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natural fractals

Shazia Nafis, Kalaiarasan Ponnusamy, Mohammad Husain, R K Brojen Singh, Rameshwar N K Bamezai
An experimentally validated set of apoptosis-regulatory proteins was subjected to network analysis, depicting a scale-free hierarchical fractal network. The power-law distribution of the various topological properties of the network revealed the fractal nature of the network, a signature of self-organization of the network where the network maintained the democratic constitution of nodes at various levels and showed the absence of the centrality-lethality control system. Even though network breakdown under the absence of the centrality-lethality rule of hub removal did not happen, the change in the topological properties of the network could be observed...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Zoey J Isherwood, Mark M Schira, Branka Spehar
Natural scenes share a consistent distribution of energy across spatial frequencies (SF) known as the 1/f(α) amplitude spectrum (α ≈ 0.8 - 1.5, mean 1.2). This distribution is scale-invariant, which is a fractal characteristic of natural scenes with statistically similar structure at different spatial scales. While the sensitivity of the visual system to the 1/f properties of natural scenes has been studied extensively using psychophysics, relatively little is known about the tuning of cortical responses to these properties...
October 11, 2016: NeuroImage
Emerson R Silva, Gary Cooney, Ian W Hamley, Wendel A Alves, Shannon Lee, Brendan F O'Connor, Mehedi Reza, Janne Ruokolainen, Dermot Walls
We describe in depth the structure of complexes formed between DNA and two classes of arginine-containing peptide amphiphiles, namely, the lipopeptide PRW-C16 (P = proline, R = arginine, W = tryptophan, C16 = C16 : 0 alkyl chain) and the bolaamphiphile RFL4FR (R = arginine, F = phenylalanine, L = leucine). A combination of X-ray and neutron scattering provided unprecedented insights into the local structure of these complexes. Lipopeptide-based complexes self-assembled into layered structures with large-scale fractal features, hosting DNA in the interstices...
October 7, 2016: Soft Matter
Lifen Wang, Jianguo Wen, Huaping Sheng, Dean J Miller
Fractals are commonly observed in nature and elucidating the mechanisms of fractal-related growth is a compelling issue for both fundamental science and technology. Here we report an in situ electron microscopy study of dynamic fractal growth of platinum during electrodeposition in a miniaturized electrochemical cell at varying growth conditions. Highly dendritic growth - either dense branching or ramified islands - are formed at the solid-electrolyte interface. We show how the diffusion length of ions in the electrolyte influences morphology selection and how instability induced by initial surface roughness, combined with local enhancement of electric field, gives rise to non-uniform branched deposition as a result of nucleation/growth at preferred locations...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Rodrigo Echeveste, Claudius Gros
The study of balanced networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons has led to several open questions. On the one hand it is yet unclear whether the asynchronous state observed in the brain is autonomously generated, or if it results from the interplay between external drivings and internal dynamics. It is also not known, which kind of network variabilities will lead to irregular spiking and which to synchronous firing states. Here we show how isolated networks of purely excitatory neurons generically show asynchronous firing whenever a minimal level of structural variability is present together with a refractory period...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Anil Koklu, Ahmet C Sabuncu, Ali Beskok
Electrode polarization at the electrolyte/electrode interface is often undesirable for bio-sensing applications, where charge accumulated over an electrode at constant potential causes large potential drop at the interface and low measurement sensitivity. In this study, novel rough electrodes were developed for decreasing electrical impedance at the interface. The electrodes were fabricated using electrochemical deposition of gold and sintering of gold nanoparticles. The performances of the gold electrodes were compared with platinum black electrodes...
