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Isoflurane

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351454/detrimental-effects-of-2-arachidonoylglycerol-on-whole-blood-platelet-aggregation-and-on-cerebral-blood-flow-after-a-focal-ischemic-insult-in-rats
#1
Jennifer A Shearer, Susan J Coker, Hilary Victoria Carswell Carswell
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is a major modulator of blood flow and platelet aggregation and a potential neuroprotectant. The present study investigated the effects of 2-AG on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the first critical hours during middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and on platelet aggregation for the first time in rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=30) underwent permanent MCAO under isoflurane anaesthesia and were randomly assigned to receive either 2-AG (6 mgkg-1, i.v.), monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 (10 mgkg-1, i...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351431/feasibility-of-phase-contrast-cine-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-measuring-blood-flow-in-the-sheep-fetus
#2
An Qi Duan, Jack R T Darby, Jia Yin Soo, Mitchell C Lock, Meng Yuan Zhu, Lucy V Flynn, Sunthara Rajan Perumal, Christopher K Macgowan, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Janna L Morrison, Mike Seed
Phase-contrast cine MRI (PC-MRI) is the gold-standard non-invasive technique for measuring vessel blood flow and has previously been applied in the human fetal circulation. We aimed to assess the feasibility of using PC-MRI to define the distribution of the fetal circulation in sheep. Fetuses were catheterized at 119-120 days gestation (term, 150 days) and underwent MRI at 123 days gestation under isoflurane anesthesia, ventilated at a FiO2 of 1.0. PC-MRI was performed using a fetal arterial blood pressure catheter signal for cardiac triggering...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345054/isoflurane-anesthesia-in-aged-mice-and-effects-of-a1-adenosine-receptors-on-cognitive-impairment
#3
Chun-Long Zuo, Chun-Man Wang, Jin Liu, Ting Shen, Jiang-Ping Zhou, Xin-Rui Hao, Yi-Zhao Pan, Hua-Cheng Liu, Qing-Quan Lian, Han Lin
AIMS: Isoflurane may not only accelerate the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but increase the risk of incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether isoflurane contributed to the POCD occurrence through A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) in aged mice. METHODS: We assessed cognitive function of mice with Morris water maze (MWM) and then measured expression level of two AD biomarkers (P-tau and Aβ) and a subtype of the NMDA receptor (NR2B) in aged wild-type (WT) and homozygous A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) knockout (KO) mice at baseline and after they were exposed to isoflurane (1...
January 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344300/general-anesthesia-inhibits-the-activity-of-the-glymphatic-system
#4
Clement Gakuba, Thomas Gaberel, Suzanne Goursaud, Jennifer Bourges, Camille Di Palma, Aurélien Quenault, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo, Denis Vivien, Maxime Gauberti
INTRODUCTION: According to the "glymphatic system" hypothesis, brain waste clearance is mediated by a continuous replacement of the interstitial milieu by a bulk flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Previous reports suggested that this cerebral CSF circulation is only active during general anesthesia or sleep, an effect mediated by the dilatation of the extracellular space. Given the controversies regarding the plausibility of this phenomenon and the limitations of currently available methods to image the glymphatic system, we developed original whole-brain in vivo imaging methods to investigate the effects of general anesthesia on the brain CSF circulation...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341018/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-studies-of-mouse-models-of-cancer
#5
Menglin Cheng, Kristine Glunde
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) or spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) enables the detection of metabolites, amino acids, and lipids, among other biomolecules, in tumors of live mouse models of cancer. Tumor-bearing mice are anesthetized by breathing isoflurane in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner dedicated to small animal MR. Here we describe the overall setup and steps for measuring 1H and 31P MRS and 1H MRSI of orthotopic breast tumor models in mice with surface coils. This protocol can be adapted to the use of volume coils to measure 1H and 31P MRS(I) of tumor models that grow inside the body...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336389/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-the-myocardial-protective-effects-of-isoflurane-with-propofol-in-patients-undergoing-elective-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-on-cardiopulmonary-bypass-assessed-by-changes-in-n-terminal-brain-natriuretic-peptide
#6
Balaji Kuppuswamy, Kirubakaran Davis, Raj Sahajanandan, Manickam Ponniah
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to compare the myocardial protective effects of isoflurane with propofol in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the cardio protection been assessed by changes in N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT proBNP). Methodology and Design: This study is designed as a participant blinded, prospective randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, India...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331922/minimum-alveolar-concentration-key-concepts-and-a-review-of-its-pharmacological-reduction-in-dogs-part-1
#7
REVIEW
Rachel Reed, Thomas Doherty
OBJECTIVE: To outline the major components of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and review the literature in regard to pharmacological manipulation of the MAC of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, and desflurane in dogs. The pharmacologic agents included are alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, propofol, maropitant, opioids, lidocaine, acepromazine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and NMDA antagonists. Part 1 will focus on summarizing the relevance, measurement, and mechanisms of MAC and review the effects of alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, and propofol on MAC...
