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Dongdong Chai, Hong Jiang, Qifang Li
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we found that the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane up-regulated the transcriptional factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein levels during induction of neurodegeneration in the brain of neonatal rats. Here, we investigated the role of HIF-1α and the underlying signaling pathway in the neurodegenration induced by isoflurane in rodent developing brain. METHODS: Primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to isoflurane (0.4mM) for 12h. Neuron injury was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethyithiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetra-zolium bromide (MTT) test and quantification of lactate dehydrogenaserelease...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Yanna Si, Yuan Zhang, Liu Han, Lihai Chen, Yajie Xu, Fan Sun, Muhuo Ji, Jianjun Yang, Hongguang Bao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits could be alleviated by dexmedetomidine in young animal subjects. In the current study, we examine whether dexmedetomidine could also alleviate isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits in senile animals. METHODS: Senile male C57BL/6 mice (20 months) received dexmedetomidine (50 μg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 30 minutes prior to isoflurane exposure (1.3% for 4 h). Cognitive function was assessed 19 days later using a 5-day testing regimen with Morris water maze...
2016: PloS One
J P Cata, K B Hagan, S D O Bhavsar, R Arunkumar, R Grasu, A Dang, R Carlson, B Arnold, Y Potylchansky, I Lipski, T McHugh, F Jimenez, A T Nguyen, L Feng, T F Rahlfs
BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined the impact of anesthetics on cancer recurrence. Isoflurane but not desflurane has protumoral effects. We hypothesize the use of isoflurane but not desflurane during surgery for primary GBM is an independent predictor of disease progression and mortality. METHODS: 378 adult patients were included in the study. The progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates at 1 and 5years were compared in patients who had either desflurane or isoflurane alone or in combination with propofol infusion...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Guy Bar-Klein, Rebecca Klee, Claudia Brandt, Marion Bankstahl, Pablo Bascuñana, Kathrin Töllner, Hotjensa Dalipaj, Jens P Bankstahl, Alon Friedman, Wolfgang Löscher
OBJECTIVE: Acquired epilepsy is a devastating long-term risk of various brain insults, including trauma, stroke, infections, and status epilepticus (SE). There is no preventive treatment for patients at risk. Due to the complex alterations involved in epileptogenesis, it is likely that multi-targeted approaches are required for epilepsy prevention. We report novel preclinical findings with isoflurane, which exerts various non-anesthetic effects that may be relevant for anti-epileptogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Tomomichi Ishizaka, Yu Yoshimatsu, Yu Maeda, Wataru Takasaki, Katsuyoshi Chiba, Kazuhiko Mori
INTRODUCTION: Load-independent cardiac parameters obtained from the ventricular pressure-volume relationship are recognized as gold standard indexes for evaluating cardiac inotropy.In this study, for better analyses of cardiac risks, load-independent pressure-volume loop parameters were assessed in addition to load-dependent inotropic, hemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes in isoflurane-anesthetized monkeys. METHODS: The animals were given milrinone (a PDE 3 inhibitor), metoprolol (a β-blocker), or dl-sotalol (a β+IKr blocker) intravenously over 10min at two dose levels including clinically relevant doses (n=5/drug)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Kristine Coleman, Nicola D Robertson, Gregory A Dissen, Martha D Neuringer, L Drew Martin, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher Kroenke, Damien Fair, Ansgar M Brambrink
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence correlates anesthetic exposure during early development with neuronal and glial injury and death, as well as behavioral and cognitive impairments, in young animals. Several, although not all, retrospective human studies of neurocognitive and behavioral disorders after childhood exposure to anesthesia suggest a similar association. Few studies have specifically investigated the effects of infant anesthesia exposure on subsequent neurobehavioral development...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
Julia Scheiermann, Dennis M Klinman
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV) is commonly used to improve blood oxygenation in critically ill patients and for general anesthesia. Yet the cyclic mechanical stress induced at even moderate ventilation volume settings [tidal volume (Vt) <10 mL/kg] can injure the lungs and induce an inflammatory response. This work explores the effect of treatment with suppressive oligonucleotides (Sup ODN) in a mouse model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). METHODS: Balb/cJ mice were mechanically ventilated for 4 h using clinically relevant Vt and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 3 cmH2O under 2-3% isoflurane anesthesia...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Aabid Hussain Mir, Zulfiqar Ali, Bashir Ahmad Dar, Imtiaz A Naqash, Samreena Bashir
Congenital heart defects are associated with various physiological disturbances. They pose anesthetic challenges for both cardiac and noncardiac surgeries. Atrioventricular septal defects are due to a developmental failure in the separation of atria and the ventricles into separate chambers and failure in the separation of mitral and tricuspid valves. We present a case of a child (1½ years), weighing 10 kg, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus who was planned for ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Child was having an oxygen saturation of 76% on room air...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Reshma B Muniyappa, Geetha C Rajappa, Suresh Govindswamy, Prathima P Thamanna
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Various adjuvants have been introduced to decrease the dose of volatile agents and their side effects. Dexmedetomidine a potent alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is one such agent. Our objective is to assess the effect of preanesthetic dexmedetomidine on isoflurane consumption and its effect on intraoperative hemodynamic stability and recovery profile. SETTING AND DESIGN: This prospective, randomized controlled, double-blind study was done in a tertiary care hospital...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
P Rani, V R Hemanth Kumar, M Ravishankar, T Sivashanmugam, R Sripriya, M Trilogasundary
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl and dexmedetomidine have been tried to attenuate airway and circulatory reflexes during emergence and extubation individually but have not been compared with respect to the level of sedation to evolve a reliable technique for rapid and smooth extubation. AIM: To compare the effects of fentanyl and dexmedetomidine in attenuating airway and circulatory reflexes during emergence and extubation of the endotracheal tube. SETTING AND DESIGN: This double-blind, randomized, controlled study was done in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Keelara Shivalingaiah Savitha, Radhika Dhanpal, J Shilpa
BACKGROUND: Multimodal analgesia (MMA) by synergy with volatile anesthetics minimizes their use thus decreasing operation theater pollution and greenhouse gas emission. AIMS: To estimate minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) requirement of isoflurane (ISO) for skin incision with use of MMA in the study group versus conventional regime in the control group for a constant bispectral index (BIS). To observe the side effects of analgesic drugs administered in the study...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
A Ammar, K Mahmoud, A Elkersh, Z Kasemy
There is a strong association between pre-operative diastolic dysfunction and difficulty in weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. We compared the effects of propofol and isoflurane on left ventricular diastolic function in patients with pre-existing diastolic dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. We randomly allocated 60 patients to receive either propofol or isoflurane anaesthesia, and assessed left ventricular diastolic function using transoesophageal echocardiography. We measured early (E), late (A) diastolic velocities, E/A ratio, A-wave duration and deceleration time using pulsed wave Doppler, and early (Em), late (Am) diastolic velocities of the mitral annulus, Em/Am ratio and isovolumetric relaxation time using tissue Doppler...
