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Sudden infant death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616646/molecular-genetic-diagnostics-for-ventricular-arrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-death-syndromes
#1
B Stallmeyer, S Dittmann, G Seebohm, J Müller, E Schulze-Bahr
Inherited forms of ventricular arrhythmias are rare diseases, but a major cause for severe cardiac events, sudden unexplained death syndromes, and death in young adults, infants, and children. Each disorder is genetically heterogeneous (5-20 genes per disease) and molecular testing may include both core genes and less common disease genes as well. Owing to the rapid development and feasibility of sequencing technologies enabling a parallel analysis of several hundred genes up to a whole exome, disease mutations can be identified very efficiently, but have to be seen in the complexity and natural variance of the human genome...
June 14, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615326/prenatal-nicotinic-exposure-prolongs-superior-laryngeal-c-fiber-mediated-apnea-and-bradycardia-through-enhancing-neuronal-trpv1-expression-and-excitation
#2
Xiuping Gao, Lei Zhao, Jianguo Zhuang, Na Zang, Fadi Xu
Maternal cigarette smoke, including prenatal nicotinic exposure (PNE), is responsible for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The fatal events of SIDS are characterized by severe bradycardia and life-threatening apneas. Although activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) of superior laryngeal C-fibers (SLCFs) could induce bradycardia and apnea and has been implicated in SIDS pathogenesis, how PNE affects the SLCF-mediated cardiorespiratory responses remains unexplored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PNE would aggravate the SLCF-mediated apnea and bradycardia via up-regulating TRPV1 expression and excitation of laryngeal C-neurons in the nodose/jugular (N/J) ganglia...
June 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608686/targeted-metabolic-profiling-of-post-mortem-brain-from-infants-who-died-from-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#3
Stewart F Graham, Onur Turkoglu, Praveen Kumar, Ali Yilmaz, Trent C Bjorndahl, BeomSoo Han, Rupasri Mandal, David S Wishart, Ray O Bahado-Singh
Currently little is known about the underlying pathophysiology associated with SIDS, and no objective biomarkers exist for the accurate identification of those at greatest risk of dying from SIDS. Using targeted metabolomics, we aim to profile the medulla oblongata of infants who have died from SIDS (n = 16) and directly compare their biochemical profile with age matched controls. Combining data acquired using (1)H NMR and targeted DI-LC-MS/MS, we have identified fatty acid oxidation as a pivotal biochemical pathway perturbed in the brains of those infants who have from SIDS (p = 0...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599744/understanding-the-risks-sitting-and-carrying-devices-pose-to-safe-infant-sleep
#4
Roger Rholdon
There have been various campaigns and recommendations to decrease the incidence of sudden unexpected infant death. Despite this, caregivers continue to place infants in unsafe sleeping environments. These environments, such as sitting devices, slings, carriers, and car seats, pose a significant risk to an infant's safety because of the risk from suffocation and cardiorespiratory instability. It is important for health care providers to understand the appropriate use of car seats, slings, and other sitting devices, to model appropriate behaviors, and to educate parents and caregivers...
June 2017: Nursing for Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593499/in-utero-exposure-to-nicotine-alters-the-development-of-the-rabbit-cardiac-conduction-system-and-provides-a-potential-mechanism-for-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#5
Anh Tuan Ton, Michael Biet, Jean-Francois Delabre, Nathalie Morin, Robert Dumaine
In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke remains the highest risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To alleviate the risks, nicotine replacement therapies are often prescribed to women who wish to quit smoking during their pregnancy. Cardiac arrhythmias is considered the final outcome leading to sudden death. Our goal in this study was to determine if exposing rabbit fetus to nicotine altered the cardiac conduction system of newborn kittens in a manner susceptible to cause SIDS. Using neuronal markers and a series of immunohistological and electrophysiological techniques we found that nicotine delayed the development of the cardiac pacemaker center (sinoatrial node) and decreased its innervation...
June 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571049/the-combination-of-bed-sharing-and-maternal-smoking-leads-to-a-greatly-increased-risk-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy-the-new-zealand-sudi-nationwide-case-control-study
#6
Edwin A Mitchell, John Md Thompson, Jane Zuccollo, Melanie MacFarlane, Barry Taylor, Dawn Elder, Alistair W Stewart, Teuila Percival, Nick Baker, Gabrielle K McDonald, Bev Lawton, Martin Schlaud, Peter Fleming
BACKGROUND: Despite a major reduction in overall infant mortality, sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) continues to be of concern in New Zealand, as the rate is high by international standards, and is even higher in indigenous Māori. AIM: To identify modifiable risk factors for SUDI. METHODS: A three-year (1 March 2012-28 February 2015) nationwide case-control study was conducted in New Zealand. RESULTS: There were 137 SUDI cases, giving a SUDI mortality rate of 0...
