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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449358/incident-rate-and-risk-factors-for-tuberculosis-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-retrospective-cohort-study-in-shanghai-china
#1
Hanbi Qiu, Yan Shi, Yanyun Li, Xin Shen, Rui Li, Qundi Yang, Qichao Pan, Fei Yan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the incident rate of tuberculosis (TB) and its associates among adults with type 2 diabetes in Shanghai, China. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 170,399 type 2 diabetes patients aged ≥18 years who were registered in Shanghai Community-Based Diabetes Management System between 2004 and 2009. Their TB status was tracked until December 31, 2014. Cox regression was performed to identify the risk factors for TB RESULTS: We documented 785 new TBcases during 654,977 person-years of follow-up...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449284/pediatric-melanoma
#2
REVIEW
Christina Stefanaki, Leonidas Chardalias, Efthymia Soura, Alexandra Katsarou, Alexander Stratigos
Pediatric melanoma, although rare, is the most common skin cancer in children. Our current knowledge on pediatric melanoma incidence trends is expanding, as several studies have addressed this issue with conflicting results. Known risk factors for pediatric melanoma include family history of melanoma, a previous history of malignancy, large congenital nevi, numerous melanocytic nevi, sunburns, increased UV exposure and a sun-sensitive phenotype. In younger children melanoma more often presents with atypical features, such as a changing, amelanotic or uniformly colored, often bleeding lesion, not fulfilling in most cases the conventional ABCDE criteria...
April 27, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449219/the-risk-of-gastric-cancer-in-patients-with-gastric-intestinal-metaplasia-in-5-year-follow-up
#3
R Pittayanon, R Rerknimitr, N Klaikaew, A Sanpavat, S Chaithongrat, V Mahachai, P Kullavanijaya, A Barkun
BACKGROUND: Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is the premalignant stage of gastric cancer; however, consensus on its management has not been established. AIM: To determine the risk factors for gastric cancer in a population of patients with GIM to guide the appropriate clinical recommendations in a low prevalence area for gastric cancer. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Ninety-one patients with GIM diagnosed between 2004 and 2014 were recruited for surveillance EGD every 6-12 months until a diagnosis of gastric cancer or completion of the planned 5-year follow-up duration...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449052/implementation-of-a-postoperative-outpatient-care-pathway-for-delayed-hyponatremia-following-transsphenoidal-surgery
#4
Michael A Bohl, Shahjehan Ahmad, William L White, Andrew S Little
BACKGROUND: After transsphenoidal surgery, delayed hyponatremia (DH) is the leading cause of 30-d unplanned hospital readmissions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of a DH care pathway on 30-d readmissions after transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS: Data from before and after DH care pathway implementation were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were compared. Readmission causes, clinical pathway failures, sodium trends, and symptoms were evaluated...
April 25, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448971/pre-esrd-dementia-and-post-esrd-mortality-in-a-large-cohort-of-incident-dialysis-patients
#5
Miklos Z Molnar, Keiichi Sumida, Abduzhappar Gaipov, Praveen K Potukuchi, Tibor Fülöp, Kiran Joglekar, Jun Ling Lu, Elani Streja, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Csaba P Kovesdy
BACKGROUND: Conservative management may be a desirable option for elderly, fragile, or demented patients who reach end-stage renal disease (ESRD), yet some patients with dementia are placed on renal replacement therapy nonetheless. METHODS: From a nationwide cohort of 45,076 US veterans who transitioned to ESRD over 4 contemporary years (October 1, 2007 to September 30, 2011), we identified 1,336 (3.0%) patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code-based dementia diagnosis during the prelude (predialysis) period...
April 28, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448482/diabetes-self-management-education-programs-in-nonmetropolitan-counties-united-states-2016
#6
Stephanie A Rutledge, Svetlana Masalovich, Rachel J Blacher, Magon M Saunders
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is a clinical practice intended to improve preventive practices and behaviors with a focus on decision-making, problem-solving, and self-care. The distribution and correlates of established DSME programs in nonmetropolitan counties across the United States have not been previously described, nor have the characteristics of the nonmetropolitan counties with DSME programs. REPORTING PERIOD: July 2016. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS: DSME programs recognized by the American Diabetes Association or accredited by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (i...