November 2016: Anaesthesia
Søren Brandt Poulsen, Birgitte M Christensen
Renal Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is expressed in early distal convoluted tubule (DCT) 1 and late DCT (DCT2). NCC activity can be stimulated by aldosterone, and the mechanism is assumed to depend on the enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which inactivates glucocorticoids that would otherwise occupy aldosterone receptors. Because 11β-HSD2 in rat may only be abundantly expressed in DCT2 cells and not in DCT1 cells, it has been speculated that aldosterone specifically stimulates NCC activity in DCT2 cells...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
R Fernández Del Río, M E O'Hara, P Pemberton, T Whitehouse, C A Mayhew
Isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether), C3H2ClF5O, is a commonly used inhalation anaesthetic. Using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) we have detected isoflurane in the breath of patients several weeks following major surgery. That isoflurane is detected in the breath of patients so long after being anaesthetised raises questions about when cognitive function has fully returned to a patient. Temporal profiles of isoflurane concentrations in breath are presented for five patients (F/M 3/2, mean age 50 years, min-max 36-58 years) who had undergone liver transplant surgery...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Seong-Hoon Seok, Dong-Hyuk Jeong, Il-Hwa Hong, Hee-Chun Lee, Seong-Chan Yeon
Anesthesia is an inevitably important component of diagnosis and treatments examining the health condition of wild animals. Not only does anesthesia become an essential tool in minimizing stress of the patients and providing an opportunity to deliver accurate and safe procedures, but it also ensures the safety of the medical crew members. This study was conducted to investigate the dose-response cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane during spontaneous ventilation in ten cinereous vultures. Each bird was administered isoflurane at initial concentration of 1...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Dong-Hyuk Jeong, Jeong-Jin Yang, Seong-Hoon Seok, Dong-Joo Song, Seong-Chan Yeon
The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effects of isoflurane on various cardiovascular parameters and the stable range of isoflurane concentrations in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). Seven Asiatic black bears were intramuscularly injected with medetomidine, zolazepam, and tiletamine (MZT) to induce anesthesia and anesthesia was maintained by administering isoflurane in 100% oxygen (4 l/min) without mechanical ventilation. Several cardiovascular parameters were measured at five end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (0...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Andrew Kohut, Nishi Patel, Harpreet Singh
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive high-resolution echocardiography to evaluate cardiovascular function of small animals is increasingly being used due to availability of genetically engineered murine models. Even though guidelines and standard values for humans were revised by the American Society of Echocardiography, evaluations on murine models are not performed according to any standard protocols. These limitations are preventing translation of preclinical evaluations to clinical meaningful conclusions...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Jared B Smith, Zhifeng Liang, Glenn D R Watson, Kevin D Alloway, Nanyin Zhang
The claustrum is a brain region whose function remains unknown, though many investigators suggest it plays a role in conscious attention. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has revealed how anesthesia alters many functional connections in the brain, but the functional role of the claustrum with respect to the awake versus anesthetized states remains unknown. Therefore, we employed a combination of seed-based RS-fMRI and neuroanatomical tracing to reveal how the anatomical connections of the claustrum are related to its functional connectivity during quiet wakefulness and the isoflurane-induced anesthetic state...
October 6, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Yusuke Sano, Shogo Ito, Mamoru Yoneda, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Yuichiro Yamada, Ayako Uchinaka, Yasuko K Bando, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Anesthesia can affect respiratory, circulatory, and endocrine systems but is necessary for certain experimental procedures such as echocardiography and blood sampling in small animals. We have now investigated the effects of four types of anesthesia-pentobarbital (PENT), ketamine-xylazine (K/X), and low- or high-dose isoflurane (ISO)-on hemodynamics, cardiac function, and glucose and lipid metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats. Aortic pressure, heart rate, and echocardiographic parameters were measured at various time points up to 45 min after the induction of anesthesia, and blood was then collected for measurement of parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Qin Wang, Jiangwen Yin, Sheng Wang, Di Cui, Hong Lin, Mingyue Ge, Zhigang Dai, Liping Xie, Junqiang Si, Ketao Ma, Li Li, Lei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane postconditioning (ISPOC) plays a neuroprotection role in the brain. Previous studies confirmed that isoflurane postconditioning can provide better protection than preconditioning in acute hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, such as acute craniocerebral trauma and ischemic stroke. Numerous studies have reported that activin A can protect rat's brain from cell injury. However, whether activin A and its downstream ERK1/2 were involved in isoflurane postconditioning-induced neuroprotection is unknown...
September 28, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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