June 2, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562272/racial-and-ethnic-trends-in-sudden-unexpected-infant-deaths-united-states-1995-2013
#7
Sharyn E Parks, Alexa B Erck Lambert, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Immediately after the 1994 Back-to-Sleep campaign, sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) rates decreased dramatically, but they have remained relatively stable (93.4 per 100 000 live births) since 2000. In this study, we examined trends in SUID rates and disparities by race/ethnicity since the Back-to-Sleep campaign. METHODS: We used 1995-2013 US period-linked birth-infant death data to evaluate SUID rates per 100 000 live births by non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black (NHB), Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander racial/ethnic groupings...
May 15, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520325/-newborn-infants-first-outpatient-visit
#8
V Rigo, C Pieltain, C Schoffeniels, M Kalenga, J L Belche
The focus on outpatient follow-up of newborn infants increases as the duration of hospital stay after birth decreases. The first outpatient visit addresses the adequacy of the home transition. Appropriate feedings are checked. Sudden infant death syndrome prevention and security advices are reminded. Realisation of both neonatal dried blood screen and hearing test is confirmed, as well as planning of specific follow-up appointments. The physical exam will focus on red flags for diseases or malformations with a delayed presentation...
May 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520217/the-gene-encoding-the-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channel-kir4-1-may-be-involved-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#9
Siri H Opdal, Åshild Vege, Arne Stray-Pedersen, Torleiv O Rognum
AIM: Disturbances in brain function and development may play a role in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This Norwegian study aimed to test the hypothesis that specific variants of genes involved in water transport and potassium homeostasis would be predisposing factors for SIDS. METHODS: Genetic variation in the genes encoding aquaporin-4 (AQP4), Kir4.1 (KCNJ10) and α-syntrophin were analysed in 171 SIDS cases (62.6% male) with a median age of 15.5 (2-52) weeks and 398 adult controls (70...
May 18, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510647/epicardial-cardioverter-defibrillator-implantation-in-a-4-month-old-infant-bridged-to-heart-transplantation
#10
Cristina Carro, Alberto Francesco Cereda, Giuseppe Annoni, Stefano Maria Marianeschi
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is the gold standard therapy for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Nevertheless, ICD placement in the paediatric population is still limited because of several technical difficulties. Several implantation techniques have been proposed but experience in infants with very low weight and less than 6 months is very limited. We herein describe a case of a minimally invasive ICD epicardial implantation in a 4-month-old infant weighing 5 kg. A diagnosis of arrhythmic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular non-compaction disease with ventricular tachycardia storms, QT prolongation and Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern was made...
May 16, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506824/hypoxia-and-nicotine-effects-on-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-and-its-receptor-1-pac1-in-the-developing-piglet-brainstem
#11
J Huang, K A Waters, R Machaalani
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its cognate receptor 1 (PAC1), have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Two main risk factors for SIDS are prone sleeping and cigarette smoke exposure. Using piglet models of these risk factors, intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH-mimicking rebreathing in prone position) and nicotine (main reinforcing element of cigarettes), this study aimed to determine their effects on PACAP and PAC1 protein expression in the medulla...
May 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486375/domperidone-for-lactation-what-health-care-providers-need-to-know
#12
Catherine A Sewell, Christina Y Chang, Miriam M Chehab, Christine P Nguyen
This commentary serves to raise health care provider awareness about the regulatory status and available evidence regarding domperidone for insufficient lactation. Breastfeeding provides significant health benefits for mothers and infants, and insufficient milk production remains the most common reason for early weaning. Domperidone, a dopamine receptor antagonist that may increase milk production, is not approved for any human use in the United States. It is approved in some countries for certain gastrointestinal disorders, but is not approved in any country for lactation enhancement...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450386/update-on-congenital-heart-disease-and-sudden-infant-perinatal-death-from-history-to-future-trends
#13
REVIEW
Giulia Ottaviani, L Maximilian Buja
During the 20th century, expert pathologists contributed an in-depth characterisation of the anatomical pathology and associated pathophysiology of congenital heart disease (CHD). Starting in the 1970s, the reported CHD birth prevalence has been increasing, owing to advances in diagnostic methods. Over the years, surgical treatments have been associated with an enormous reduction of CHD mortality. Advances also have been made in understanding the developmental biology and molecular pathogenesis of CHD. In developed countries, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the most frequent form of death during the first year of life, with a death rate of 0...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449906/low-cerebrospinal-fluid-hypocretin-levels-during-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids-risk-period
#14
Marion Lancien, Clara Odilia Inocente, Yves Dauvilliers, Beatrice Kugener, Sabine Scholz, Veronique Raverot, Jian-Sheng Lin, Aurore Guyon, Marie-Paule Gustin, Patricia Franco
OBJECTIVES: The temporal association between sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep suggests that the arousability from sleep provides a protective mechanism for survival. Recently, the hypocretin system, which promotes wakefulness, has been implicated in SIDS, since it has been reported that SIDS victims have fewer hypocretin neurons than infants who have died from other causes. To understand the role of hypocretin in SIDS, it is essential to better understand how this system matures...