April 28, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447933/acute-decompensated-heart-failure-new-strategies-for-improving-outcomes
#7
Emily Singer Fisher, Boyd Burns
Acute decompensated heart failure is a common emergency department presentation with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Heart failure accounts for more than 1 million hospitalizations annually, with a steadily increasing incidence as our population ages. This issue reviews recent literature regarding appropriate management of emergency department presentations of acute decompensated heart failure, with special attention to newer medication options. Emergency department management and appropriate interventions are discussed, along with critical decision-making points in resuscitation for both hypertensive and hypotensive patients...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447886/drug-induced-hyperlactatemia
#8
Eike Blohm, Jeffrey Lai, Mark Neavyn
BACKGROUND: Hyperlactatemia is common in critically ill patients and has a variety of etiologies. Medication toxicity remains an uncommon cause that providers often fail to recognize. In this article, we review several medications that cause hyperlactatemia in either therapeutic or supratherapeutic dosing. When known, the incidence, mortality, pathophysiology, and treatment options are discussed. METHODS: We performed a literature search using PUBMED and Google Scholar for English language articles published after 1980 regarding medication induced hyperlactatemia and its management...
April 27, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447766/supervised-dosing-with-a-long-acting-opioid-medication-in-the-management-of-opioid-dependence
#9
REVIEW
Rosella Saulle, Simona Vecchi, Linda Gowing
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence (OD) is an increasing clinical and public health problem worldwide. International guidelines recommend opioid substitution treatment (OST), such as methadone and buprenorphine, as first-line medication treatment for OD. A negative aspect of OST is that the medication used can be diverted both through sale on the black market, and the unsanctioned use of medications. Daily supervised administration of medications used in OST has the advantage of reducing the risk of diversion, and may promote therapeutic engagement, potentially enhancing the psychosocial aspect of OST, but costs more and is more restrictive on the client than dispensing for off-site consumption...
April 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447494/subtotal-resection-of-vestibular-schwannoma-evaluation-with-ki-67-measurement-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-long-term-observation
#10
Giannicola Iannella, Marco de Vincentiis, Cira Di Gioia, Raffaella Carletti, Benedetta Pasquariello, Alessandra Manno, Diletta Angeletti, Ersilia Savastano, Giuseppe Magliulo
Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative clinical and radiological data of patients with vestibular schwannomas who were initially managed by near total resection (NTR) or subtotal resection (STR). The Ki-67 analysis results were compared with tumor regrowth to determine the presence of a correlation between this proliferative index and postoperative tumor regrowth. Study Design Seventeen adult patients (7 male, 10 female) were retrospectively reviewed. Nine (52.9%) and eight (47.1%) patients underwent NTR and STR, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447412/optimal-utilization-of-thrombophilia-testing
#11
REVIEW
R K Pruthi
The global incidence of venous thromboembolism is high so laboratory testing for hereditary thrombophilia and selected acquired thrombophilia is common. Given the costs associated with testing and multiple pre-analytic and analytic variables affecting the assays, careful patient selection and timing of testing and diligent application to patient management are critical to providing high-value clinical care. Collaboration between the ordering providers and performing laboratories has the potential to achieve these goals...
May 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446997/endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-and-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-for-early-stage-esophageal-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Bo Ning, Mohamed M Abdelfatah, Mohamed O Othman
Mortality from esophageal cancer remains high despite advances in medical therapy. Although the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains unchanged, the incidence of the esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased over time. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and obesity are contributing factors to the development of Barrett's esophagus and subsequent development of adenocarcinoma. Early recognition of the disease can lead to resection of esophageal cancer prior to the development of lymphovascular invasion...
