferine (a main aporphine alkaloid of lotus leaf extract), which can induce relaxation in contracted tracheal rings. Under Ca(2+)-free and 2 mM Ca(2+) conditions, we found that nuciferine had no effect on the resting muscle tone of tracheal rings. In contrast, nuciferine relaxed high K(+)-contracted mouse tracheal rings in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited both Ca(2+) influx and voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channel currents induced by high K(+). Similarly, nuciferine also inhibited acetylcholine-induced contractions in mouse tracheal rings in a dose-dependent manner...
August 17, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811222/antitussive-antispasmodic-bronchodilating-and-cardiac-inotropic-effects-of-the-essential-oil-from-blepharocalyx-salicifolius-leaves
#2
Jehison Jiménez Hernández, María Inés Ragone, Patricia Bonazzola, Arnaldo L Bandoni, Alicia E Consolini
ETHOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg (Myrtaceae) is a tree native to Argentina and Uruguay that grows and is cultivated along the riverside of the Rio de la Plata. The leaves of this plant species, locally known as "anacahuita" are used in South America to prepare infusions for the empiric treatment of cough and bronchospasm, as well as diarrhoea and other intestinal disorders. Although previous phytochemical studies have been performed with the essential oil extracted from Blepharocalyx salicifolius, pharmacological evidence supporting its traditional use is still lacking...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807153/c1q-tumor-necrosis-factor-related-protein-3-enhances-the-contractility-of-cardiomyocyte-by-increasing-calcium-sensitivity
#3
Cheng-Lin Zhang, Zheng-Ju Chen, Han Feng, Qian Zhao, Yang-Po Cao, Li Li, Jin-Yu Wang, Yan Zhang, Li-Ling Wu
C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) is an adipokine that protects against myocardial infarction-induced cardiac dysfunction through its pro-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic, and anti-fibrotic effects. However, whether CTRP3 can directly affect the systolic and diastolic function of cardiomyocytes remains unknown. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and loaded with Fura-2AM. The contraction and Ca(2+) transient data was collected and analyzed by IonOptix system. 1 and 2μg/ml CTRP3 significantly increased the contraction of cardiomyocytes...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799340/theoretical-study-of-the-buffer-gas-cooling-and-trapping-of-crh-x-6-%C3%AE-by-3-he-atoms
#4
Jacek Kłos, Michał Hapka, Grzegorz Chałasiński, Philippe Halvick, Thierry Stoecklin
We present a theoretical study of the Zeeman relaxation of the magnetically trappable lowest field seeking state of CrH(X(6)Σ(+)) in collisions with (3)He. A two dimensional potential energy surface (PES) was calculated with the partially spin-restricted coupled cluster singles, doubles, and non-iterative triples [RCCSD(T)] method. The global minimum was found for the collinear He⋯Cr-H geometry with the well depth of 1143.84 cm(-1) at Re = 4.15 a0. Since the RCCSD(T) calculations revealed a multireference character in the region of the global minimum, we performed additional calculations with the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction with the Davidson correction (ic-MRCISD+Q) method...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796278/prophylactic-stretching-does-not-reduce-cramp-susceptibility
#5
Kevin C Miller, James D Harsen, Blaine C Long
INTRODUCTION: Some clinicians advocate stretching to prevent muscle cramps. It is unknown if static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching increases cramp threshold frequency (TFc ), a quantitative measure of cramp susceptibility. METHODS: Fifteen individuals completed this randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study. We measured passive hallux ROM and then performed three minutes of either static stretching, PNF stretching (hold-relax-with agonist contraction), or no stretching...
August 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792273/effects-of-intensity-on-muscle-specific-voluntary-electromechanical-delay-and-relaxation-electromechanical-delay
#6
Cory M Smith, Terry J Housh, Ethan C Hill, Josh L Keller, Glen O Johnson, Richard J Schmidt
The purposes of this study were to examine: 1) the potential muscle-specific differences in voluntary electromechanical delay (EMD) and relaxation electromechanical delay (R-EMD), and 2) the effects of intensity on EMD and R-EMD during step incremental isometric muscle actions from 10 to 100% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). EMD and R-EMD measures were calculated from the simultaneous assessments of electromyography, mechanomyography, and force production from the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) during step isometric muscle actions...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783848/effects-of-fatigue-on-voluntary-electromechanical-and-relaxation-electromechanical-delay
#7
Cory M Smith, Terry J Housh, Ethan C Hill, Joshua L Keller, Glen O Johnson, Richard J Schmidt
The purposes of the present study were to examine: 1) the effects of fatigue on electromechanical delay from the onsets of the electromyographic signal to force production (EMDE-F), the onsets of the electromyographic to mechanomyographic signals (EMDE-M), the onsets of the mechanomyographic signal to force production (EMDM-F), as well as the cessations of the electromyographic to force production (R-EMDE-F), cessation of the electromyographic to mechanomyographic signals (R-EMDE-M), and cessations of the mechanomyographic signal to force production (R-EMDM-F); and 2) the relative contributions from EMDE-M and EMDM-F to EMDE-F as well as R-EMDE-M and R-EMDM-F to R-EMDE-F from the vastus lateralis in non-fatigued and fatigued states...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781164/imaging-sympathetic-neurogenic-ca-2-signaling-in-blood-vessels
#8
REVIEW
Withrow Gil Wier, Joseph R H Mauban
We review the information that has been provided by optical imaging experiments directed at understanding the role and effects of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in the functioning of blood vessels. Earlier studies utilized electric field stimulation of nerve terminals (EFS) in isolated arteries and vascular tissues (ex vivo) to elicit SNA, but more recently, imaging studies have been conducted in vivo, enabling the study of SNA in truly physiological conditions. Ex vivo: In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of isolated arteries, the three sympathetic neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE), ATP and neuropeptide Y (NPY), elicit or modulate distinct patterns of Ca(2+) signaling, as revealed by confocal imaging of exogenous fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators...
