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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430459/direct-observation-of-percolation-in-the-yielding-transition-of-colloidal-glasses
#1
Antina Ghosh, Zoe Budrikis, Vijayakumar Chikkadi, Alessandro L Sellerio, Stefano Zapperi, Peter Schall
When strained beyond the linear regime, soft colloidal glasses yield to steady-state plastic flow in a way that is similar to the deformation of conventional amorphous solids. Because of the much larger size of the colloidal particles with respect to the atoms comprising an amorphous solid, colloidal glasses allow us to obtain microscopic insight into the nature of the yielding transition, as we illustrate here combining experiments, atomistic simulations, and mesoscopic modeling. Our results unanimously show growing clusters of nonaffine deformation percolating at yielding...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418438/a-scalable-self-priming-fractal-branching-microchannel-net-chip-for-digital-pcr
#2
Qiangyuan Zhu, Yanan Xu, Lin Qiu, Congcong Ma, Bingwen Yu, Qi Song, Wei Jin, Qinhan Jin, Jinyu Liu, Ying Mu
As an absolute quantification method at the single-molecule level, digital PCR has been widely used in many bioresearch fields, such as next generation sequencing, single cell analysis, gene editing detection and so on. However, existing digital PCR methods still have some disadvantages, including high cost, sample loss, and complicated operation. In this work, we develop an exquisite scalable self-priming fractal branching microchannel net digital PCR chip. This chip with a special design inspired by natural fractal-tree systems has an even distribution and 100% compartmentalization of the sample without any sample loss, which is not available in existing chip-based digital PCR methods...
April 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415333/melting-of-a-nonequilibrium-vortex-crystal-in-a-fluid-film-with-polymers-elastic-versus-fluid-turbulence
#3
Anupam Gupta, Rahul Pandit
We perform a direct numerical simulation of the forced, incompressible two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation coupled with the FENE-P equations for the polymer-conformation tensor. The forcing is such that, without polymers and at low Reynolds numbers Re, the film attains a steady state that is a square lattice of vortices and antivortices. We find that, as we increase the Weissenberg number Wi, a sequence of nonequilibrium phase transitions transforms this lattice, first to spatially distorted, but temporally steady, crystals and then to a sequence of crystals that oscillate in time, periodically, at low Wi, and quasiperiodically, for slightly larger Wi...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374582/detection-of-enzyme-inhibitors-in-crude-natural-extracts-using-droplet-based-microfluidics-coupled-to-hplc
#4
Abraham Ochoa, Enrique Álvarez-Bohórquez, Eduardo Castillero, Luis F Olguin
Natural product screening for new bioactive compounds can greatly benefit from low reagents consumption and high throughput capacity of droplet-based microfluidic systems. However, the creation of large droplet libraries in which each droplet carries a different compound is a challenging task. A possible solution is to use an HPLC coupled to a droplet generating microfluidic device to sequentially encapsulate the eluting compounds. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of carrying out enzyme inhibiting assays inside nano-liter droplets with the different components of a natural crude extract after being separated by a coupled HPLC column...
April 4, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373892/tips-a-system-for-automated-image-based-phenotyping-of-maize-tassels
#5
Joseph L Gage, Nathan D Miller, Edgar P Spalding, Shawn M Kaeppler, Natalia de Leon
BACKGROUND: The maize male inflorescence (tassel) produces pollen necessary for reproduction and commercial grain production of maize. The size of the tassel has been linked to factors affecting grain yield, so understanding the genetic control of tassel architecture is an important goal. Tassels are fragile and deform easily after removal from the plant, necessitating rapid measurement of any shape characteristics that cannot be retained during storage. Some morphological characteristics of tassels such as curvature and compactness are difficult to quantify using traditional methods, but can be quantified by image-based phenotyping tools...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241479/unmanned-aerial-vehicle-systems-for-remote-estimation-of-flooded-areas-based-on-complex-image-processing
#6
Dan Popescu, Loretta Ichim, Florin Stoican
Floods are natural disasters which cause the most economic damage at the global level. Therefore, flood monitoring and damage estimation are very important for the population, authorities and insurance companies. The paper proposes an original solution, based on a hybrid network and complex image processing, to this problem. As first novelty, a multilevel system, with two components, terrestrial and aerial, was proposed and designed by the authors as support for image acquisition from a delimited region. The terrestrial component contains a Ground Control Station, as a coordinator at distance, which communicates via the internet with more Ground Data Terminals, as a fixed nodes network for data acquisition and communication...
February 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214682/fractal-theory-modeling-for-interpreting-nuclear-and-electrical-well-logging-data-and-establishing-lithological-cross-section-in-basaltic-environment-case-study-from-southern-syria
#7
Jamal Asfahani
Fractal theory modeling technique is newly proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, for establishing the lithological cross section in basaltic environments. The logging data of Kodana well, localized in Southern Syria are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established cross section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay...
