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A M Samarakoon, M Takahashi, D Zhang, J Yang, N Katayama, R Sinclair, H D Zhou, S O Diallo, G Ehlers, D A Tennant, S Wakimoto, K Yamada, G-W Chern, T J Sato, S-H Lee
Glassiness is ubiquitous and diverse in characteristics in nature. Understanding their differences and classification remains a major scientific challenge. Here, we show that scaling of magnetic memories with time can be used to classify magnetic glassy materials into two distinct classes. The systems studied are high temperature superconductor-related materials, spin-orbit Mott insulators, frustrated magnets, and dilute magnetic alloys. Our bulk magnetization measurements reveal that most densely populated magnets exhibit similar memory behavior characterized by a relaxation exponent of [Formula: see text]...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
T Janvier, R Jennane, H Toumi, E Lespessailles
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether trabecular bone texture (TBT) parameters measured on computed radiographs could predict the onset of radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with no sign of radiographic OA at baseline were included. Cases that developed either a global radiographic OA defined by the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale, a joint space narrowing (JSN) or tibial osteophytes (TOS) were compared with the controls with no changes after 48 months of follow-up...
September 18, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Soibam Shyamchand Singh, Dineshchandra Haobijam, Md Zubbair Malik, Romana Ishrat, R K Brojen Singh
We study brain network data of three species, namely, C. elegans, cat and macaque monkey within the framework of network theory and Potts Hamiltonian model, and explore rich fractal nature in it, which could be an important signature of self-organization, and a simple rule to be obeyed in complex patterns of brain networks. Further, this fractal behaviors in topological parameters of brain networks at various network levels could be an indicator of systems level organization in complicated brain functionality...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Xinping Zhang, Dexiang Wang, Hongke Hao, Fangfang Zhang, Youning Hu
In this study Yan'an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI) and land use/land cover (LULC) types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST) and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990-2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI) through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990-2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Travis J Wiltshire, Matthew J Euler, Ty L McKinney, Jonathan E Butner
Humans are high-dimensional, complex systems consisting of many components that must coordinate in order to perform even the simplest of activities. Many behavioral studies, especially in the movement sciences, have advanced the notion of soft-assembly to describe how systems with many components coordinate to perform specific functions while also exhibiting the potential to re-structure and then perform other functions as task demands change. Consistent with this notion, within cognitive neuroscience it is increasingly accepted that the brain flexibly coordinates the networks needed to cope with changing task demands...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Igor Pantic, Jovana Paunovic, Danijela Vucevic, Tatjana Radosavljevic, Stefan Dugalic, Anita Petkovic, Sanja Radojevic-Skodric, Senka Pantic
Although there are numerous recent works focusing on fractal properties of DNA and chromatin, many issues regarding changes in chromatin fractality during physiological aging remain unclear. In this study, we present results indicating that in mice, there is an age-related reduction of chromatin fractal complexity in a population of spleen follicular cells (SFCs). Spleen tissue was obtained from 16 mice and fixated in Carnoy solution. The youngest animal was newborn, and each animal was exactly 1 month older than the previous...
September 18, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Dongling Qiao, Long Yu, Xianyang Bao, Binjia Zhang, Fatang Jiang
From a microstructural view, the focus of this work was on the water absorption rate of starch-based superabsorbent polymers (starch-SAPs) prepared under high starch concentration (0.27:1w/w starch:water). The effects of starch amylose/amylopectin ratio were disclosed. The increase in amylopectin reduced the amount (CPAM) of polyacrylamide (PAM) in starch-SAPs but increased the ratio of starch carbons grafted with PAM, which eventually decreased the average length (LPAM) of PAM chains. The shorter PAM chains could reduce starch-SAP chain flexibility, thus inducing larger mass fractal gels in swollen starch-SAPs...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Misha Ross, Georgia J Mason
Exposure to certain natural stimuli improves people's moods, reduces stress, enhances stress resilience, and promotes mental and physical health. Laboratory studies and real estate prices also reveal that humans prefer environments containing a broad range of natural stimuli. Potential mediators of these outcomes include: 1) therapeutic effects of specific natural products; 2) positive affective responses to stimuli that signalled safety and resources to our evolutionary ancestors; 3) attraction to environments that satisfy innate needs to explore and understand; and 4) ease of sensory processing, due to the stimuli's "evolutionary familiarity" and/or their fractal, self-repeating properties...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Christos Sachpekidis, Jens Hillengass, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Hoda Anwar, Uwe Haberkorn, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss
A renewed interest has been recently developed for the highly sensitive bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical (18)F-NaF. Aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential utility of quantitative analysis of (18)F-NaF dynamic PET/CT data in differentiating malignant from benign degenerative lesions in multiple myeloma (MM). 80 MM patients underwent whole-body PET/CT and dynamic PET/CT scanning of the pelvis with (18)F-NaF. PET/CT data evaluation was based on visual (qualitative) assessment, semi-quantitative (SUV) calculations, and absolute quantitative estimations after application of a 2-tissue compartment model and a non-compartmental approach leading to the extraction of fractal dimension (FD)...
2017: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Dinara Sobola, Ştefan Ţălu, Shahram Solaymani, Lubomír Grmela
The purpose of this work is to study the dependence of AFM-data reliability on scanning rate. The three-dimensional (3D) surface topography of the samples with different micro-motifs is investigated. The analysis of surface metrics for estimation of artifacts from inappropriate scanning rate is presented. Fractal analysis was done by cube counting method and evaluation of statistical metrics was carrying out on the basis of AFM-data. Combination of quantitate parameters is also presented in graphs for every measurement...
