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Dror Cohen, Bruno van Swinderen, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Hierarchically organized brains communicate through feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) pathways. In mammals, FF and FB are mediated by higher and lower frequencies during wakefulness. FB is preferentially impaired by general anesthetics in multiple mammalian species. This suggests FB serves critical functions in waking brains. The brain of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is also hierarchically organized, but the presence of FB in these brains is not established. Here, we studied FB in the fly brain, by simultaneously recording local field potentials (LFPs) from low-order peripheral structures and higher-order central structures...
January 2018: ENeuro
Julia N Bailey, Laurence de Nijs, Dongsheng Bai, Toshimitsu Suzuki, Hiroyuki Miyamoto, Miyabi Tanaka, Christopher Patterson, Yu-Chen Lin, Marco T Medina, María E Alonso, José M Serratosa, Reyna M Durón, Viet H Nguyen, Jenny E Wight, Iris E Martínez-Juárez, Adriana Ochoa, Aurelio Jara-Prado, Laura Guilhoto, Yolly Molina, Elsa M Yacubian, Minerva López-Ruiz, Yushi Inoue, Sunao Kaneko, Shinichi Hirose, Makiko Osawa, Hirokazu Oguni, Shinji Fujimoto, Thierry M Grisar, John M Stern, Kazuhiro Yamakawa, Bernard Lakaye, Antonio V Delgado-Escueta
BACKGROUND: In juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, data are limited on the genetic basis of networks promoting convulsions with diffuse polyspikes on electroencephalography (EEG) and the subtle microscopic brain dysplasia called microdysgenesis. METHODS: Using Sanger sequencing, we sequenced the exomes of six members of a large family affected with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and confirmed cosegregation in all 37 family members. We screened an additional 310 patients with this disorder for variants on DNA melting-curve analysis and targeted real-time DNA sequencing of the gene encoding intestinal-cell kinase ( ICK)...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Thomas Uray, Andrew Lamade, Jonathan Elmer, Tomas Drabek, Jason P Stezoski, Amalea Missé, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Robert H Garman, Niel Chen, Patrick M Kochanek, Cameron Dezfulian
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac arrest etiology may be an important source of between-patient heterogeneity, but the impact of etiology on organ injury is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that asphyxial cardiac arrest results in greater neurologic injury than cardiac etiology cardiac arrest (ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest), whereas ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest results in greater cardiovascular dysfunction after return of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN: Prospective observational human and randomized animal study...
March 10, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Nora Elisabeth Zois, Mette Simonsen, Ole Lajord Munk
BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetized pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the distribution of several radiotracers. However, the effect of physiological factors regulating CBF is unresolved and therefore knowledge of optimal anaesthesia and monitoring of pigs in PET studies is sparse. The aim of this study was therefore to determine if and how physiological variables and the duration of anaesthesia affected CBF as measured by PET using [15 O]-water in isoflurane-N2 O anaesthetized domestic female pigs...
March 12, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Kei Zaitsu, Yumi Hayashi, Tasuku Murata, Kazumi Yokota, Tomomi Ohara, Maiko Kusano, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Akira Ishii, Koretsugu Ogata, Hiroshi Tanihata
Recent improvements in ambient ionization techniques combined with mass spectrometry has enabled to achieve real-time monitoring of analytes of interest, even for biogenic molecules in living animals. Here, we demonstrate a newly-developed system for in vivo real-time monitoring of metabolites in a living mouse brain. It consists of a semi-automated manipulation system and a unique probe electrospray ionization unit, which uses an extremely thin solid needle (tip dia.: 700 nm) for direct sampling and ionization, coupled to a conventional tandem mass spectrometer...