July 1, 2016: Electrochimica Acta
Parul Dubey, Sugam Kumar, Vinod K Aswal, Sapna Ravindranathan, Pattuparambil R Rajamohanan, Asmita Prabhune, Anuya Nisal
Silk fibroin (SF) protein, produced by silkworm Bombyx mori, is a promising biomaterial, while sophorolipid (SL) is an amphiphilic functional biosurfactant synthesized by nonpathogenic yeast Candida bombicola. SL is a mixture of two forms, acidic (ASL) and lactonic (LSL), which when added to SF results in accelerated gelation of silk fibroin. LSL is known to have multiple biological functionalities and hence hydrogels of these green molecules have promising applications in the biomedical sector. In this work, SANS, NMR, and rheology are employed to examine the assembling properties of individual and mixed SLs and their interactions with SF to understand the mechanism that leads to rapid gelation...
October 10, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Hari Katepalli, Vijay T John, Anubhav Tripathi, Arijit Bose
Using fumed and spherical silica particles of similar hydrodynamic size, we investigated the effects of particle shape and inter-particle interactions on the formation, stability and rheology of bromohexadecane-in-water Pickering emulsions. The interparticle interactions were varied from repulsive to attractive by modifying the salt concentration in the aqueous phase. Optical microscope images revealed smaller droplet sizes for the fumed silica stabilized emulsions. All the emulsions remained stable for several weeks...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ying Li, Ye He, Yu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Biological processes actually are a dynamic molecular process over time. Time course gene expression experiments provide opportunities to explore patterns of gene expression change over a time and understand the dynamic behavior of gene expression, which is crucial for study on development and progression of biology and disease. Analysis of the gene expression time-course profiles has not been fully exploited so far. It is still a challenge problem. We propose a novel shape-based mixture model clustering method for gene expression time-course profiles to explore the significant gene groups...
November 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Emile Franc Doungmo Goufo
After having the issues of singularity and locality addressed recently in mathematical modelling, another question regarding the description of natural phenomena was raised: How influent is the second parameter β of the two-parameter Mittag-Leffler function Eα,β(z), z∈ℂ? To answer this question, we generalize the newly introduced one-parameter derivative with non-singular and non-local kernel [A. Atangana and I. Koca, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 89, 447 (2016); A. Atangana and D. Bealeanu (e-print)] by developing a similar two-parameter derivative with non-singular and non-local kernel based on Eα , β(z)...
August 2016: Chaos
Aristeidis Papagiannopoulos, Konstantinos Sotiropoulos, Aurel Radulescu
The hierarchical morphology of xanthan solutions is analyzed by light and neutron scattering in a broad range of concentrations in order to connect their morphology to their well-documented dynamic properties. Static light scattering inside the semidilute regime is dominated by the form factor of individual xanthan chains while at higher concentrations chain interconnections appear to modify the low wave vector scattering. Dynamic light scattering reveals the self-similar nature of the solutions caused by interchain associations as intensity autocorrelation functions present power-law behaviour...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
H Libouban, F Pascaretti-Grizon, G Camprasse, S Camprasse, D Chappard
BACKGROUND: Biodegradable biomaterials have been proposed to prepare orthopedic devices. Nacre is a natural aragonitic material made of calcium carbonate and is bioerodible. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: We postulated that nacre is biodegradable without provoking bone erosion and favors bone apposition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prepared orthopedic screws from nacre of the giant oyster Pinctada maxima. Threaded screws (3.5mm diameter) were implanted in 6 ewes in the upper tibial metaphysis (3 to 4 screws per animal)...
August 20, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Zsigmond Varga, James Swan
We show that discrete element simulations of colloidal gelation must account for hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles through investigation of gelation in a dispersion of colloids interacting pair-wise via short-ranged attraction and long-ranged repulsion (SALR). These dynamic simulations juxtapose self-assembly with and without hydrodynamic interactions between the particles. The long-ranged repulsion impacts the relative rates of coagulation and compaction of colloidal aggregates pre-gel, and introduces a surprising sensitivity to the nature of hydrodynamic interactions between the suspended colloids...
