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J James Frost, Kenneth J Pienta, Donald S Coffey
Symmetry and symmetry breaking concepts from physics and biology are applied to the problem of cancer. Three categories of symmetry breaking in cancer are examined: combinatorial, geometric, and functional. Within these categories, symmetry breaking is examined for relevant cancer features, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); tumor heterogeneity; tensegrity; fractal geometric and information structure; functional interaction networks; and network stabilizability and attack tolerance. The new cancer symmetry concepts are relevant to homeostasis loss in cancer and to its origin, spread, treatment and resistance...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Jasmin L Whittaker, Rajkamal Balu, Robert Knott, Liliana de Campo, Jitendra P Mata, Christine Rehm, Anita J Hill, Naba K Dutta, Namita Roy Choudhury
Regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin (RSF) is a widely recognized protein for biomedical applications; however, their hierarchical gel structures are poorly understood. In this paper, the hierarchical structure of photocrosslinked RSF and RSF-based hybrid hydrogel systems: (i) RSF/Rec1-resilin and (ii) RSF/poly(N-vinylcaprolactam (PVCL) is reported for the first time using small-angle scattering (SAS) techniques. The structure of RSF in dilute to concentrated solution to fabricated hydrogels were characterized using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small angle neutron scattering (USANS) techniques...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
K E Polovnikov, M Gherardi, M Cosentino-Lagomarsino, M V Tamm
Chromosomes are key players of cell physiology, their dynamics provides valuable information about its physical organization. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the short-time motion of chromosomal loci has been described with a Rouse model in a simple or viscoelastic medium. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of the folded organization of chromosomes on the local dynamics. Clearly, stress propagation, and thus dynamics, must be affected by such organization, but a theory allowing us to extract such information from data, e...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Michelangelo Nigro, Davide Viggiano, Vincenzo Ragone, Tiziana Trabace, Annamaria di Palma, Michele Rossini, Giovambattista Capasso, Loreto Gesualdo, Giuseppe Gigliotti
BACKGROUND: The classical approach to the analysis of kidney biopsies is based on semi-quantitative scores of the amount of sclerosis, inflammatory infiltrate, fibrosis and vascular damage. However, advanced renal lesions may be accompanied by a paucity of clinical features and, conversely, important clinical abnormalities may be accompanied by minimal histopathological changes. The objective of this study is to correlate new, semiautomatic, quantitative features of kidney biopsies (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Nephrology
J M Alonso, A Arroyuelo, P G Garay, O A Martin, J A Vila
There is a need to develop widely applicable tools to understand glycan organization, diversity and structure. We present a graph-theoretical study of a large sample of glycans in terms of finite dimension, a new metric which is an adaptation to finite sets of the classical Hausdorff "fractal" dimension. Every glycan in the sample is encoded, via finite dimension, as a point of Glycan Space, a new notion introduced in this paper. Two major outcomes were found: (a) the existence of universal bounds that restrict the universe of possible glycans and show, for instance, that the graphs of glycans are a very special type of chemical graph, and (b) how Glycan Space is related to biological domains associated to the analysed glycans...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hyunsu Park, Pavel Takmakov, Hyowon Lee
Advancements in microfabrication has enabled manufacturing of microscopic neurostimulation electrodes with smaller footprint than ever possible. The smaller electrodes can potentially reduce tissue damage and allow better spatial resolution for neural stimulation. Although electrodes of any shape can easily be fabricated, substantial effort have been focused on identification and characterization of new materials and surface morphology for efficient charge injection, while maintaining simple circular or rectangular Euclidean electrode geometries...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ratna Jyothi, Ajay Kumar Nair, Rahul Venugopal, Arun Sasidharan, Prasanta Kumar Ghosh, John P John, Seema Mehrotra, Ravindra Panth, Bindu M Kutty
Meditation, as taught by most schools of practice, consists of a set of heterogeneous techniques. We wanted to assess if EEG profiles varied across different meditation techniques, proficiency levels and experience of the practitioners. We examined EEG dynamics in Vipassana meditators (Novice, Senior meditators and Teachers) while they engaged in their traditional meditation practice (concentration, mindfulness and loving kindness in a structured manner) as taught by S.N. Goenka. Seniors and Teachers (vs Novices) showed trait increases in delta (1-4 Hz), theta-alpha (6-10 Hz) and low-gamma power (30-40 Hz) at baseline rest; state-trait increases in low-alpha (8-10 Hz) and low-gamma power during concentrative and mindfulness meditation; and theta-alpha and low-gamma power during loving-kindness meditation...
