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Khouloud Fekih Ahmed, Adel Aschi, Taco Nicolai
Hybrid protein-polysaccharide particles were formed by complexation of fractal whey protein aggregates and the cationic polysaccharide chitosan. The fractal aggregates were preformed by heating native whey protein isolate at pH 7 and subsequently mixed with chitosan at pH 3 where these proteins and polysaccharides don't interact with each other. Stable dispersions of protein-polysaccharide particles were formed spontaneously when the pH was gradually increased between 4.1 and 6.8, whereas in the absence of chitosan the fractal aggregates precipitated between pH 4...
May 15, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Dai Xue, Yancheng Wang, Jiaxin Zhang, Deqing Mei, Yue Wang, Shaochen Chen
To fully actualize artificial, cell-laden biological models in tissue engineering, such as 3D organoids and organs-on-a-chip systems, cells need to be patterned such that they can precisely mimic natural microenvironments in vitro. Despite increasing interest in this area, patterning cells at multiscales (~10 μm - 10 mm) remains a significant challenge in bioengineering. Here we report a projection-based 3D printing system that achieves rapid and high-resolution fabrication of hydrogel scaffolds featuring intricate channels for multi-scale cell patterning...
May 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Matthew J Derry, Oleksandr O Mykhaylyk, Anthony J Ryan, Steven P Armes
A poly(behenyl methacrylate)37 (PBeMA37 ) macromolecular chain transfer agent is utilized for the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) dispersion polymerization of benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) directly in mineral oil at 90 °C. Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) occurs under these conditions, yielding a series of sterically-stabilized PBeMA37 -PBzMA x diblock copolymer spheres of tunable diameter as confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies...
May 7, 2018: Chemical Science
John S Shaw, Rajendran Vaiyapuri, Matthew P Parker, Claire A Murray, Kate J C Lim, Cong Pan, Marcus Knappert, Christine J Cardin, Barnaby W Greenland, Ricardo Grau-Crespo, Howard M Colquhoun
Sequence-selective intercalation of pyrene into the chain-folds of a random, binary copolyimide under fast-exchange conditions results in the development of self-similar structure in the diimide region of the 1 H NMR spectrum. The resulting spectrum can be described by the mathematics of fractals, an approach that is rationalised in terms of a dynamic summation of ring-current shielding effects produced by pyrene molecules intercalating into the chain at progressively greater distances from each "observed" diimide residue...
May 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Kohei Aoki, Yotaro Izumi, Wataru Watanabe, Yuji Shimizu, Hisato Osada, Norinari Honda, Toshihide Itoh, Mitsuo Nakayama
BACKGROUND: While many studies have evaluated the change in lung volume before and after lung resection and correlated this with pulmonary function test results, there is very little evidence on the changes in ventilation perfusion ratio (V/Q) before versus after lung resection. In the present pilot study, we evaluated if V/Q mapping can be constructed using dual energy CT images. METHODS: Thirty-one lung cancer patients planned for pulmonary resection were included in this study...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
E S Loscar, C M Horowitz
Small systems consisting of particles interacting with long-range potentials exhibit enormous size effects. The Tsallis conjecture [Tsallis, Fractals 3, 541 (1995)FRACEG0218-348X10.1142/S0218348X95000473], valid for translationally invariant systems with long-range interactions, states a well-known scaling relating different sizes. Here we propose to generalize this conjecture to systems with this symmetry broken, by adjusting one parameter that determines an effective distance to compute the strength of the interaction...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Wenlong Wang, M A Moore, Helmut G Katzgraber
The fractal dimension of domain walls produced by changing the boundary conditions from periodic to antiperiodic in one spatial direction is studied using both the strong-disorder renormalization group algorithm and the greedy algorithm for the Edwards-Anderson Ising spin-glass model for up to six space dimensions. We find that for five or fewer space dimensions, the fractal dimension is lower than the space dimension. This means that interfaces are not space filling, thus implying that replica symmetry breaking is absent in space dimensions fewer than six...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Manish Sharma, Deepanshu Goyal, P V Achuth, U Rajendra Acharya
Sleep related disorder causes diminished quality of lives in human beings. Sleep scoring or sleep staging is the process of classifying various sleep stages which helps to detect the quality of sleep. The identification of sleep-stages using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an arduous task. Just by looking at an EEG signal, one cannot determine the sleep stages precisely. Sleep specialists may make errors in identifying sleep stages by visual inspection. To mitigate the erroneous identification and to reduce the burden on doctors, a computer-aided EEG based system can be deployed in the hospitals, which can help identify the sleep stages, correctly...