March 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ádson Costa, Julieta Volpato, Cláudio R S Mattoso, Bruno Lunardeli, Aury N de Moraes, Mere E Saito
Hematology is an important health indicator in birds, but the stress from capture or anesthesia can cause alterations in blood count. This study aimed to evaluate the differences found in blood counts among guans ( Penelope obscura) under physical restraint and anesthetized with isoflurane. Thirty-two free-range guans from the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) Park were enrolled in the study. After physical restraint, blood samples were obtained from the ulnar vein and placed in heparinized tubes...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Jie Gao, Ailin Luo, Jing Yan, Xi Fang, Xiaole Tang, Yilin Zhao, Shiyong Li
Accumulating evidence indicates that general anesthetics can cause acute neuroapoptosis and long-term cognitive deficit in models exposed to anesthetics during the brain growth-spurt period. Anesthetics-induced imbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission preceded and contributed to developmental neuroapoptosis. Accordingly, the imbalance was accompanied by activation of dynamin-related protein (Drp)1 which was closely associated with synaptic degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases. Based on the neuroprotective role of mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (mdivi-1) in neurodegeneration and stroke, we set out to examine whether mdivi-1 can mitigate developmental neurotoxicity induced by isoflurane...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Eun-Hye Seo, Ga-Yun Song, Ji Hyeon Namgung, Chung-Sik Oh, Seung Hyun Lee, Seong-Hyop Kim
Background : The study examined the difference in the expression of the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) between anaesthesia with propofol and isoflurane in rats with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Methods : Male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Anaesthesia was induced with xylazine 20 µg/g by intraperitoneal injection and maintained with propofol or isoflurane. Myocardial IRI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery for 1 hour. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), cardiomyocyte apoptosis, the expression of RACK1 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and the heart injury score were compared between the two groups...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Axel Rand, Peter K Zahn, Thomas A Schildhauer, Christian Waydhas, Uwe Hamsen
BACKGROUND: Inhalative sedation is an emerging method for long-term sedation in intensive care therapy. There is evidence that it is easy to control and may be beneficial compared to intravenous sedation. Yet little is known about the use in patients with compromised lung function. In this retrospective analysis, we searched files of patients receiving inhalative sedation under venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (vv-ECMO) support due to lung failure. METHODS: After ethical approval, we performed a retrospective analysis of patients receiving vv-ECMO support and inhalative sedation in the surgical ICU in 2015...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Franz Josef Söbbeler, Inés Carrera, Kirby Pasloske, Millagahamada Gedara Ranasinghe, Patrick Kircher, Sabine Beate Rita Kästner
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of isoflurane, sevoflurane, propofol and alfaxalone on the canine brain metabolite bioprofile, measured with single voxel short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla. Ten adult healthy Beagle dogs were assigned to receive isoflurane, sevoflurane, propofol and alfaxalone at 3 different dose rates each in a randomized cross-over study design. Doses for isoflurane, sevoflurane, propofol and alfaxalone were FE 'Iso 1...
March 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Yi-Qing Zou, Xiao-Bao Li, Zhi-Xing Yang, Jing-Min Zhou, Yi-Nan Wu, Zhi-Hu Zhao, Xiang-Zhu Liu, Chang-Li Hu
BACKGROUND: Conflict findings of the impact of inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function are reported. No systematic review has been performed to solve the problem. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different inhalational anesthetics on postoperative cognitive function in a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane library, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials or cohort studies assessing the short-term or long-term cognitive function of elderly patients (over 60 years) receiving major surgeries and inhalational anesthetics (desflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane, and nitrous oxide) during surgery...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kellie A Woll, Xiaojuan Zhou, Natarajan V Bhanu, Benjamin A Garcia, Manuel Covarrubias, Keith W Miller, Roderic G Eckenhoff
Most general anesthetics enhance GABA type A (GABAA ) receptor activity at clinically relevant concentrations. Sites of action of volatile anesthetics on the GABAA receptor remain unknown, whereas sites of action of many intravenous anesthetics have been identified in GABAA receptors by using photolabeling. Here, we used photoactivatable analogs of isoflurane (AziISO) and sevoflurane (AziSEVO) to locate their sites on α1 β3 γ2L and α1 β3 GABAA receptors. As with isoflurane and sevoflurane, AziISO and AziSEVO enhanced the currents elicited by GABA...
