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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917718/olfactory-toxicity-in-rats-following-manganese-chloride-nasal-instillation-a-pilot-study
#1
Melanie L Foster, Deepa B Rao, Taylor Francher, Samantha Traver, David C Dorman
Following inhalation, manganese travels along the olfactory nerve from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the olfactory bulb (OB). Occupational exposure to inhaled manganese is associated with changes in olfactory function. This pilot study evaluated two related hypotheses: (a) intranasal manganese administration increases OE and OB manganese concentrations; and (b) intranasal manganese exposure impairs performance of previously trained rats on a go-no-go olfactory discrimination (OD) task. Male Fischer 344 rats were trained to either lever press ("go") in response to a positive conditioned stimulus (CS+: vanillin) or to do nothing ("no go") when a negative conditioned stimulus (CS-: amyl acetate) was present...
September 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914607/cortex-wide-bold-fmri-activity-reflects-locally-recorded-slow-oscillation-associated-calcium-waves
#2
Miriam Schwalm, Florian Schmid, Lydia Wachsmuth, Hendrik Backhaus, Andrea Kronfeld, Felipe Aedo Jury, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Consuelo Fois, Franziska Albers, Timo van Alst, Cornelius Faber, Albrecht Stroh
Spontaneous slow oscillation-associated slow wave activity represents an internally generated state which is characterized by alternations of network quiescence and stereotypical episodes of neuronal activity - slow wave events. However, it remains unclear which macroscopic signal is related to these active periods of the slow wave rhythm. We used optic fiber-based calcium recordings of local neural populations in cortex and thalamus to detect neurophysiologically defined slow calcium waves in isoflurane anesthetized rats...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913497/ecog-spectrum-changes-at-different-xenon-isoflurane-anaesthesia-depths
#3
Bogdan Pavel, Camelia Alexandra Acatrinei, Maria Corbu, Carmen Mihaela Denise Zahiu, Adrian Eugen Rosca, Leon Zagrean, Ana-Maria Zagrean
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The purpose of this study is to assess the frontal and parietal ECoG spectrum (gamma range) changes during isoflurane and combined xenon-isoflurane anaesthesia in rats. METHODS: Experiments were carried out on four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g). The anaesthesia was induced with isoflurane and maintained with isoflurane and a xenon-isoflurane mixture. The rats were maintained at two different anaesthetic depths: light (isoflurane anaesthesia) and deep (isoflurane and xenon-isoflurane anaesthesia)...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905718/physiologic-behavioral-and-histologic-responses-to-various-euthanasia-methods-in-c57bl-6ntac-male-mice
#4
Gregory P Boivin, Michael A Bottomley, Patricia A Schiml, Lori Goss, Nadja Grobe
Rodent euthanasia using exposure to increasing concentrations of CO2 has come under scrutiny due to concerns of potential pain during the euthanasia process. Alternatives to CO2, such as isoflurane and barbiturates, have been proposed as more humane methods of euthanasia. In this study, we examined 3 commonly used euthanasia methods in mice: intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital-phenytoin solution, CO2 inhalation, and isoflurane anesthesia followed by CO2 inhalation. We hypothesized that pentobarbital-phenytoin euthanasia would cause fewer alterations in cardiovascular response, result in less behavioral evidence of pain or stress, and produce lower elevations in ACTH than would the isoflurane and CO2 methods, which we hypothesized would not differ in regard to these parameters...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904293/characteristics-of-electromechanical-window-in-anesthetized-rabbit-models-of-short-qt-and-long-qt-syndromes
#5
Vudhiporn Limprasutr, Nakkawee Saengklub, Pradtana Meedech, Anusak Kijtawornrat, Robert L Hamlin
The current regulatory guidelines recommend the use of QT interval to assess the risk of arrhythmogenic potential of new chemical entities. Recently, the electromechanical window (EMW), the difference in duration between electrical and mechanical systole, has been proposed as markers for drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP); however, data of EMW in short QT model are not available. This study aimed to characterize the EMW as a marker for drug-induced ventricular arrhythmias in anesthetized rabbit model of long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2) and short QT syndrome (SQTS) infused with reference compounds known to lengthen or shorten QT intervals...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903829/quantification-of-induced-hypothermia-from-aseptic-scrub-applications-during-rodent-surgery-preparation
#6
Anna M Skorupski, Jingyi Zhang, Danielle Ferguson, Frank Lawrence, F Claire Hankenson
Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) are prone to develop hypothermia during anesthesia for surgery, thus potentially impeding anesthetic recovery, wound healing, and future health. The core body temperatures of isoflurane-anesthetized mice are influenced by the choice of supplemental heat sources; however, the contribution of various surgical scrubs on the body temperatures of mice under gas anesthesia has not been assessed. We sought to quantify the effect of using alcohol (70% isopropyl alcohol [IPA]) compared with saline to rinse away surgical scrub on the progression of hypothermia in anesthetized mice (n = 47)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903826/comparison-of-6-injectable-anesthetic-regimens-and-isoflurane-in-gray-short-tailed-opossums-monodelphis-domestica
#7
Grace J Barnett, Ian J Barnett, Steven R Wilson, Peter C Smith
Gray short-tailed opossums are used in a wide variety of research in the areas of developmental biology, oncology, immunology, and comparative biology. Despite many frequent experimental manipulations of these animals under anesthesia, few studies to date have characterized the effects of anesthesia in this species. Our aim was to identify safe and effective injectable anesthetic combinations using ketamine and xylazine or ketamine and dexmedetomidine at doses of 40 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg for ketamine, 5 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg for xylazine, and 0...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903389/epithelial-ho-1-stat3-affords-the-protection-of-subanesthetic-isoflurane-against-zymosan-induced-lung-injury-in-mice
#8
Ling Wang, Ya-Li Zhao, Ning-Ning Liu, Xiao-Shan Zhu, Qin-Qin Liu, Hai-Yu Mei, Li-Feng Wang, An-Gang Yang, Chun-Fang Gao, Jun-Tang Li
Epithelial dysfunction is a key characteristic of acute lung injury (ALI). Isoflurane (ISO) confers lung protection via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. However, the specific role and potential mechanisms of subanesthetic ISO in lung epithelium protection during zymosan-induced ALI remain unclear. In this study, zymosan increased the expression and activity of beneficial heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the lung and isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs-II) from wild-type (WT) mice, which was further enhanced by ISO treatment...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902674/disruption-of-hippocampal-multisynaptic-networks-by-general-anesthetics
#9
Min-Ching Kuo, L Stan Leung
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that synaptic transmission is affected by general anesthetics, but an anesthetic dose response in freely moving animals has not been done. The hippocampus provides a neural network for the evaluation of isoflurane and pentobarbital on multisynaptic transmission that is relevant to memory function. METHODS: Male Long-Evans rats were implanted with multichannel and single electrodes in the hippocampus. Spontaneous local field potentials and evoked field potentials were recorded in freely behaving rats before (baseline) and after various doses of isoflurane (0...
September 12, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899911/correlation-of-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-amplitude-spectrum-area-and-coronary-perfusion-pressure-in-a-porcine-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#10
Nicolas Segal, Anja K Metzger, Johanna C Moore, Laura India, Michael C Lick, Paul S Berger, Wanchun Tang, David G Benditt, Keith G Lurie
Amplitude Spectrum Area (AMSA) values during ventricular fibrillation (VF) correlate with myocardial energy stores and predict defibrillation success. By contrast, end tidal CO2 (ETCO2) values provide a noninvasive assessment of coronary perfusion pressure and myocardial perfusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Given the importance of the timing of defibrillation shock delivery on clinical outcome, we tested the hypothesis that AMSA and ETCO2 correlate with each other and can be used interchangably to correlate with myocardial perfusion in an animal laboratory preclinical, randomized, prospective investigation...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890688/metastability-of-neuronal-dynamics-during-general-anesthesia-time-for-a-change-in-our-assumptions
#11
Andrew E Hudson
There is strong evidence that anesthetics have stereotypical effects on brain state, so that a given anesthetic appears to have a signature in the electroencephalogram (EEG), which may vary with dose. This can be usefully interpreted as the anesthetic determining an attractor in the phase space of the brain. How brain activity shifts between these attractors in time remains understudied, as most studies implicitly assume a one-to-one relationship between drug dose and attractor features by assuming stationarity over the analysis interval and analyzing data segments of several minutes in length...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890309/pupillary-response-to-nitrous-oxide-administration-in-cataract-surgery-under-general-anesthesia
#12
Mansoor Masjedi, Alireza Ghanbari, Hossein Haddad Bakhodaei, Tahere Jowkar, Vahhab Hosseni, Mahnaz Rakhshan
BACKGROUND: Despite recent innovations in cataract surgery, pupillary diameter is one of the most important affecting factors in outcome of this surgery. As cataract surgery is performed ideally when the pupil is sufficiently dilated, anesthesia may contribute significantly in success or failure of this operation. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of nitrous oxide on pupillary diameter in cataract surgery under general anesthesia. METHODS: Forty patients with cataract, scheduled for operation under general anesthesia, were randomly allocated into two groups...
