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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095083/physiological-capacity-and-training-routines-of-elite-cross-country-skiers-approaching-the-upper-limits-of-human-endurance
#1
Øyvind Sandbakk, Hans-Christer Holmberg
Cross-country skiing is one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involving protracted competitions on varying terrain employing a variety of skiing techniques that require upper- and/or lower-body work to different extents. Through more effective training and extensive improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of cross-country ski races has increased more than that of any other winter Olympic sport and, in addition, new types of racing events have been introduced. To a certain extent this has altered the optimal physiological capacity required to win and the training routines of successful skiers have evolved accordingly...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095075/a-pilot-study-using-entropy-as-a-non-invasive-assessment-of-running
#2
Andrew M Murray, Joong Hyun Ryu, John Sproule, Anthony P Turner, Phil Graham-Smith, Marco Cardinale
PURPOSE: Running performance is influenced by the interaction of biomechanical and physiological factors. Miniaturised accelerometers worn by the athlete can be used to quantify mechanical aspects of running and be used as a non-invasive tool to assess training status and progression. The aim of this study was to define and validate a method to assess running regularity and allow the estimation of an individual's V̇O2 and/or blood lactate [La]b based on data collected with accelerometers and heart rate (HR)...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081034/the-effects-of-the-removal-of-electronic-devices-for-48-hours-on-sleep-in-elite-judo-athletes
#3
Ian C Dunican, David T Martin, Shona L Halson, Reid Reale, Brian Dawson, John Caldwell, Maddison J Jones, Peter R Eastwood
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of the removal of electronic devices (i.e., smartphones, etc.) for 48 hours on sleep quality and next-day athletic and cognitive performance in elite Judo athletes. PARTICIPANTS: Over 6 days and nights, 23 eliteAustralian Judo athletes were monitored while attending a camp at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). In 14 athletes all electronic devices were removed on days 3 & 4 (i.e. for 48 hours: the 'device-restricted group') while 9 were permitted to use their devices throughout the camp (the 'control group')...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051335/managing-the-training-load-in-adolescent-athletes
#4
Andrew Murray
While historically adolescents were removed from their parents to prepare to become warriors, this process repeats itself in modern times but with the outcome being athletic performance. This review considers the process of developing athletes and managing load against the backdrop of differing approaches of conserving and maximizing the talent available. It acknowledges the typical training 'dose' that adolescent athletes receive across a number of sports and the typical 'response' when it is excessive or not managed appropriately...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#5
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017518/effectiveness-of-a-stress-management-pilot-program-aimed-at-reducing-the-incidence-of-sports-injuries-in-young-football-soccer-players
#6
Aurelio Olmedilla-Zafra, Victor J Rubio, Enrique Ortega, Alexandre García-Mas
OBJECTIVES: Several attempts to reduce the incidence of sport injuries using psychosocial interventions produced fruitful, although inconclusive results. This paper presents the effectiveness and implementation issues of a pilot 3-month stress-management and muscle relaxation program aimed at reducing sport injury incidence. DESIGN: Pre-post treatment-non treatment group comparison. PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION: The program was administered by a trained psychologist on a once-a-week, 1-h session basis...