March 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Wenying Wang, Xiaqing Ma, Limin Luo, Min Huang, Jing Dong, Xiaoli Zhang, Wei Jiang, Tao Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The P2X3 receptor (P2X3R) is a major receptor in the processing of nociceptive information in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). We investigated the role of the P2X3R and the detailed mechanisms underlying chronic morphine-induced analgesic tolerance in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: Under isoflurane inhalation anaesthesia, intrathecal catheters were implanted in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Repeated intrathecal (i.t.) morphine treatment was used to induce anti-nociceptive tolerance...
March 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Masanori Tsukamoto, Hitoshi Yamanaka, Takeshi Yokoyama
INTRODUCTION: It is important to understand the anesthetic requirements of elderly patients. However, little is known about age-related recovery from inhalational anesthetics. In this retrospective study, we compared age-related differences in recovery from three inhalational anesthetics  in elderly subjects. METHODS: Patients were investigated as three age groups which can be defined as age ranges pediatric (< 15 years), adult (15-64 years), and elderly patients ( > 65 years) under general anesthesia using inhalational anesthetics...
March 3, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Xiang Zhang, Xiaoqin Qian, Chao Tao, Xiaojun Liu
Anesthesia monitoring is extremely important in improving the quality of anesthesia and ensuring the safety of patients in operation. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is proposed to in vivo image the skin microvasculature of 10 nude mice undergoing general anesthesia by using the isoflurane gas with a concentration of 3%. Benefiting from strong optical absorption of hemoglobin, PAM has good contrast and high resolution in mapping of microvasculature. A series of high quality images can clearly reveal the subtle changes of capillaries in morphology over time...
February 27, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Medical Gas Research
Zhibing Pi, Hai Lin, Jianping Yang
Heart bypass surgery is the most common treatment for myocardial ischemia. Clinical investigations have revealed that isoflurane anesthesia is efficient to alleviate pain during cardiac surgery, including heart bypass surgery. Previous studies have revealed the protective effects of isoflurane on myocardial cells of patients with myocardial ischemia during the perioperative period. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the protective effects of isoflurane on myocardial cells in mice with myocardial ischemia...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
R Bustamante, D Aguado, R Cediel, I A Gómez de Segura, S Canfrán
The aim of this study was to compare the effects on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and ventilation of propofol total IV anaesthesia (TIVA) and isoflurane as anaesthetic maintenance in healthy dogs undergoing orthopaedic surgery, with epidural anaesthesia. Dogs were premedicated IM with dexmedetomidine (4μg/kg) and methadone (0.3mg/kg), induced with IV propofol (0.65-5mg/kg) and randomly assigned to be maintained with isoflurane (group I) or propofol (group P). Isoflurane end-tidal concentration (EtISO) and propofol infusion rate were adjusted during the surgery to maintain a suitable anaesthetic depth...
March 2018: Veterinary Journal
Mohamed Galal El Shatoury, Ling DeYoung, Eva Turley, Arjang Yazdani, Sumit Dave
INTRODUCTION: Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is a neurotoxin that inhibits acetylcholine release by cleaving cytosolic synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and results in bladder relaxation. A BTX-A intravesical injection has been established as an effective option for treating detrusor overactivity. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty female Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into control and experimental groups. Control Groups 1 to 3 received: BTX-A 10 units + saline instillation; hyaluronan-phosphatidylethanolamine (HA-PE) 0...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Ben Korman, Ranjan K Dash, Philip J Peyton
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies suggest that the magnitude of the second gas effect is considerably greater on arterial blood partial pressures of volatile agents than on end-expired partial pressures, and a significant second gas effect on blood partial pressures of oxygen and volatile agents occurs even at relatively low rates of nitrous oxide uptake. We set out to further investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon with the help of mathematical modeling. METHODS: Log-normal distributions of ventilation and blood flow were generated representing the range of ventilation-perfusion scatter seen in patients during general anesthesia...
February 26, 2018: Anesthesiology
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