March 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446982/management-of-chest-trauma
#13
REVIEW
Corinna Ludwig, Aris Koryllos
Trauma is the leading cause of death worldwide. Approximately 2/3 of the patients have a chest trauma with varying severity from a simple rib fracture to penetrating injury of the heart or tracheobronchial disruption. Blunt chest trauma is most common with 90% incidence, of which less than 10% require surgical intervention of any kind. Mortality is second highest after head injury, which underlines the importance of initial management. Many of these deaths can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and treatment...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446978/optimizing-the-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-barrett-s-esophagus
#14
REVIEW
Juan A Muñoz-Largacha, Hiran C Fernando, Virginia R Litle
The incidence of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in the Western world has increased over the last decades. BE is considered a premalignant lesion that can progress to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a highly aggressive malignancy with poor survival rates. The close association between BE and EAC highlights the need for an early diagnosis in order to improve survival and outcomes in this group of patients. Although the evidence for BE screening with conventional endoscopy is controversial and limited by cost-effectiveness studies, screening can be suggested in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and two or more risk factors for EAC...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446876/hypersensitivity-to-carboplatin-in-children-with-malignancy
#15
REVIEW
Antonio Ruggiero, Daniela Rizzo, Martina Catalano, Giorgio Attinà, Riccardo Riccardi
Purpose: Carboplatin-based regimens have proven efficacy in children with cancer. However, the development of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) may have a negative impact on treatment intensity and patients' outcome. The aim of this review is to summarize the incidence and the clinical features of HSRs occurring in children with cancer treated with carboplatin and their impact on treatment efficacy. Methods: Data were collected by searching for relevant studies on the incidence, clinical features and management of possible side effects about the use of carboplatin in children, published from March 1987 to October 2016 in the PubMed database...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446832/taila-d%C3%A4-ha-cauterization-with-oil-an-innovative-approach-in-pilonidal-sinus
#16
Rabinarayan Tripathy, Neelima Sherly John, Sreedevi Vijayalekshmi, Nj Anuja Nair, Suresh Pasupalan
Summary: Pilonidal sinus is a chronic inflammatory track in mid gluteal cleft usually associated with hairs with an incidence rate of twenty six per one lakh population. It is more prevalently seen in the natal cleft of hairy middle aged obese, males. Such type of non-healing tracts may be considered as Nāḍivraṇa (Sinuses) and can either be treated by the conventional Kṣārasūtra (medicated seton) therapy or contemporary treatment methods. Irrespective of whatsoever management protocol adopted, it inevitably needs long term hospitalisation and is associated with complications...
October 2016: Ancient Science of Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446734/iron-deficiency-and-anemia-in-heart-failure
#17
Yüksel Çavuşoğlu, Hakan Altay, Mustafa Çetiner, Tolga Sinan Güvenç, Ahmet Temizhan, Dilek Ural, Dilek Yeşilbursa, Nesligül Yıldırım, Mehmet Birhan Yılmaz
Heart failure is an important community health problem. Prevalence and incidence of heart failure have continued to rise over the years. Despite recent advances in heart failure therapy, prognosis is still poor, rehospitalization rate is very high, and quality of life is worse. Co-morbidities in heart failure have negative impact on clinical course of the disease, further impair prognosis, and add difficulties to treatment of clinical picture. Therefore, successful management of co-morbidities is strongly recommended in addition to conventional therapy for heart failure...
March 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446599/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Marco Confalonieri, Francesco Salton, Francesco Fabiano
Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data...
June 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446466/landscape-of-combination-immunotherapy-and-targeted-therapy-to-improve-cancer-management
#19
Leandro M Colli, Mitchell J Machiela, Han Zhang, Timothy Myers, Lea Jessop, Olivier Delattre, Kai Yu, Stephen J Chanock
Cancer treatments composed of immune checkpoint inhibitors and oncogene-targeted drugs might improve cancer management, but there has been little investigation of their combined potential as yet. To estimate the fraction of cancer cases that might benefit from such combination therapy, we conducted an exploratory study of cancer genomic data sets to determine the proportion with somatic mutation profiles amenable to either immunotherapy or targeted therapy. We surveyed 13,349 genomic profiles from public databases for cases with specific mutations targeted by current agents or a burden of exome-wide non-synonymous mutations (NsM) that exceeds a proposed threshold for response to checkpoint inhibitors...
April 26, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446244/ketogenic-diet-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-children-under-the-age-of-2-years-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Siobhan Titre-Johnson, Natasha Schoeler, Christin Eltze, Ruth Williams, Katharina Vezyroglou, Helen McCullagh, Nick Freemantle, Simon Heales, Rachel Kneen, Louise Marston, Tim Martland, Irwin Nazareth, Elizabeth Neal, Andrew Lux, Alasdair Parker, Shakti Agrawal, Penny Fallon, J Helen Cross
BACKGROUND: The incidence of epilepsy is greatest in the first 2 years of life, an age group where there is generally a poor prognosis for both seizure control and neurodevelopmental outcome. Early control of seizures can be associated with better developmental outcome but many of the epilepsies presenting in infancy are poorly responsive to antiepileptic medication. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet designed to mimic the effects of starvation on the body. Dietary fat is converted into ketones in the body and used as an energy source by the brain...
April 26, 2017: Trials
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