March 8, 2018: Biological Psychology
Rupesh Verma, Romil Audhkhasi, Krishna Thyagarajan, Varsha Banerjee
Many of the present-day optical devices use photonic crystals. These are multilayers of dielectric media that control the reflection and transmission of light falling on them. In this paper, we study the optical properties of periodic, fractal, and aperiodic photonic crystals and compare them based on their attributes. Our calculations of the band reflectivity and degree of robustness reveal novel features, e.g., fractal photonic crystals are found to reflect the maximum amount of incident light. On the other hand, aperiodic photonic crystals have the largest immunity to disorder...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Alexander Schmidt, Ernst G Schukat-Talamazzini, Janine Zöllkau, Adelina Pytlik, Sophia Leibl, Kathrin Kumm, Franziska Bode, Isabelle Kynass, Otto W Witte, Ekkehard Schleussner, Uwe Schneider, Dirk Hoyer
Adverse prenatal environmental influences to the developing fetus are associated with mental and cardiovascular disease in later life. Universal developmental characteristics such as self-organization, pattern formation, and adaptation in the growing information processing system have not yet been sufficiently analyzed with respect to description of normal fetal development and identification of developmental disturbances. Fetal heart rate patterns are the only non-invasive order parameter of the developing autonomic brain available with respect to the developing complex organ system...
March 5, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Charles N Melton, Sheida T Riahinasab, Amir Keshavarz, Benjamin J Stokes, Linda S Hirst
When nanoparticle self-assembly takes place in an anisotropic liquid crystal environment, fascinating new effects can arise. The presence of elastic anisotropy and topological defects can direct spatial organization. An important goal in nanoscience is to direct the assembly of nanoparticles over large length scales to produce macroscopic composite materials; however, limitations on spatial ordering exist due to the inherent disorder of fluid-based methods. In this paper we demonstrate the formation of quantum dot clusters and spherical capsules suspended within spherical liquid crystal droplets as a method to position nanoparticle clusters at defined locations...
March 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
Fabian Sieland, Jenny Schneider, Detlef W Bahnemann
The effects of the particle size distribution on the charge carrier dynamics and the photocatalytic activity of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) powder samples were investigated in this work. Instead of the synthesis of the small semiconductor particles, the binary particle size distributions of the powders were obtained by mixing commercially available TiO2 powders with different particle sizes. The pure anatase samples (average diameters: 7, 20, and 125 nm, respectively) were created via ultrasound treatment and discreet drying...
March 8, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Dalei Jing, Shiyu Song, Yunlu Pan, Xiaoming Wang
The fractal tree-like branched network is an effective channel design structure to reduce the hydraulic resistance as compared with the conventional parallel channel network. In order for a laminar flow to achieve minimum hydraulic resistance, it is believed that the optimal fractal tree-like channel network obeys the well-accepted Murray's law of βm = N -1/3 (βm is the optimal diameter ratio between the daughter channel and the parent channel and N is the branching number at every level), which is obtained under the assumption of no-slip conditions at the channel wall-liquid interface...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Maie Bachmann, Laura Päeske, Kaia Kalev, Katrin Aarma, Andres Lehtmets, Pille Ööpik, Jaanus Lass, Hiie Hinrikus
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Depressive disorder is one of the leading causes of burden of disease today and it is presumed to take the first place in the world in 2030. Early detection of depression requires a patient-friendly inexpensive method based on easily measurable objective indicators. This study aims to compare various single-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) measures in application for detection of depression. METHODS: The EEG recordings were performed on a group of 13 medication-free depressive outpatients and 13 gender and age matched controls...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Scott W Ducharme, Joshua J Liddy, Jeffrey M Haddad, Michael A Busa, Laura J Claxton, Richard E A van Emmerik
Human locomotion is an inherently complex activity that requires the coordination and control of neurophysiological and biomechanical degrees of freedom across various spatiotemporal scales. Locomotor patterns must constantly be altered in the face of changing environmental or task demands, such as heterogeneous terrains or obstacles. Variability in stride times occurring at short time scales (e.g., 5-10 strides) is statistically correlated to larger fluctuations occurring over longer time scales (e.g., 50-100 strides)...