September 6, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997264/decrease-in-ionized-and-total-magnesium-blood-concentrations-in-endurance-athletes-following-an-exercise-bout-restores-within-hours-potential-consequences-for-monitoring-and-supplementation
#7
Rieneke Terink, Michael G J Balvers, Maria T Hopman, Renger F Witkamp, Marco Mensink, Jacqueline M T Klein Gunnewiek
Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO2max, 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991484/relationship-between-the-handball-specific-complex-test-and-intermittent-field-test-performance-in-elite-professional-handball-players
#8
René Schwesig, Souhail Hermassi, Birgit Hoffmeyer, Lars Irlenbusch, Georg Fieseler, Frank Noack, Karl S Delank, Tim J Gabbett, Mohamed S Chelly
BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between the handball complex-test (HBCT) and two selected field tests in elite handball players. METHODS: Twenty one handball players (age: 25.2 ± 5.1 years) from the First Professional German League completed; the HBCT performed twice, total distance (TD) covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSA) (6 x (15 + 15 m)) starting every 20 s. RSA results were evaluated in three ways: best time (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and decrement (RSAdec)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967337/peak-running-intensity-of-international-rugby-implications-for-training-prescription
#9
Jace A Delaney, Heidi R Thornton, John F Pryor, Andrew M Stewart, Ben J Dascombe, Grant M Duthie
PURPOSE: To quantify the duration and position-specific peak running intensities of international rugby union, for the prescription and monitoring of specific training methodologies. METHODS: Global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assess the activity profile of 67 elite-level rugby union players from two separate nations, across 33 international matches. A moving average approach was used to identify the peak relative distance (m∙min(-1)), average acceleration/deceleration (AveAcc; m∙s(-2)) and average metabolic power (Pmet) for a range of durations (1-10 min)...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967289/red-amber-or-green-athlete-monitoring-in-team-sport-the-need-for-decision-support-systems
#10
Samuel Robertson, Jonathan D Bartlett, Paul B Gastin
Decision support systems are used in team sport for a variety of purposes including evaluating individual performance and informing athlete selection. A particularly common form of decision support is the traffic light system, where colour coding is used to indicate a given status of an athlete with respect to performance or training availability. However despite relatively widespread use, there remains a lack of standardisation with respect to how traffic light systems are operationalised. This paper addresses a range of pertinent issues for practitioners relating to the practice of traffic light monitoring in team sports...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967274/a-new-method-to-individualize-monitoring-of-muscle-recovery-in-athletes
#11
Anne Hecksteden, Werner Pitsch, Ross Julian, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann, Alexander Ferrauti, Tim Meyer
PURPOSE: Assessment of muscle recovery is essential for the daily fine-tuning of training load in competitive sports, but individual differences may limit the diagnostic accuracy of group-based reference ranges. We report an attempt to develop individualized reference ranges using a Bayesian approach comparable to that developed for the athlete biological passport. METHODS: Urea and creatine kinase (CK) were selected as indicators of muscle recovery. For each parameter, prior distributions and repeated measures standard deviations were characterized based on data of 883 squad athletes (1758 data points, 1-8 per athlete, years 2013-2015)...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958445/thermography-for-skin-temperature-evaluation-during-dynamic-exercise-a-case-study-on-an-incremental-maximal-test-in-elite-male-cyclists
#12
Nicola Ludwig, Athos Trecroci, Marco Gargano, Damiano Formenti, Andrea Bosio, Ermanno Rampinini, Giampietro Alberti
The use of thermal imaging in monitoring the dynamic of skin temperature during prolonged physical exercise is central to assess athletes' ability to dissipate heat from the skin surface to the environment. In this study, seven elite cyclists completed an incremental maximal cycling test to evaluate their skin temperature response under controlled-environment conditions. Thermal images have been analyzed using a method based on maxima detection (T<sub>max</sub>). Data confirmed a reduction in skin temperature due to vasoconstriction during the exercise, followed by a temperature increment after exhaustion...