September 14, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Ning Zhuang, Ying Zeng, Li Tong, Chi Zhang, Hanming Zhang, Bin Yan
This paper introduces a method for feature extraction and emotion recognition based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD). By using EMD, EEG signals are decomposed into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) automatically. Multidimensional information of IMF is utilized as features, the first difference of time series, the first difference of phase, and the normalized energy. The performance of the proposed method is verified on a publicly available emotional database. The results show that the three features are effective for emotion recognition...
2017: BioMed Research International
Mario E Valdés-Tresanco, Mario S Valdés-Tresanco, Pedro A Valiente, Germinal Cocho, Ricardo Mansilla, J M Nieto-Villar
The calculation of absolute binding affinities for protein-inhibitor complexes remains as one of the main challenges in computational structure-based ligand design. The present work explored the calculations of surface fractal dimension (as a measure of surface roughness) and the relationship with experimental binding free energies of Plasmepsin II complexes. Plasmepsin II is an attractive target for novel therapeutic compounds to treat malaria. However, the structural flexibility of this enzyme is a drawback when searching for specific inhibitors...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Srimonti Dutta
Himalayas is the home to nearly 10,000 glaciers which are mostly located at high and inaccessible region. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) can be effective in the study of these glaciers. This paper aims at providing an automated distinction of glacial and fluvial morphologies using multifractal technique. We have studied the variation of elevation profile of Glacial and Fluvial landscapes using Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). Glacial landscapes reveal more complex structure compared to the fluvial landscapes as indicated by fractal parameters degree of multifractality, asymmetry index...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Igor Elkin, Xavier Banquy, Christopher J Barrett, Patrice Hildgen
During the last three decades, dendrimers, nano-sized highly-branched fractal-like symmetrical macromolecules, have been intensively studied as promising candidates for application as drug-delivery carriers. Among other important characteristics arising from their unique and highly-controlled architecture, size and surface properties, the possibility of hosting guest molecules in internal voids represents a key advantage underlying the potential of dendrimers as non-covalent drug-encapsulating agents. The impressive amount of accumulating experimental results to date allows researchers to identify the most important and promising theoretical and practical aspects of the use of dendrimers for this purpose...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
F Grases, O Söhnel
BACKGROUND: The likelihood of a Randall's plug composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) forming by the free particle mechanism in a model of kidney with a structure recently described by Robertson was examined at the most favourable conditions for the considered mechanism. METHODS: The Robertson model of the kidney is used in the following development. The classical theory of crystallization was used for calculations. RESULTS: Initial COM nuclei were assumed to form at the beginning of the ascending loop of Henle where the supersaturation with respect to COM has been shown to reach the threshold level for spontaneous nucleation...
September 8, 2017: BMC Urology
Jianji Wang, Pei Chen, Bao Xi, Jianyi Liu, Yi Zhang, Shujian Yu
As a structure-based image compression technology, fractal image compression (FIC) has been applied not only in image coding but also in many important image processing algorithms. However, two main bottlenecks restrained the develop and application of FIC for a long time. First, the encoding phase of FIC is time-consuming. Second, the quality of the reconstructed images for some images which have low structure-similarity is usually unacceptable. Based on the absolute value of Pearson's correlation coefficient (APCC), we had proposed an accelerating method to significantly speed up the encoding of FIC...
2017: PloS One
Chao Li, Xue Zhang, Na Li, Yawei Wang, Jiajia Yang, Gaochen Gu, Yajie Zhang, Shimin Hou, Lianmao Peng, Kai Wu, Damian Nieckarz, Paweł Szabelski, Hao Tang, Yongfeng Wang
Self-similar fractal structures are of fundamental importance in science, mathematics, and aesthetics. A series of molecular defect-free Sierpiński triangle fractals have been constructed on surfaces recently. However, the highest order of the fractals is only 4 because of the limitation of kinetic growth. Here complete fifth-order Sierpiński triangles with a lateral length of 0.05 μm were successfully prepared in ultrahigh vacuum by a combination of templating and coassembly methods. Fe atoms, 4,4″-dicyano-1,1':3',1″-terphenyl, and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)benzene molecules were used to build fractals on the reconstructed Au(100)-(hex) surface...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jian Zhu, Mei-Jin Liu, Jian-Jun Li, Xin Li, Jun-Wu Zhao
The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of multi-branched gold nanostars with fractal structure has been investigated for trace detection of pesticide thiram. Raman spectrum results show that the gold nanostars substrate can produce about 10(2) fold stronger signal than the thiram alone with the thiram concentration increase of 10(3) times and 1.4 fold stronger signal than the gold nanostars without fractal feature. In the detection procedure, the most prominent SERS peak at 1376cm(-1) has been chosen to characterize and quantify the concentration of thiram...
September 4, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Chunzhong Ni, Shitao Zhang, Zhong Chen, Yongfeng Yan, Yujian Li
This study describes the fractal dimensions of the spatial distributions of lineaments as an index of the complexity of faults, and the results could provide new insights into the migration of ore-bearing fluid. The Segment Tracing Algorithm method is employed to extract the lineaments in northeast Yunnan Province from a remote sensing image. Box-counting fractal and multifractal models are used to analyze the fractal and multifractal spatial distribution characteristics of the linear structures. The different directions of the linear structure fractal dimensions are similar in the study area...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
M Korfanta, T Babadagli, K Develi
Surface roughness and flow rate effects on the solvent transport under miscible conditions in a single fracture are studied. Surface replicas of seven different rocks (marble, granite, and limestone) are used to represent different surface roughness characteristics each described by different mathematical models including three fractal dimensions. Distribution of dyed solvent is investigated at various flow rate conditions to clarify the effect of roughness on convective and diffusive mixing. After a qualitative analysis using comparative images of different rocks, the area covered by solvent with respect to time is determined to conduct a semi-quantitative analysis...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
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