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forest fractals

Maria Rosário Fernandes, Pedro Segurado, Eduardo Jauch, Maria Teresa Ferreira
Climate change will induce alterations in the hydrological and landscape patterns with effects on riparian ecotones. In this study we assess the combined effect of an extreme climate and land-use change scenario on riparian woody structure and how this will translate into a future risk of riparian functionality loss. The study was conducted in the Tâmega catchment of the Douro basin. Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs) were used to model two riparian landscape indicators related with the degree of connectivity (Mean Width) and complexity (Area Weighted Mean Patch Fractal Dimension)...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Wei-jun Zhao, Xian-de Liu, Wen-mao Jing, Li-heng Xu, Yun Niu, Peng Qi, Yong-hong Zhao
We selected the grid of 5 m x 5 m in a dynamic monitoring plot (340 m x 300 m) as the sampling unites and chose 5 structural characteristics (density, average crown breadth, coverage, conspicuousness and average height) to study the spatial heterogeneity of community structure of Picea crassifolia forest in Dayekou Basin of Qilian Mountains by the fractal geometry and geostatistics methods. The results showed that the order of spatial variation in these characteristics was: density > average crown breadth > conspicuousness > coverage > average height, with the variation coefficient ranging from 43...
September 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Luping Ye, Linchuan Fang, Wenfeng Tan, Yunqiang Wang, Yu Huang
A GIS approach and HJ-1B images were employed to determine the effect of landscape structure on aerosol optical depth (AOD) patterns. Landscape metrics, fractal analysis and contribution analysis were proposed to quantitatively illustrate the impact of land use on AOD patterns. The high correlation between the mean AOD and landscape metrics indicates that both the landscape composition and spatial structure affect the AOD pattern. Additionally, the fractal analysis demonstrated that the densities of built-up areas and bare land decreased from the high AOD centers to the outer boundary, but those of water and forest increased...
February 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Georgios Leontidis, Bashir Al-Diri, Jeffrey Wigdahl, Andrew Hunter
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been widely studied and characterized. However, until now, it is unclear how different features, extracted from the retinal vasculature, can be associated with the progression of diabetes and therefore become biomarkers of DR. In this study, a comprehensive analysis is presented, in which four groups were created, using eighty fundus images from twenty patients, who have progressed to DR and they had no history of any other diseases (e.g. hypertension or glaucoma). The significance of the following features was evaluated: widths, angles, branching coefficient (BC), angle-to-BC ratio, standard deviations, means and medians of widths and angles, fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and FD-to-lacunarity ratio, using a mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) design...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Xiang Niu, Peng Gao, Bing Wang, Yu Liu
Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD) and soil water retention curve (WRC) under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1) the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl...
December 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Dalu Yang, Ganesh Rao, Juan Martinez, Ashok Veeraraghavan, Arvind Rao
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain cancer. Four molecular subtypes of GBM have been described but can only be determined by an invasive brain biopsy. The goal of this study is to evaluate the utility of texture features extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans as a potential noninvasive method to characterize molecular subtypes of GBM and to predict 12-month overall survival status for GBM patients. METHODS: The authors manually segmented the tumor regions from postcontrast T1 weighted and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI scans of 82 patients with de novo GBM...
November 2015: Medical Physics
Changge Guan, Xiaohui Niu, Feng Shi, Kun Yang, Nana Li
DNA-binding proteins are involved and play a crucial role in a lot of important biological processes. Hence, the identification of the DNA-binding proteins is a challenging and significant problem. In order to reveal the intrinsic information correlated to DNA-binding, nine classes of candidate features based on different mathematical fields are applied to construct the prediction model with random forest. They are fractal dimension, conjoint triad feature, Hilbert-Huang Transformation, amino acid composition, dipeptide composition, chaos game representation, and the corresponding information entropies...
2015: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Jun-xia Yan, Hong-jian Li, Jun-jian Li, Jiang-xing Wu
Based on the data from a planted larch forest in Panquangou Natural Reserve of Shanxi Province, at three sampling scales (4, 2, and 1 m, respectively), soil respiration (Rs) and its affecting factors including soil temperature at 5 cm (T5), 10 cm (T10), and 15 cm (T15) depths, soil water content (Ws), litter mass (Lw), litter moisture (Lm), soil total carbon (C), and soil total nitrogen ( N) were determined. The spatial heterogeneities of Rs and the environmental factors were further analyzed and their intrinsic correlations were established...
May 2015: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Mahla Hosseini Vardei, Abdolrasoul Salmanmahiny, Seyed Masoud Monavari, Mir Masoud Kheirkhah Zarkesh
Population growth, during the twentieth century, has increased demand for new farmlands. Accordingly, road networks have rapidly been developed to facilitate and accelerate human access to the essential resources resulted in extensive land use changes. The present study aims at assessing cumulative effects of developed road network on tree cover of Golestan Province in northern Iran. In order to detect changes over the study period of 1987-2002, the LULC map of the study area was initially prepared from the satellite images of Landsat TM (1987) and ETM+ (2002) using maximum likelihood supervised classification method...
November 2014: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Qiu-Jin Tan, Tong-Qing Song, Wan-Xi Peng, Fu-Ping Zeng, Hu Du, Gai-Ren Yang, Fu-Jing Fan
Soil aggregates and their organic carbon distributions were studied under six ecosystems, i. e., farmland (short for ST), dry land (HD), grassland (CD), shrubbery (GC), plantation (RGL) and secondary forest (CSL), in a karst canyon region of China by a combination of field investigation and laboratory analysis. The result showed that, soil aggregates were dominated by particles with sizes>8 mm in the ecosystems except HD under dry sieving, and basically presented a trend of decreasing firstly, then increasing and finally decreasing along with particle sizes decreasing; while soil aggregates were dominated by particles with sizes > 5 mm in the ecosystems except HD under wet sieving and decreased with decreasing of particle sizes...