December 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937967/tensiomyographical-responses-to-accelerometer-loads-in-female-collegiate-basketball-players
#13
Kyle D Peterson, Gabriela T Quiggle
The purpose of the present study was to characterise the relationship between relative versus absolute internal and external loads in collegiate basketball players throughout the course of a season. Five Division I basketball players wore triaxial accelerometers throughout the 2015-2016 season and were tensiomyographically assessed weekly. One-way repeated-measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) with least-significant-difference (LSD) pairwise comparisons was used to determine which absolute weekly loads were different across the season...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918673/predictive-indicators-of-overuse-injuries-in-adolescent-endurance-athletes
#14
Daniel Martínez-Silván, Jaime Díaz-Ocejo, Andrew Murray
PURPOSE: To analyse the influence of training exposure and the utility of self-report questionnaires on predicting overuse injuries in adolescent endurance athletes. METHODS: 5 adolescent male endurance athletes (15.7 ± 1.4 yr) from a full-time sports academy answered 2 questionnaires (Recovery Cue; RC-q & Oslo Sports Trauma Research questionnaire; OSTRC-q) on a weekly basis for one season (37 wks) in order to detect (1) signs of overtraining and under-recovery (RC-q) and (2) early symptoms of lower limb injuries (OSTRC-q)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#15
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918664/modern-techniques-and-technologies-applied-to-training-and-performance-monitoring
#16
William A Sands, Ashley A Kavanaugh, Steven R Murray, Jeni R McNeal, Monèm Jemni
Athlete preparation and performance continues to increase in complexity and costs. Modern coaches are shifting from reliance on personal memory, experience, and opinion to evidence from collected training load data. Training load monitoring may hold vital information for developing systems of monitoring that follow the training process with such precision that both performance prediction and day-to-day management of training become an adjunct to preparation and performance. Time series data collection and analyses in sport are still in their infancy with considerable efforts being applied in "big-data" analytics and models of the appropriate variables to monitor and methods for doing so...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918659/importance-of-various-training-load-measures-on-injury-incidence-of-professional-rugby-league-athletes
#17
Heidi R Thornton, Jace A Delaney, Grant M Duthie, Ben J Dascombe
PURPOSE: To investigate the ability of various internal and external training load (TL) monitoring measures to predict injury incidence amongst positional groups within professional rugby league athletes. METHODS: TL and injury data were collected across 3 seasons (2013-2015) from twenty-five players competing in the National Rugby League competition. Daily TL data were included in the analysis, including session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE-TL), total distance (TD), high-speed running distance (HSD; >5m·s(-1)) and high-metabolic power distance (HPD; >20 W·kg(-1))...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909408/reliability-validity-and-usefulness-of-30-15-intermittent-fitness-test-in-female-soccer-players
#18
Nedim Čović, Eldin Jelešković, Haris Alić, Izet Rađo, Erduan Kafedžić, Goran Sporiš, Daniel T McMaster, Zoran Milanović
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability, validity and usefulness of the 30-15IFT in competitive female soccer players. METHODS: Seventeen elite female soccer players participated in the study. A within subject test-retest study design was utilized to assess the reliability of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT). Seven days prior to 30-15IFT, subjects performed a continuous aerobic running test (CT) under laboratory conditions to assess the criterion validity of the 30-15IFT. End running velocity (VCT and VIFT), peak heart rate (HRpeak) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were collected and/or estimated for both tests...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900186/injury-incidence-in-a-premier-league-youth-soccer-academy-using-the-consensus-statement-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Andrew Renshaw, Peter C Goodwin
BACKGROUND: There is an established risk of injury to young athletes exposed to high training loads. Identifying and monitoring injury risk is essential to aid prevention. The aim of this study was to use the consensus statement to determine the incidence and pattern of injury in 1 English Premier League soccer academy during 1 season. METHODS: A prospective cohort study included 181 elite academy soccer players during the 2012-2013 season. Players were divided into 5 age groups between 9 and 18 years...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895662/muscle-enriched-micrornas-isolated-from-whole-blood-are-regulated-by-exercise-and-are-potential-biomarkers-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#20
Joshua Denham, Priscilla R Prestes
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Evidence indicating miRNAs influence exercise-induced health and performance adaptations is mounting. Circulating miRNAs are responsible for intercellular communication and could serve as biomarkers for disease and exercise-related traits. Such biomarkers would contribute to exercise screening, monitoring, and the development of personalized exercise prescription. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of long-term strenuous aerobic exercise training and a single bout of maximal aerobic exercise on five muscle-enriched miRNAs implicated in exercise adaptations (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-181a, miR-486, and miR-494)...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
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