July 29, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780058/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-cyclooxygenase-are-activated-by-hydrogen-peroxide-in-renal-hypertensive-rat-aorta
#9
B R Silva, L Pernomian, T D De Paula, M D Grando, L M Bendhack
In this work, we hypothesized that cyclooxygenase (COX) activity can be regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In the renal hypertension (2K-1C), phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction was lower than in normotensive (2K) rat aortas. This impaired contraction is due to NO/H2O2- induced vasodilation. We evaluated the effects of H2O2 on the activity of COX and endothelial NO-Synthase (eNOS) in 2K-1C rat aortas stimulated with PE. Responses for PE or H2O2 were evaluated in 2K-1C and 2K rat aortas, without or with inhibitors for COX (Indomethacin) or eNOS (L-NAME)...
August 2, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768666/oab-without-an-overactive-bladder-in-the-acute-prostaglandin-e2-rat-model
#10
James A Hokanson, Christopher L Langdale, Arun Sridhar, Warren M Grill
Intravesical Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was previously used to induce overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms as it reduces bladder capacity in rats and causes a "strong urgency sensation" in healthy women. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. To clarify how PGE2 reduces bladder capacity, 100 µM PGE2 was administered intravesically during open, single-fill cystometry with simultaneous measurement of sphincter EMG in the urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rat. PGE2 was also applied to the urethra or bladder selectively by use of a ligature at the bladder neck prior to (urethra) or during (bladder) closed-outlet, single-fill cystometry...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762178/the-influence-of-duloxetine-on-detrusor-overactivity-in-rats-with-depression-induced-by-13-cis-retinoic-acid
#11
Andrzej Wróbel, Ewa Rechberger, Tomasz Rechberger
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of duloxetine in an animal model of detrusor overactivity induced by depression. METHODS: After 6 weeks of 13-cis-retinoic acid administration at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day, rats were given duloxetine at a dose of 1 mg/kg. This was followed by conscious cystometry, a forced swim test, and locomotor activity measurement. The levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the hypothalamus, amygdala and plasma were also determined...
July 31, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757234/non-contact-measurement-of-heart-response-reflected-in-human-eye
#12
Sangin Park, Myoung Ju Won, Dong Won Lee, Mincheol Whang
This study aims to develop a non-contact measurement technique for cardiac response that uses an infrared image of the patient's pupil. The pupil contraction rhythm is related to the autonomic balance and major organs (such as the heart) via a neural pathway. In this study, the response of the heart was determined by analyzing the pupillary rhythm based on the harmonic frequencies between them. Seventy undergraduate volunteers of both genders, (35 females and 35 males), with ages ranging between 20 and 30years (mean: 24...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756589/crosstalk-between-the-angiotensin-and-endothelin-system-in-the-cerebrovasculature-after-experimental-induced-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#13
Stefan Wanderer, Jan Mrosek, Hartmut Vatter, Volker Seifert, Juergen Konczalla
Under physiologic conditions, losartan showed a dose-dependent antagonistic effect to the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstriction. This reduced vasoconstriction was abolished after preincubation with an endothelin B1 receptor (ET(B1)-receptor) antagonist. Also, an increased ET(B1)-receptor-dependent relaxation to sarafotoxin S6c (S6c; an ET(B1)-receptor agonist) was detected by preincubation with losartan. Investigations after experimental induced subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are still missing. Therefore, we analyzed losartan in a further pathological setup...