February 14, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196082/seeing-shapes-in-seemingly-random-spatial-patterns-fractal-analysis-of-rorschach-inkblots
#8
R P Taylor, T P Martin, R D Montgomery, J H Smith, A P Micolich, C Boydston, B C Scannell, M S Fairbanks, B Spehar
Rorschach inkblots have had a striking impact on the worlds of art and science because of the remarkable variety of associations with recognizable and namable objects they induce. Originally adopted as a projective psychological tool to probe mental health, psychologists and artists have more recently interpreted the variety of induced images simply as a signature of the observers' creativity. Here we analyze the relationship between the spatial scaling parameters of the inkblot patterns and the number of induced associations, and suggest that the perceived images are induced by the fractal characteristics of the blot edges...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177752/a-computational-approach-to-studying-protein-folding-problems-considering-the-crucial-role-of-the-intracellular-environment
#9
Pedro P González-Pérez, Daniel J Orta, Irving Peña, Eduardo C Flores, José U Ramírez, Hiram I Beltrán, Salomón J Alas
Intracellular protein folding (PF) is performed in a highly inhomogeneous, crowded, and correlated environment. Due to this inherent complexity, the study and understanding of PF phenomena is a fundamental issue in the field of computational systems biology. In particular, it is important to use a modeled medium that accurately reflects PF in natural systems. In the current study, we present a simulation wherein PF is carried out within an inhomogeneous modeled medium. Simulation resources included a two-dimensional hydrophobic-polar (HP) model, evolutionary algorithms, and the dual site-bond model...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140391/an-extensive-dataset-of-eye-movements-during-viewing-of-complex-images
#10
Niklas Wilming, Selim Onat, José P Ossandón, Alper Açık, Tim C Kietzmann, Kai Kaspar, Ricardo R Gameiro, Alexandra Vormberg, Peter König
We present a dataset of free-viewing eye-movement recordings that contains more than 2.7 million fixation locations from 949 observers on more than 1000 images from different categories. This dataset aggregates and harmonizes data from 23 different studies conducted at the Institute of Cognitive Science at Osnabrück University and the University Medical Center in Hamburg-Eppendorf. Trained personnel recorded all studies under standard conditions with homogeneous equipment and parameter settings. All studies allowed for free eye-movements, and differed in the age range of participants (~7-80 years), stimulus sizes, stimulus modifications (phase scrambled, spatial filtering, mirrored), and stimuli categories (natural and urban scenes, web sites, fractal, pink-noise, and ambiguous artistic figures)...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125055/fusion-of-high-resolution-multispectral-imagery-in-vulnerable-coastal-and-land-ecosystems
#11
Edurne Ibarrola-Ulzurrun, Consuelo Gonzalo-Martin, Javier Marcello-Ruiz, Angel Garcia-Pedrero, Dionisio Rodriguez-Esparragon
Ecosystems provide a wide variety of useful resources that enhance human welfare, but these resources are declining due to climate change and anthropogenic pressure. In this work, three vulnerable ecosystems, including shrublands, coastal areas with dunes systems and areas of shallow water, are studied. As far as these resources' reduction is concerned, remote sensing and image processing techniques could contribute to the management of these natural resources in a practical and cost-effective way, although some improvements are needed for obtaining a higher quality of the information available...
January 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119164/effect-of-the-dosage-ratio-and-the-viscosity-of-pac-pdmdaac-on-coagulation-performance-and-membrane-fouling-in-a-hybrid-coagulation-ultrafiltration-process
#12
Xue Shen, Baoyu Gao, Xin Huang, Fan Bu, Qinyan Yue, Ruihua Li, Bo Jin
This study systematically determined the optimal dosage ratio and the viscosity (η) of co-coagulants, polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and poly dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDMDAAC), on coagulation performance and membrane fouling in a hybrid coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process for natural organic matter (NOM) removal. Floc characteristics-including floc size, fractal dimension, strength and re-growth ability-were studied with respect to coagulant-dosing operations. Membrane fouling was evaluated in association with assessment of NOM removal performance by the hybrid process...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107414/multifractality-and-network-analysis-of-phase-transition
#13
Longfeng Zhao, Wei Li, Chunbin Yang, Jihui Han, Zhu Su, Yijiang Zou
Many models and real complex systems possess critical thresholds at which the systems shift dramatically from one sate to another. The discovery of early-warnings in the vicinity of critical points are of great importance to estimate how far the systems are away from the critical states. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and visibility graph method have been employed to investigate the multifractal and geometrical properties of the magnetization time series of the two-dimensional Ising model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103526/cognitive-representation-of-musical-fractals-processing-hierarchy-and-recursion-in-the-auditory-domain
#14
Mauricio Dias Martins, Bruno Gingras, Estela Puig-Waldmueller, W Tecumseh Fitch
The human ability to process hierarchical structures has been a longstanding research topic. However, the nature of the cognitive machinery underlying this faculty remains controversial. Recursion, the ability to embed structures within structures of the same kind, has been proposed as a key component of our ability to parse and generate complex hierarchies. Here, we investigated the cognitive representation of both recursive and iterative processes in the auditory domain. The experiment used a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm: participants were exposed to three-step processes in which pure-tone sequences were built either through recursive or iterative processes, and had to choose the correct completion...
