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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151001/intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-hospitalized-and-critically-ill-children-rationale-available-drugs-and-possible-side-effects
#1
Thomas Langer, Rosamaria Limuti, Concezione Tommasino, Niels van Regenmortel, Els L I M Duval, Pietro Caironi, Manu L N G Malbrain, Antonio Pesenti
Human beings are constituted mainly of water. In particular, children's total body water might reach 75-80% of their body weight, compared to 60-70% in adults. It is therefore not surprising, that children, especially hospitalized newborns and infants, are markedly prone to water and electrolyte imbalances. Parenteral fluid therapy is a cornerstone of medical treatment and is thus of exceptional relevance in this patient population. It is crucial to appreciate the fact that intravenous fluids are drugs with very different characteristics, different indications, contraindications and relevant side effects...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150589/change-in-hydration-indices-associated-with-an-increase-in-total-water-intake-of-more-than-0-5%C3%A2-l-day-sustained-over-4%C3%A2-weeks-in-healthy-young-men-with-initial-total-water-intake-below-2%C3%A2-l-day
#2
Jodi D Stookey, Janice Hamer, David W Killilea
This secondary data analysis addressed gaps in knowledge about effects of chronic water intake. Longitudinal data from the Adapt Study were used to describe effects of prescribing a sustained increase in water intake relative to baseline, for 4 weeks, on multiple indices of total body water (TBW) flux, regulation, distribution, and volume in five healthy, free-living, young men, with mean total water intake initially below 2 L/day. Indices were measured weekly. Within-person fixed effect models tested for significant changes in indices over time and associations between changes in indices...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147573/risk-factors-for-exertional-rhabdomyolysis-with-renal-stress
#3
Terje Apeland, Tore Danielsen, Eva M Staal, Anders Åsberg, Inga S Thorsen, Tom Ole Dalsrud, Stein Ørn
Background: Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis denotes the exertional damage of myocytes with leakage of sarcoplasmic content into the circulation. The purpose of this study was to determine important risk factors for the development of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a temperate climate and to study the renal effects of myoglobinuria. Methods: A cluster of eight military recruits was admitted to hospital due to exertional rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria. The patients were treated according to current guidelines with isotonic saline and alkalinisation of the urine...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143559/k-cl-co-transporter-2-kcc2-a-membrane-trafficking-perspective
#4
Bor Luen Tang
K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2/SLC12A5) is a neuronal specific cation chloride co-transporter which is active under isotonic conditions, and thus a key regulator of intracellular Cl(-) levels. It also has an ion transporter-independent structural role in modulating the maturation and regulation of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. KCC2 levels are developmentally regulated, and a postnatal upregulation of KCC2 generates a low intracellular chloride concentration that allows the neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine to exert inhibitory neurotransmission through its Cl(-) permeating channel...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137628/hypertonic-saline-for-prevention-of-delirium-in-geriatric-patients-who-underwent-hip-surgery
#5
Xi Xin, Fei Xin, Xuguang Chen, Qi Zhang, Yanan Li, Shuping Huo, Chongfu Chang, Qiujun Wang
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common disorder in the elderly patients, and neuroinflammation is the possible underlying mechanism. This study is designed to determine whether or not hypertonic saline (HS) pre-injection can alleviate POD in aged patients. METHODS: This prospective study recruited 120 geriatric patients who underwent hip surgery. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: control group (NS group) and HS group. Patients in the NS group were pre-injected with 4 mL/kg isotonic saline, and those in the HS group were pre-injected with 4 mL/kg 7...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129646/extracellular-volume-depletion-and-resultant-hypotonic-hyponatremia-a-novel-translational-approach
#6
Philip J G M Voets, Roderick P P W M Maas
Although several methods currently exist to determine that a person is hypovolemic, it often remains very challenging to accurately estimate the effective circulating volume or amount of intravascular volume depletion in a non-controlled setting. This depletion of intravascular volume can have many causes and is frequently accompanied by hypotonic hyponatremia as a result of hypovolemia-induced release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the posterior pituitary gland. Here, we derive a novel, comprehensible equation that provides a theoretical insight into the complex interrelationship between the degree of isotonic volume depletion and the resultant change in plasma sodium concentration...