September 7, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889004/quantitative-vascular-neuroimaging-of-the-rat-brain-using-superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-new-insights-on-vascular-organization-and-brain-function
#13
Codi A Gharagouzloo, Liam Timms, Ju Qiao, Zihang Fang, Joseph Nneji, Aniket Pandya, Praveen Kulkarni, Anne L van de Ven, Craig Ferris, Srinivas Sridhar
A method called Quantitative Ultra-Short Time-to-Echo Contrast Enhanced (QUTE-CE) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which utilizes superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent to yield positive contrast angiograms with high clarity and definition is applied to the whole live rat brain. QUTE-CE MRI intensity data are particularly well suited for measuring quantitative cerebral blood volume (qCBV). A global map of qCBV in the awake resting-state with unprecedented detail was created via application of a 3D MRI rat brain atlas with 173 segmented and annotated brain areas...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888803/effects-of-pneumoperitoneum-and-of-an-alveolar-recruitment-maneuver-followed-by-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-on-cardiopulmonary-function-in-sheep-anesthetized-with-isoflurane-fentanyl
#14
Jéssica C Rodrigues, Francisco J Teixeira-Neto, Sofia A Cerejo, Nathalia Celeita-Rodríguez, Natache A Garofalo, Juliany G Quitzan, Thalita L A Rocha
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of pneumoperitoneum alone or combined with an alveolar recruitment maneuver (ARM) followed by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on cardiopulmonary function in sheep. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, crossover study. ANIMALS: A total of nine adult sheep (36-52 kg). METHODS: Sheep were administered three treatments (≥10-day intervals) during isoflurane-fentanyl anesthesia and volume-controlled ventilation (tidal volume: 12 mL kg(-1)) with oxygen: CONTROL (no intervention); PNEUMO (120 minutes of CO2 pneumoperitoneum); PNEUMOARM/PEEP (PNEUMO protocol with an ARM instituted after 60 minutes of pneumoperitoneum)...
June 7, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888583/fda-warning-on-anesthesia-and-brain-development-implications-for-obstetric-and-fetal-surgery
#15
Olutoyin A Olutoye, Byron Wycke Baker, Michael A Belfort, Oluyinka O Olutoye
There has been growing concern about the detrimental effects of certain anesthetic agents on the developing brain. Preclinical studies in small animal models as well as non-human primates, have suggested loss or death of brain cells and consequent impaired neurocognitive function following anesthetic exposure in neonates and late gestation fetuses. Human studies in this area are limited and currently inconclusive. On December 14, 2016, the United States Food and Drug administration (FDA) issued a warning regarding impaired brain development in children following exposure to certain anesthetic agents used for general anesthesia, namely the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, and the intravenous agents, Propofol and midazolam, in the third trimester of pregnancy...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887194/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-is-involved-in-isoflurane-induced-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-aged-rats-model-of-pocd
#16
Yiyun Cao, Zhengqian Li, Hongping Li, Cheng Ni, Lunxu Li, Ning Yang, Chengmei Shi, Yanfeng Zhong, Dehua Cui, Xiangyang Guo
Prolonged exposure to inhaled anesthetics may lead to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were shown to be activated by inhaled anesthetics. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of HIF-1α in isoflurane-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and resultant cognitive impairment. After a 4-h exposure to 1.5% isoflurane in 20-month-old rats, increases in vascular permeability, and disrupted BBB ultrastructure were accompanied by the degradation of tight junction proteins occludin and collagen type IV in brain blood vessels...
September 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881691/critical-role-of-matrix-metallopeptidase-9-in-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-age-dependent-cognitive-decline
#17
Jiangjiang Bi, Weiran Shan, Ailin Luo, Zhiyi Zuo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant clinical syndrome. Neuroinflammation is an important pathological process for POCD. However, it is not clear how systemic inflammation induced by surgery on peripheral tissues or organs is transmitted into the brain. We determined whether matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), a protein that can increase blood-brain barrier permeability, is critical in this transmission. The role of MMP9 in age-dependent cognitive decline was also determined...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879896/a-comparison-of-the-recovery-profiles-of-desflurane-and-isoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-undergoing-elective-supratentorial-craniotomy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Aparanjit P Paul, Aditya Vedantam, Grace Korula, Ari G Chacko
CONTEXT: Few studies have compared recovery profiles of desflurane and isoflurane for patients undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy. It is not known if the choice of inhalational agent can affect the duration of transient postoperative neurological deficits in these patients. AIMS: To compare the effect of desflurane and isoflurane on time-to-emergence and time-to-recovery of transient postoperative neurological deficits in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy...
September 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877873/the-in-vitro-zebrafish-heart-as-a-model-to-investigate-the-chronotropic-effects-of-vapor-anesthetics
#19
Matthew R Stoyek, Michael K Schmidt, Florentin M Wilfart, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith
In addition to their intended clinical actions, all general anesthetic agents in common use have detrimental intra- and post-surgical side effects on organs and systems including the heart. The major cardiac side effect of anesthesia is bradycardia, which increases the probability of insufficient systemic perfusion during surgery. These side effects also occur in all vertebrate species so far examined, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The zebrafish heart is a powerful model for studying cardiac electrophysiology, employing the same pacemaker system and neural control as do mammalian hearts...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870160/trek-1-mediates-isoflurane-induced-cytotoxicity-in-astrocytes
#20
Haiyun Guo, Zhengwu Peng, Liu Yang, Xue Liu, Yaning Xie, Yanhui Cai, Lize Xiong, Yi Zeng
BACKGROUND: There are growing concerns that anaesthetic exposure can cause extensive apoptotic degeneration of neurons and the impairment of normal synaptic development and remodelling. However, little attention has been paid to exploring the possible cytotoxicity of inhalation anaesthetics, such as isoflurane, in astrocytes. In this research, we determined that prolonged exposure to an inhalation anaesthetic caused cytotoxicity in astrocytes, and we identified the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for this process...
September 5, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
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