April 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079383/structure-and-interaction-in-the-ph-dependent-phase-behavior-of-nanoparticle-protein-systems
#15
Indresh Yadav, Sugam Kumar, Vinod K Aswal, Joachim Kohlbrecher
The pH-dependent structure and interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles (diameter 18 nm) with two globular model proteins, lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA), have been studied. Cationic lysozyme adsorbs strongly on the nanoparticles, and the adsorption follows exponential growth as a function of lysozyme concentration, where the saturation value increases as pH approaches the isoelectric point (IEP) of lysozyme. By contrast, irrespective of pH, anionic BSA does not show any adsorption. Despite having a different nature of interactions, both proteins render a similar phase behavior where nanoparticle-protein systems transform from being one-phase (clear) to two-phase (turbid) above a critical protein concentration (CPC)...
January 23, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075432/aggregation-and-deposition-of-in-situ-formed-colloidal-particles-in-the-presence-of-polyelectrolytes
#16
Feng Li, Dejun Sun, Tao Wu, Yujiang Li
In this work, aggregation and deposition of in situ formed magnesium hydroxide (IFM) in the presence of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) were investigated. Relative concentrations of interactants, as well as other experimental conditions, were changed to elucidate the interaction mechanisms from microscopic to macroscopic levels. Light scattering measurements were used to investigate the aggregation kinetics, fractal dimension, and collision efficiency of the aggregates on a microscopic level. Electrophoretic mobility and TEM were utilized to measure the charging properties and morphologies of aggregates, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059537/universal-formula-for-the-mean-first-passage-time-in-planar-domains
#17
Denis S Grebenkov
We derive a general exact formula for the mean first passage time (MFPT) from a fixed point inside a planar domain to an escape region on its boundary. The underlying mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary value problem is conformally mapped onto the unit disk, solved exactly, and mapped back. The resulting formula for the MFPT is valid for an arbitrary space-dependent diffusion coefficient, while the leading logarithmic term is explicit, simple, and remarkably universal. In contrast to earlier works, we show that the natural small parameter of the problem is the harmonic measure of the escape region, not its perimeter...
December 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057576/a-stochastic-and-integrative-model-of-breathing
#18
Brett F BuSha, George Banis
Human breathing patterns contain both temporal scaling characteristics, and an innately random component. A stochastic and mathematically integrative model of breathing (SIMB) that simulated the natural random and fractal-like pattern of human breathing was designed using breath-to-breath interval (BBI) data recorded from 14 healthy subjects. Respiratory system memory was estimated with autocorrelation, and a probability density function (PDF) was created by fitting a polynomial curve to each normalized BBI sequence histogram...
March 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039830/characterization-of-silver-nanoparticle-aggregates-using-single-particle-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-spicp-ms
#19
Hyun-A Kim, Byung-Tae Lee, So-Young Na, Kyoung-Woong Kim, James F Ranville, Soon-Oh Kim, Eunhye Jo, Ig-Chun Eom
The single particle-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was applied to characterize the aggregates of AgNPs. was applied to characterize the aggregates of AgNPs. Two sizes of citrate-AgNPs and PVP-AgNPs were used at relatively high and predicted environmental concentrations under various ionic strengths. Citrate-AgNP aggregated with increases in the ionic strength, whereas PVP-AgNPs were sterically stable. The critical coagulation concentrations were 85 mM and 100 mM NaNO3 for 60 nm and 100 nm citrate-AgNPs at 2 mg L(-1) as total Ag obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
December 19, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012664/multifractal-behavior-of-an-air-pollutant-time-series-and-the-relevance-to-the-predictability
#20
Qingli Dong, Yong Wang, Peizhi Li
Compared with the traditional method of detrended fluctuation analysis, which is used to characterize fractal scaling properties and long-range correlations, this research provides new insight into the multifractality and predictability of a nonstationary air pollutant time series using the methods of spectral analysis and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. First, the existence of a significant power-law behavior and long-range correlations for such series are verified. Then, by employing shuffling and surrogating procedures and estimating the scaling exponents, the major source of multifractality in these pollutant series is found to be the fat-tailed probability density function...
March 2017: Environmental Pollution
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