November 9, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122414/the-effect-of-hydration-on-voice-quality-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Maxine Alves, Esedra Krüger, Bhavani Pillay, Kristiane van Lierde, Jeannie van der Linde
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to critically appraise scientific, peer-reviewed articles, published in the past 10 years on the effects of hydration on voice quality in adults. STUDY DESIGN: This is a systematic review. METHODS: Five databases were searched using the key words "vocal fold hydration", "voice quality", "vocal fold dehydration", and "hygienic voice therapy". The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121319/should-we-use-hypotonic-or-isotonic-maintenance-intravenous-fluids-in-sick-patients-why-a-study-in-healthy-volunteers-will-not-provide-the-answer-response-to-effect-of-isotonic-versus-hypotonic-maintenance-fluid-therapy-on-urine-output-fluid-balance-and-electrolyte
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119559/preoperative-methylprednisolone-increases-plasma-pentraxin-3-early-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
V Lindberg-Larsen, H Kehlet, K Pilely, J Bagger, M L Rovsing, P Garred
Preoperative glucocorticoid administration reduces the systemic inflammatory response. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a novel inflammatory marker belonging to the humoral arm of innate immunity exerting a potentially protective host response. This study evaluated PTX3 and other complement marker changes after preoperative methylprednisolone (MP) early after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Seventy patients were randomized (1 : 1) to preoperative intravenous (i.v.) MP 125 mg (group MP) or isotonic saline i.v. (group C)...
October 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114956/quality-control-of-compounded-crystalloid-fluids-for-intravenous-delivery-to-horses
#10
C B Magnusson, K P Poulsen, J A Budde, F A Hartmann, N A Aulik, S M Raabis, A S D Moreira, B J Darien, S F Peek
BACKGROUND: Periodic lack of availability and high cost of commercially produced isotonic fluids for intravenous (IV) use in horses have increasingly led to use of home-made or commercially compound fluids by veterinarians. Data regarding the quality control and safety of compounded fluids would be of benefit to equine veterinarians. OBJECTIVES: To compare electrolyte concentrations, sterility, and endotoxin contamination of commercially available fluids to 2 forms of compounded isotonic crystalloid fluids intended for IV use in horses...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112627/impact-of-blood-flow-restriction-exercise-on-muscle-fatigue-development-and-recovery
#11
Florian Husmann, Thomas Mittlmeier, Sven Bruhn, Volker Zschorlich, Martin Behrens
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to provide mechanistic insight into the time-course and etiology of muscle fatigue development and recovery during and after low-intensity exercise when it is combined with blood flow restriction (BFR). METHODS: Seventeen resistance-trained males completed four sets of low-intensity isotonic resistance exercise under two experimental conditions: knee extension exercise combined with (i) BFR and (ii) without BFR (CON). Neuromuscular tests were performed before, during (immediately after each set of knee extension exercise) and 1, 2, 4, and 8 min after each experimental condition...
November 6, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112054/lower-extremity-stiffness-considerations-for-testing-performance-enhancement-and-injury-risk
#12
Jon Brazier, Sean Maloney, Chris Bishop, Paul J Read, Anthony N Turner
Brazier, J, Maloney, S, Bishop, C, Read, PJ, and Turner, AN. Lower extremity stiffness: considerations for testing, performance enhancement, and injury risk. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Force-deformation characteristics of the lower limb have been associated with athletic performance and may modulate the risk of injury. Despite these known associations, measurements of lower extremity stiffness are not commonly administered by strength and conditioning coaches. This review provides an overview of the available literature pertaining to the effects of lower extremity stiffness on physical performance and injury risk...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108193/-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-small-interfering-rna-regulates-platelet-derived-growth-factor-and-phosphorylated-extracellular-regulated-protein-kinase-in-rats-with-hepatic-fibrosis-an-experimental-study
#13
X F Zhou, Y J Jiang, Y Zhang, H Sun, Q Liu, X F Shi
Objective: To investigate the impact of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of platelet-derived growth factor-β (PDGF-BB) and its receptor (PDGF-βR) in rats with hepatic fibrosis. Methods: A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, TGF-β1 siRNA treatment group, and negative control group. All rats except those in the normal control group were given subcutaneous injection of 40% carbon tetrachloride to establish a rat model of hepatic fibrosis...
September 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105170/influence-of-glutamate-evoked-pain-and-sustained-elevated-muscle-activity-on-blood-oxygenation-in-the-human-masseter-muscle
#14
Shunichi Suzuki, Taro Arima, Yoshimasa Kitagawa, Peter Svensson, Eduardo Castrillon
This study aimed to investigate the effect of glutamate-evoked masseter muscle pain on intramuscular oxygenation during rest and sustained elevated muscle activity (SEMA). Seventeen healthy individuals participated in two sessions in which they were injected with glutamate and saline in random order. Each session was divided into three, 10-min periods. During the first (period 1) and the last (period 3) 10-min periods, participants performed five intercalated 1-min bouts of masseter SEMA with 1-min periods of 'rest'...