September 28, 2016: Soft Matter
Jeffrey A Crooks, Andrew L Chang, Gregory M Ruiz
In order to explore biotic attraction to structure, we examined how the amount and arrangement of artificial biotic stalks affected responses of a shrimp, Palaemon macrodactylus, absent other proximate factors such as predation or interspecific competition. In aquaria, we tested the effect of differing densities of both un-branched and branched stalks, where the amount of material in the branched stalk equaled four-times that of the un-branched. The results clearly showed that it was the amount of material, not how it was arranged, that elicited responses from shrimp...
2016: PeerJ
John S Torday
Natural Selection describes how species have evolved differentially, but it is descriptive, non-mechanistic. What mechanisms does Nature use to accomplish this feat? One known way in which ancient natural forces affect development, phylogeny and physiology is through gravitational effects that have evolved as mechanotransduction, seen in the lung, kidney and bone, linking as molecular homologies to skin and brain. Tracing the ontogenetic and phylogenetic changes that have facilitated mechanotransduction identifies specific homologous cell-types and functional molecular markers for lung homeostasis that reveal how and why complex physiologic traits have evolved from the unicellular to the multicellular state...
2016: Biology
Alvar Daza, Alexandre Wagemakers, Bertrand Georgeot, David Guéry-Odelin, Miguel A F Sanjuán
In nonlinear dynamics, basins of attraction link a given set of initial conditions to its corresponding final states. This notion appears in a broad range of applications where several outcomes are possible, which is a common situation in neuroscience, economy, astronomy, ecology and many other disciplines. Depending on the nature of the basins, prediction can be difficult even in systems that evolve under deterministic rules. From this respect, a proper classification of this unpredictability is clearly required...
2016: Scientific Reports
Haomiao Cheng, Zulin Hua
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) exists widely in river and lake sediments; it has raised growing attention in recent years as emerging contaminant due to its possible threats to the aquatic environment and human health. Using a specialized simulator, the relationships between hydrodynamic disturbances and resuspension characteristics were simulated, with an emphasis on microscopic characteristics. Furthermore, TBBPA release from sediment was studied in relation to hydrodynamic disturbances and resuspension characteristics...
August 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
M Abutalib, J Batle, C H Raymond Ooi
The total electrostatic energy of systems of identical particles of equal charge is studied in configurations bounded in space, but divergent in the number of charges. This approach shall guide us to unveil a non-linear, functional form specifying the divergent nature of system energy. We consider fractals to be physical entities, with charges located in their vertices or nodes. This description is interesting since features, such as the corresponding fractal dimension, can characterize the total energy EN...
July 2016: Chaos
Ryo Nishimura, Kengo Hyodo, Haruna Sawaguchi, Yoshiaki Yamamoto, Yoshimune Nonomura, Hiroyuki Mayama, Satoshi Yokojima, Shinichiro Nakamura, Kingo Uchida
Double roughness structure, the origin of the lotus effect of natural lotus leaf, was successfully reproduced on a diarylethene microcrystalline surface. Static superwater-repellency and dynamic water-drop-bouncing were observed on the surface, in the manner of natural lotus leaves. Double roughness structure was essential for water-drop-bouncing. This ability was not observed on a single roughness microcrystalline surface showing the lotus effect of the same diarylethene derivative. The double roughness structure was reversibly controlled by alternating irradiation with UV and visible light...
August 17, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Daniel J T Kyle, Antonios Oikonomou, Ernie Hill, Aravind Vijayaraghavan, Ardeshir Bayat
Natural surface topographies are often self-similar with hierarchical features at the micro and nanoscale, which may be mimicked to overcome modern tissue engineering and biomaterial design limitations. Specifically, a cell's microenvironment within the human body contains highly optimised, fractal topographical cues, which directs precise cell behaviour. However, recreating biomimetic, fractal topographies in vitro is not a trivial process and a number of fabrication methods have been proposed but often fail to precisely control the spatial resolution of features at different lengths scales and hence, to provide true biomimetic properties...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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