May 10, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
My Duyen Ho, Yiyi Liu, Dashen Dong, Yunmeng Zhao, Wenlong Cheng
Percolation networks of one-dimensional (1D) building blocks (e.g., metallic nanowires or carbon nanotubes) represent the mainstream strategy to fabricate stretchable conductors. One of the inherent limitations is the control over junction resistance between 1D building blocks in natural and strained states of conductors. Herein, we report highly stretchable transparent strain-insensitive conductors using fractal gold (F-Au) nanoframework based on a one-pot templateless wet chemistry synthesis method. The monolayered F-Au nanoframework (∼20 nm in thickness) can be obtained from the one-pot synthesis without any purification steps involved and can be transferred directly to arbitrary substrates like polyethylene terephthalate, food-wrap, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and ecoflex...
May 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Arjang Salehi, Amandine Jullienne, Kara M Wendel, Mary Hamer, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang, William J Pearce, Richard A DeFazio, Zinaida S Vexler, Andre Obenaus
We introduce a novel protocol to stain, visualize, and analyze blood vessels from the rat and mouse cerebrum. This technique utilizes the fluorescent dye, DiI, to label the lumen of the vasculature followed by perfusion fixation. Following brain extraction, the labeled vasculature is then imaged using wide-field fluorescence microscopy for axial and coronal images and can be followed by regional confocal microscopy. Axial and coronal images can be analyzed using classical angiographic methods for vessel density, length, and other features...
May 15, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Cong Chen, Zhi-Cheng He, Yu Shi, Wenchao Zhou, Xia Zhang, Hua-Liang Xiao, Hai-Bo Wu, Xiao-Hong Yao, Wan-Chun Luo, You-Hong Cui, Shideng Bao, Hsiang-Fu Kung, Xiu-Wu Bian, Yi-Fang Ping
The microvascular profile has been included in the WHO glioma grading criteria. Nevertheless, microvessels in gliomas of the same WHO grade, e.g., WHO IV glioblastoma (GBM), exhibit heterogeneous and polymorphic morphology, whose possible clinical significance remains to be determined. In this study, we employed a fractal geometry-derived parameter, microvascular fractal dimension (mvFD), to quantify microvessel complexity and developed a home-made macro in Image J software to automatically determine mvFD from the microvessel-stained immunohistochemical images of GBM...
May 15, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Ryan C Roberts, Ryan Poling-Skutvik, Jeremy C Palmer, Jacinta C Conrad
Dynamic coupling of small penetrants to slow, cooperative relaxations within crowded cells, supercooled liquids, and polymer matrices has broad consequences for applications ranging from drug delivery to nanocomposite processing. Interactions between the constituents of these and other disordered media alter the cooperative relaxations, but their effect on penetrant dynamics remains incompletely understood. We use molecular dynamics simulations to show that the motions of hard-sphere tracer particles probe differences in local structure and cooperative relaxation processes in attractive and repulsive glassy liquid matrices with equal bulk packing fractions and long-time diffusivities...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Sunjin Kim, You Kyeong Jeong, Younseon Wang, Haeshin Lee, Jang Wook Choi
New binder concepts have lately demonstrated improvements in the cycle life of high-capacity silicon anodes. Those binder designs adopt adhesive functional groups to enhance affinity with silicon particles and 3D network conformation to secure electrode integrity. However, homogeneous distribution of silicon particles in the presence of a substantial volumetric content of carbonaceous components (i.e., conductive agent, graphite, etc.) is still difficult to achieve while the binder maintains its desired 3D network...