March 2014: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yan-Li Li, Hua Yang, Xin-Gang Kang, Yan Wang, Gang Yue, Lin Shen
Based on fieldwork on a plot of 60 m x 60 m in the Changbai Mountain area of Northeast China in August 2012, the spatial distribution pattern and heterogeneity of natural regeneration in the spruce-fir mixed broadleaf-conifer forest were analyzed using semi-variograms, fractal dimensions and Kriging interpolation methods. The results showed that Abies nephrolepis and Acer mono were the most common regeneration species, accounting for 87.4% of the total. The regeneration seedlings and saplings presented an aggregate distribution pattern with the biggest radius of 9...
February 2014: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Min Song, Dong-Sheng Zou, Hu Du, Wan-Xia Peng, Fu-Ping Zeng, Qiu-Jin Tan, Fu-Jing Fan
Based on the investigation and analysis of six soil microbial indices, eight soil conventional nutrient indices, six soil mineral nutrient indices, and 15 vegetation indices in the farmland, grassland, scrub, forest plantation, secondary forest, and primary forest in the depressions between karst hills, this paper analyzed the main soil microbial populations, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), nitrogen (MBN), and phosphorus (MBP) and their fractal characteristics, and the relationships of the soil microbes with vegetation, soil nutrients, and soil mineral components under different land use patterns...
September 2013: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Matteo Detto, Helene C Muller-Landau, Joseph Mascaro, Gregory P Asner
An understanding of the spatial variability in tropical forest structure and biomass, and the mechanisms that underpin this variability, is critical for designing, interpreting, and upscaling field studies for regional carbon inventories. We investigated the spatial structure of tropical forest vegetation and its relationship to the hydrological network and associated topographic structure across spatial scales of 10-1000 m using high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived mean canopy profile height (MCH) and elevation for 4930 ha of tropical forest in central Panama...
2013: PloS One
Ru Huang, Lin Huang, Bing-Hui He, Li-Jiang Zhou, Chuan Yu, Feng Wang
To gain a better knowledge of characteristics of soils and provide a scientific basis for soil erosion control in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, contents of aggregates and total soil organic carbon (SOC), as well as soil active organic carbon fractions including particulate organic carbon (POC), readily oxidized organic carbon (ROC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in the 0-30 cm soil layer under seven different biological regulated measures were studied by the field investigation combined with the laboratory analysis...
July 2013: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Guy Pe'er, Gustavo A Zurita, Lucia Schober, Maria I Bellocq, Maximilian Strer, Michael Müller, Sandro Pütz
Landscape simulators are widely applied in landscape ecology for generating landscape patterns. These models can be divided into two categories: pattern-based models that generate spatial patterns irrespective of the processes that shape them, and process-based models that attempt to generate patterns based on the processes that shape them. The latter often tend toward complexity in an attempt to obtain high predictive precision, but are rarely used for generic or theoretical purposes. Here we show that a simple process-based simulator can generate a variety of spatial patterns including realistic ones, typifying landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic activities...
2013: PloS One
Martin G Roberts, James Graham, Hugh Devlin
Previous studies have shown an association between osteoporosis and automatic measurements of mandibular cortical width on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs). In this study, we show that additional image texture features increase this association and propose the combined features as a potential biomarker for osteoporosis. We used an existing dataset of 663 DPRs of female patients with bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The mandibular cortex was located using a previously described computer algorithm...
September 2013: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
S Laizet, J C Vassilicos
Using top-end high fidelity computer simulations we demonstrate the existence of a mechanism present in turbulent flows generated by multiscale or fractal objects and which has its origin in the multiscale or fractal space-scale structure of such turbulent flow generators. As a result of this space-scale unfolding mechanism, fractal grids can enhance scalar transfer and turbulent diffusion by one order of magnitude while at the same time reduce pressure drop by half. This mechanism must be playing a decisive role in environmental, atmospheric, ocean, and river transport processes wherever turbulence originates from multiscale or fractal objects such as trees, forests, mountains, rocky riverbeds, and coral reefs...
October 2012: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Cigdem Coskun Hepcan
This study was aimed at analyzing and interpreting changes in landscape pattern and connectivity in the Urla district, Turkey using core landscape metrics based on a 42-year data derived from 1963 CORONA and 2005 ASTER satellite images and ten 1/25,000 topographical maps (1963-2005). The district represents a distinctive example of re-emerged suburbanization in the Izmir metropolitan area. In order to explore landscape characteristics of the study area, nine landscape composition and configuration metrics were chosen as follows: class area, percentage of landscape, number of patches, patch density, largest patch index, landscape shape index, mean patch size, perimeter area fractal dimension, and connectance index...
January 2013: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hitoshi Miyamoto, Tsubasa Hashimoto, Kohji Michioku
This paper presents a mathematical model developed using Horton-Strahler's stream order to describe basin-wide distributions of human activities, i.e., land use and human population, across several river basins with different geomorphologic features. We assume that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type-paddy field, forest, city, village, etc.-and the human population form a geometric sequence, which is the same mathematical relationship as stated in Horton's laws of river geomorphology...
May 2011: Environmental Management
Mehmet Eker, Huseyin Oguz Coban
Forest roads have many kinds of direct and indirect effects such as physical, ecological, and socio-economic effects in landscape scale. In this study the relationship between forest road network and the structure of a multifunctionally planned forest landscape, in the south of Turkey was examined. The aim of the study was to determine whether or not the correlation between road network and landscape structure across a gradient of road density categorical road/no road approach and landscape pattern data from the managed forest landscapes existed...
January 2010: Journal of Environmental Biology
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