November 3, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100842/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-versus-placebo-for-moderate-to-severe-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-parallel-group-single-centre-trial
#15
Peter Holger Johnsen, Frank Hilpüsch, Jorunn Pauline Cavanagh, Ingrid Sande Leikanger, Caroline Kolstad, Per Christian Valle, Rasmus Goll
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterised by abdominal pain, bloating, and poor quality of life. IBS might be caused by a gut dysbiosis. We aimed to compare faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) with placebo in patients with IBS. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-centre study, we enrolled patients with IBS with diarrhoea or with diarrhoea and constipation (excluding dominating constipation) defined by the ROME III criteria, scored as moderate to severe according to the IBS severity scoring system (IBS-SSS; a score of ≥175)...
October 31, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098617/effects-of-exercise-on-arrhythmia-and-viceversa-lesson-from-the-greek-mythology
#16
Caterina Lambiase, Silvia Macerola, Giovanna Bosco, Elisa Messina, Pasquale Franciosa
Exercise represents an important lifestyle factor in all human ages when felt in harmony with other psycho-physical and environmental variables that affect individual life (e. g. quality of interest, affections, environment, diet and food). Consequently, in addition to the training level, the amount, intensity and modality of exercise (ana-/aerobic, isometric/isotonic), need to be personalized, considering the underlying diseases, which may benefit from it or worsening.Greek mythology gives us good examples of the exercise concept's evolution...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098280/a-method-to-administer-agents-to-the-larynx-in-an-awake-large-animal
#17
Abigail Durkes, M Preeti Sivasankar
Purpose: This research note describes an adapted experimental methodology to administer an exogenous agent to the larynx and upper airway of awake animals. The exogenous agent could be a perturbation. In the current study, the agent was isotonic saline. Isotonic saline was selected because it is safe, of similar composition to extracellular fluid, and used in voice studies. The described approach allowed large animals such as pigs to be comfortably restrained without chemical sedation or anesthesia for extended periods while receiving the agent...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093684/porcine-stomach-smooth-muscle-force-depends-on-history-effects
#18
André Tomalka, Mischa Borsdorf, Markus Böl, Tobias Siebert
The stomach serves as food reservoir, mixing organ and absorption area for certain substances, while continually varying its position and size. Large dimensional changes during ingestion and gastric emptying of the stomach are associated with large changes in smooth muscle length. These length changes might induce history-effects, namely force depression (FD) following active muscle shortening and force enhancement (FE) following active muscle stretch. Both effects have impact on the force generating capacity of the stomach, and thus functional relevance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093568/experimental-preeclampsia-in-rats-affects-vascular-gene-expression-patterns
#19
Simone V Lip, Anne Marijn van der Graaf, Marjon J Wiegman, Sicco A Scherjon, Mark V Boekschoten, Torsten Plösch, Marijke M Faas
Normal pregnancy requires adaptations of the maternal vasculature. During preeclampsia these adaptations are not well established, which may be related to maternal hypertension and proteinuria. The effects of preeclampsia on the maternal vasculature are not yet fully understood. We aimed to evaluate gene expression in aortas of pregnant rats with experimental preeclampsia using a genome wide microarray. Aortas were isolated from pregnant Wistar outbred rats with low-dose LPS-induced preeclampsia (ExpPE), healthy pregnant (Pr), non-pregnant and low-dose LPS-infused non-pregnant rats...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081151/-effects-of-preconditioning-with-hypertonic-saline-solution-on-postoperative-delirium-in-the-aged
#20
X Xin, S P Huo, Q Zhang, Y N Li, L Wang, Q J Wang
Objective: To evaluate and explore the mechanism of the effect of hypertonic pre-injection on postoperative delirium in the aged. Methods: From June 2016 to February 2017, participants scheduled hip arthroplasty surgery were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (H1) 30 patients pre-injected 4 ml/kg hypertonic solution were proceeded general anesthesia; Group 2 (H2) 30 patients pre-injected 4 ml/kg hypertonic solution were proceeded spinal canal anesthesia; Group 3 (C1) 30 patients pre-injected 4 ml/kg isotonic saline were proceeded general anesthesia; Group 4 (C2) 30 patients pre-injected 4 ml/kg isotonic saline were proceeded spinal canal anesthesia in Department of Anesthesiology, Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University...
October 24, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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