May 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Zhenbei Wang, Jun Nan, Xiaoyu Ji, Yueming Yang
Dynamic analysis on the variation of particle size distribution (PSD) and the fractal characteristics of PSD (Df ) were investigated to better understand the continuous procedure of the floc growth and optimize the control of flocculation process. It was found that the flocculation process could be divided into three stages, i.e., the micro-flocculation stage, the growth stage and the steady (or breakage) stage. As the stage which is crucial to the morphology of micro-flocs (the building blocks of large flocs), the micro-flocculation stage plays an important role on flocculation/sedimentation process...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Normann Mertig, Akira Shudo
We derive open quantum maps from periodically kicked scattering systems and discuss the computation of their resonance spectra in terms of theoretically grounded methods, such as complex scaling and sufficiently weak absorbing potentials. In contrast, we also show that current implementations of open quantum maps, based on strong absorptive or even projective openings, fail to produce the resonance spectra of kicked scattering systems. This comparison pinpoints flaws in current implementations of open quantum maps, namely, the inability to separate resonance eigenvalues from the continuum as well as the presence of diffraction effects due to strong absorption...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
J Cheraghalizadeh, M N Najafi, H Mohammadzadeh, A Saber
The self-avoiding walk on the square site-diluted correlated percolation lattice is considered. The Ising model is employed to realize the spatial correlations of the metric space. As a well-accepted result, the (generalized) Flory's mean-field relation is tested to measure the effect of correlation. After exploring a perturbative Fokker-Planck-like equation, we apply an enriched Rosenbluth Monte Carlo method to study the problem. To be more precise, the winding angle analysis is also performed from which the diffusivity parameter of Schramm-Loewner evolution theory (κ) is extracted...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Ahmad Motahari, Naiping Hu, Amir Vahid, Abdollah Omrani, Abbas Ali Rostami, Dale W Schaefer
This work exploits gas adsorption and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to illuminate morphology of complex nanoporous materials. We resolve multiple classes of porosity including previously undetected large-scale texture that significantly compromises the canonical interpretation of gas adsorption. Specifically, a UVM-7 class mesoporous silica was synthesized that has morphological features on three length scales: macropores due to packing of 150-nm globules, 1.9-nm-radius spherical mesopores inside the globules and >7-nm pockets on and between the globules...
May 14, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jianrui Feng, Pengwan Chen, Mo Li
Atomic packing is still a mystery for the topologically disordered amorphous solids owing primarily to the absence of Bragg diffraction in this class of materials. Among many hypotheses, a fractal packing is suggested based on a scaling relation with "2.5 power law" in multicomponent metallic glasses. Here we examine the atomic packing critically in a pure Tantalum metallic glass under hydrostatic pressure. Without any complications of chemical compositions as in the multicomponent systems, the genuine amorphous structure in the single component metallic glass exhibits cubic scaling exponent that indicates absence of the 2...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Cesar I N Sampaio Filho, José S Andrade, Hans J Herrmann, André A Moreira
The elastic backbone is the set of all shortest paths. We found a new phase transition at p_{eb} above the classical percolation threshold at which the elastic backbone becomes dense. At this transition in 2D, its fractal dimension is 1.750±0.003, and one obtains a novel set of critical exponents β_{eb}=0.50±0.02, γ_{eb}=1.97±0.05, and ν_{eb}=2.00±0.02, fulfilling consistent critical scaling laws. Interestingly, however, the hyperscaling relation is violated. Using Binder's cumulant, we determine, with high precision, the critical probabilities p_{eb} for the triangular and tilted square lattice for site and bond percolation...
April 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Joe P Chen, Alexander Teplyaev, Konstantinos Tsougkas
We study the spectral zeta functions of the Laplacian on fractal sets which are locally self-similar fractafolds, in the sense of Strichartz. These functions are known to meromorphically extend to the entire complex plane, and the locations of their poles, sometimes referred to as complex dimensions, are of special interest. We give examples of locally self-similar sets such that their complex dimensions are not on the imaginary axis, which allows us to interpret their Laplacian determinant as the regularized product of their eigenvalues...
2018: Letters in Mathematical Physics
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