July 29, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756484/distal-esophageal-spasm-with-multiple-esophageal-diverticula-successfully-treated-by-peroral-endoscopic-myotomy
#14
Koji Otani, Shinwa Tanaka, Fumiaki Kawara, Junichi Fujikawa, Akinari Sawada, Risa Uemura, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Toshio Watanabe, Takeshi Azuma, Yasuhiro Fujiwara
Distal esophageal spasm (DES) is a primary esophageal motility disorder. We encountered a rare case of DES accompanied by multiple esophageal diverticula. A 72-year-old woman complained of prolonged dysphagia and chest pain. A barium esophagogram showed multiple esophageal diverticula and significant contraction of the lower esophagus just above the cardia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a corkscrew-like appearance, with spiral contractions and diverticula. High-resolution manometry revealed that the integrated relaxation pressure was normal; premature contractions were observed in ≥20% of the swallowing wave; the distal contractile integral was normal...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755129/acid-gastric-antisecretory-effect-of-the-ethanolic-extract-from-arctium-lappa-l-root-role-of-h-k-atpase-ca-2-influx-and-the-cholinergic-pathway
#15
Luisa Mota da Silva, Ligia de Moura Burci, Sandra Crestani, Priscila de Souza, Rita de Cássia Melo Vilhena de Andrade Fonseca da Silva, Nessana Dartora, Lauro Mera de Souza, Thales Ricardo Cipriani, José Eduardo da Silva-Santos, Eunice André, Maria Fernanda de Paula Werner
BACKGROUND: Arctium lappa L., popularly known as burdock, is a medicinal plant used worldwide. The antiulcer and gastric-acid antisecretory effects of ethanolic extract from roots of Arctium lappa (EET) were already demonstrated. However, the mechanism by which the extract reduces the gastric acid secretion remains unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antisecretory mode of action of EET. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of EET on H(+), K(+)-ATPase activity were verified in vitro, whereas the effects of the extract on cholinergic-, histaminergic- or gastrinergic-acid gastric stimulation were assessed in vivo on stimulated pylorus ligated rats...
July 28, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751011/a-coupled-mitral-valve-left-ventricle-model-with-fluid-structure-interaction
#16
Hao Gao, Liuyang Feng, Nan Qi, Colin Berry, Boyce E Griffith, Xiaoyu Luo
Understanding the interaction between the valves and walls of the heart is important in assessing and subsequently treating heart dysfunction. This study presents an integrated model of the mitral valve (MV) coupled to the left ventricle (LV), with the geometry derived from in vivo clinical magnetic resonance images. Numerical simulations using this coupled MV-LV model are developed using an immersed boundary/finite element method. The model incorporates detailed valvular features, left ventricular contraction, nonlinear soft tissue mechanics, and fluid-mediated interactions between the MV and LV wall...
July 24, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749013/physiological-versus-pharmacological-signalling-to-myosin-phosphorylation-in-airway-smooth-muscle
#17
Ning Gao, Ming-Ho Tsai, Audrey N Chang, Weiqi He, Cai-Ping Chen, Minsheng Zhu, Kristine E Kamm, James T Stull
Ca(2+) /calmodulin activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) initiates myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation for smooth muscle contraction with subsequent dephosphorylation for relaxation by myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) containing regulatory (MYPT1) and catalytic (PP1cδ) subunits. RLC phosphorylation-dependent force development is regulated by distinct signalling modules involving protein phosphorylations. We investigated responses to cholinergic agonist treatment versus neurostimulation by electric field stimulation (EFS) in bovine tracheal smooth muscle...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746893/in-vitro-vascular-toxicity-of-tariquidar-a-potential-tool-for-in-vivo-pet-studies
#18
Miriam Durante, Maria Frosini, Fabio Fusi, Annalisa Neri, Claudia Sticozzi, Simona Saponara
The P-glicoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar is used to detect functional alterations of blood brain barrier pumps in PET imaging. The doses required, however, up to 4-fold higher than those already used in clinical trials to reverse multidrug resistance, cause syncopal episode and hypotension. Therefore, the effects of these doses toward the vasculature were investigated and an in-depth analysis of tariquidar-mediated effects on A7r5 and EA.hy926 cells viability, on the mechanical activity of freshly and cultured rat aorta rings and on L-type Ca(2+) current [ICa(L)] of A7r5 cells has been performed...
July 23, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746232/the-effect-of-topical-thiocolchicoside-in-preventing-and-reducing-the-increase-of-muscle-tone-stiffness-and-soreness-a-real-life-study-on-top-level-road-cyclists-during-stage-competition
#19
Marco Gervasi, Davide Sisti, Piero Benelli, Eneko Fernández-Peña, Cinzia Calcabrini, Marco B L Rocchi, Luigi Lanata, Michela Bagnasco, Andrea Tonti, Stocchi Vilberto, Piero Sestili
In professional road cyclists, the majority of overuse injuries affect the lower limbs and are mostly represented by contractures or muscle shortening, characterized by an increase of tone and stiffness and a variation of elasticity. Treatment and prevention of these specific conditions may include physical, supplementary, and pharmacologic support. The aim of this real-life study was to determine: first, the alterations of tone, stiffness, elasticity, and soreness of rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in top class cyclists engaged in 3 multistage races, and second, whether any variable in the management of the athletes may affect the prevention and/or reduction of such alterations...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742609/the-efficacy-of-dynamic-contract-relax-stretching-on-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-among-healthy-individuals-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Yanfei Xie, Beibei Feng, Kedi Chen, Lars L Andersen, Phil Page, Yuling Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of dynamic contract-relax stretching on delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the calf muscle of healthy individuals. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Three groups of 16 healthy participants (n = 48) were recruited by convenience sampling. INTERVENTIONS: Three sets of resisted bilateral heel-raising exercises until exhaustion were conducted to initiate DOMS...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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