March 2, 2018: Human Movement Science
María Laura Fanani, Natalia Wilke
Demixing of components has long been described in model membranes. It is a consequence of non-ideal lateral interactions between membrane components, and it causes the presence of segregated phases, forming patches (domains) of different properties, thus introducing heterogeneity into the membrane. In the present review we first describe the processes through which domains are generated, how they grow, and why they are rounded, striped or fractal-like, as well as why they get distributed forming defined patterns...
March 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Frank Bossler, Johannes Maurath, Katrin Dyhr, Norbert Willenbacher, Erin Koos
The rheological properties of a particle suspension can be substantially altered by adding a small amount of a secondary fluid that is immiscible with the bulk phase. The drastic change in the strength of these capillary suspensions arises due to the capillary forces, induced by the added liquid, leading to a percolating particle network. Using rheological scaling models, fractal dimensions are deduced from the yield stress and from oscillatory strain amplitude sweep data as function of the solid volume fraction...
January 2018: Journal of Rheology
Yoshihiro Kurata, Koichi Hayano, Gaku Ohira, Kazuo Narushima, Tomoyoshi Aoyagi, Hisahiro Matsubara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the heterogeneity of tumor enhancement using fractal analysis on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) for predicting malignant potential of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). METHODS: We retrospectively identified 64 patients (36 M/28 W; median age: 65) with GISTs who received CE-CT and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) followed by curative surgery. Fractal analysis was applied to CE-CT image, and fractal dimension (FD) was measured...
March 3, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Sadollah Ebrahimi
In this study, the lubricity of perfect and defective graphene on the gold substrate (Au (111)) has been investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. The influence of surface morphology as well as the Stone-Wales (SW) defects concentration on the friction of graphene on the gold surface is explored. The SW defects in the range of 0-2.55% are randomly distributed into the graphene. Furthermore, the self-affine fractal method is employed to generate realistic rough surfaces. The effect of the external force, FE , in the range of 0...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Gareth J McKay, Euan N Paterson, Alexander P Maxwell, Christopher C Cardwell, Ruixuan Wang, Stephen Hogg, Thomas J MacGillivray, Emanuele Trucco, Alexander S Doney
The eye provides an opportunistic "window" to view the microcirculation. There is published evidence of an association between retinal microvascular calibre and renal function measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Beyond vascular calibre, few studies have considered other microvascular geometrical features. Here we report novel null findings for measures of vascular spread (vessel fractal dimension), tortuosity, and branching patterns and their relationship with renal function in type 2 diabetes over a mean of 3 years...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caoxiong Li, Yinghao Shen, Hongkui Ge, Yanjun Zhang, Tao Liu
Shales have abundant micro-nano pores. Meanwhile, a considerable amount of fracturing liquid is imbibed spontaneously in the hydraulic fracturing process. The spontaneous imbibition in tortuous micro-nano pores is special to shale, and dynamic contact angle and slippage are two important characteristics. In this work, we mainly investigate spontaneous imbibition considering dynamic contact angle and slip effect in fractal tortuous capillaries. We introduce phase portrait analysis to analyse the dynamic state and stability of imbibition...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
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