May 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449646/when-is-the-use-of-pacifiers-justifiable-in-the-baby-friendly-hospital-initiative-context-a-clinician-s-guide
#15
Welma Lubbe, Wilma Ten Ham-Baloyi
BACKGROUND: The use of pacifiers is an ancient practice, but often becomes a point of debate when parents and professionals aim to protect and promote breastfeeding as most appropriately for nurturing infants. We discuss the current literature available on pacifier use to enable critical decision-making regarding justifiable use of pacifiers, especially in the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative context, and we provide practical guidelines for clinicians. DISCUSSION: Suck-swallow-breathe coordination is an important skill that every newborn must acquire for feeding success...
April 27, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438099/a-single-centre-review-of-suspected-sudden-infant-death-cases
#16
Janos Bokor, Krisztina Danics, Eszter Bencze, Eva Keller, Zoltan Szollosi
This study aimed to establish the number of deaths in infants under 1 year of age that were being reported for medico-legal examination at a single large academic centre in Hungary, as well as the method of these investigations with special emphasis on histopathology, ancillary techniques and the adherence of our current practice to international recommendations. A single-centre, retrospective audit was conducted on all suspected sudden infant death cases. After the review there were eight infectious background sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases, infectious respiratory tract disease in 14 cases, cardiac septal tumour in one case, and hepatic, possibly metabolic, disorder in one case...
April 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416458/on-the-origins-of-sex-based-differences-in-respiratory-disorders-lessons-and-hypotheses-from-stress-neuroendocrinology-in-developing-rats
#17
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Rousseau, Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Tara Adele Janes, Stéphanie Fournier, Richard Kinkead
The environment plays a critical role in shaping development and function of the brain. Stress, especially when experienced early in life, can interfere with these processes. In the context of respiratory control, perinatal stress can therefore alter the ability to achieve the "fine-tuning" necessary for proper detection of chemosensory stimuli and production of an adequate motor (respiratory) command. Depending on the timing, intensity, and duration, the detrimental consequences of perinatal exposure to adverse conditions on the respiratory network become manifest at various life stages and can persist into adulthood...
April 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394766/risks-and-benefits-of-swaddling-healthy-infants-an-integrative-review
#18
Antonia M Nelson
BACKGROUND: Swaddling has been practiced since antiquity; however, there is controversy about its safety. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to update and build upon previous reviews and synthesize evidence on risks and benefits of swaddling in healthyterm, near-term, or older infants. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1960-May 13, 2016) and CINAHL (1963-May 13, 2016) searches were conducted, relevant articles retrieved, and citation lists reviewed for other references...
April 7, 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392470/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-and-its-receptor-1-pac1-in-the-human-infant-brain-and-changes-in-the-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids
#19
J Huang, K A Waters, R Machaalani
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its complementary receptor, PAC1, are crucial in central respiratory control. PACAP Knockout (KO) mice exhibit a SIDS-like phenotype, with an inability to overcome noxious insults, compression of baseline ventilation, and death in the early post-neonatal period. PAC1 KO demonstrate similar attributes to PACAP-null mice, but with the addition of increased pulmonary artery pressure, consequently leading to heart failure and death. This study establishes a detailed interpretation of the neuroanatomical distribution and localization of both PACAP and PAC1 in the human infant brainstem and hippocampus, to determine whether any changes in expression are evident in infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and any relationships to risk factors of SIDS including smoke exposure and sleep related parameters...
April 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392310/the-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-arrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-death
#20
REVIEW
Sonia Franciosi, Frances K G Perry, Thomas M Roston, Kathryn R Armstrong, Victoria E Claydon, Shubhayan Sanatani
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is complex and plays an important role in cardiac arrhythmia pathogenesis. A deeper understanding of the anatomy and development of the ANS has shed light on its involvement in cardiac arrhythmias. Alterations in levels of Sema-3a and NGF, both growth factors involved in innervation patterning during development of the ANS, leads to cardiac arrhythmias. Dysregulation of the ANS, including polymorphisms in genes involved in ANS development, have been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome...
March 31, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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