January 9, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325538/influence-of-isoflurane-exposure-in-pregnant-rats-on-the-learning-and-memory-of-offsprings
#8
Wei Huang, Yunxia Dong, Guangyi Zhao, Yuan Wang, Jingjing Jiang, Ping Zhao
BACKGROUND: About 2% of pregnant women receive non-obstetric surgery under general anesthesia each year. During pregnancy, general anesthetics may affect brain development of the fetus. This study aimed to investigate safe dosage range of isoflurane. METHODS: Forty-eight SpragueDawley (SD) pregnant rats were randomly divided into 3 groups and inhaled 1.3% isoflurane (the Iso1 group), 2.0% isoflurane (the Iso2 group) and 50% O2 alone (the control group) for 3 h, respectively...
January 11, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320927/benefits-of-using-high-volume-low-pressure-tracheal-tube-in-children-undergoing-congenital-cardiac-surgery-evidence-from-a-prospective-randomized-study
#9
Rakesh Chand, Saibal Roy Chowdhury, Emmanuel Rupert, Chandan Kumar Mandal, Pradeep Narayan
BACKGROUND: In the past 2 decades, usage of high-volume-low-pressure microcuffed tracheal tubes in smaller children has increased. However, there is paucity of evidence of its usage in smaller children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to assess if microcuff endotracheal tubes in neonates and younger children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery is associated with better outcomes than uncuffed tubes. METHODS: We carried out this single-center, prospective, randomized study between June and November 2016...
January 1, 2018: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318795/isoflurane-s-effect-on-intraoperative-systolic-left-ventricular-performance-in-cardiac-valve-surgery-patients
#10
Ju Deok Kim, Ilsoon Son, Won Kyoung Kwon, Tae Yun Sung, Hanafi Sidik, Karam Kim, Hyun Kang, Jiyon Bang, Gwi Eun Yeo, Dong Kyu Lee, Tae Yop Kim
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane, a common anesthetic for cardiac surgery, reduced myocardial contractility in many experimental studies, few studies have determined isoflurane's direct impact on the left ventricular (LV) contractile function during cardiac surgery. We determined whether isoflurane dose-dependently reduces the peak systolic velocity of the lateral mitral annulus in tissue Doppler imaging (S') in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: During isoflurane-supplemented remifentanil-based anesthesia for patients undergoing cardiac surgery with preoperative LV ejection fraction greater than 50% (n = 20), we analyzed the changes of S' at each isoflurane dose increment (1...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302897/efficient-application-of-volatile-anaesthetics-total-rebreathing-or-specific-reflection
#11
REVIEW
Hagen Bomberg, Thomas Volk, Heinrich V Groesdonk, Andreas Meiser
The circle system has been in use for more than a 100 years, whereas the first clinical application of an anaesthetic reflector was reported just 15 years ago. Its functional basis relies on molecular sieves such as zeolite crystals or activated carbon. In a circle system, the breathing gas is rebreathed after carbon dioxide absorption; a reflector on the other hand specifically retains the anaesthetic during expiration and resupplies it during the next inspiration. Reflection systems can be used in conjunction with intensive care ventilators and do not need the permanent presence of trained qualified staff...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298877/molecular-basis-for-potentiation-of-cx36-gap-junction-channel-conductance-by-n-alcohols-and-general-anesthetics
#12
Vytautas Raškevičius, Vaidas Jotautis, Lina Rimkutė, Alina Marandykina, Mintautė Kazokaitė, Visvaldas Kairys, Vytenis Arvydas Skeberdis
In our recent study, we have demonstrated that short carbon chain n -alcohols (up to octanol) stimulated while long carbon chain n -alcohols inhibited the conductance of connexin 36 (Cx36) gap junction (GJ) channels. In contrast, GJ channels composed of other types of Cxs all were inhibited by n -alcohols independently on their carbon chain length. To identify the putative structural domains of Cx36, responsible for the dual effect of n -alcohols, we performed structural modeling of Cx36 protein docking with hexanol and isoflurane that stimulated as well as nonanol and carbenoxolone that inhibited the conductance of Cx36 GJs and revealed their multiple common docking sites and a single pocket accessible only to hexanol and isoflurane...
January 3, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298324/general-anesthetics-cause-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-reduction-of-intracellular-atp-levels
#13
Jun-Ichi Kishikawa, Yuki Inoue, Makoto Fujikawa, Kenji Nishimura, Atsuko Nakanishi, Tsutomu Tanabe, Hiromi Imamura, Ken Yokoyama
General anesthetics are indispensable for effective clinical care. Although, the mechanism of action of general anesthetics remains controversial, lipid bilayers and proteins have been discussed as their targets. In this study, we focused on the relationship between cellular ATP levels and general anesthetics. The ATP levels of nematodes and cultured mammalian cells were decreased by exposure to three general anesthetics: isoflurane, pentobarbital, and 1-phenoxy-2-propanol. Furthermore, these general anesthetics abolished mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289695/calpain-and-jnk-pathways-participate-in-isoflurane-induced-nucleus-translocation-of-apoptosis-inducing-factor-in-the-brain-of-neonatal-rats
#14
Xue Han, Chuiliang Liu, Kun Zhang, Mingyan Guo, Zhiwen Shen, Yafang Liu, Zhiyi ZuoDeg, Minghui Cao, Yujuan Li
Recent studies have demonstrated that volatile anesthetic causes caspase-dependent neuroapoptosis and persistent cognitive deficits in young animals. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) can trigger apoptosis by caspase-independent pathway. Whether isoflurane induces neuroapoptosis by activation of AIF and its possible mechanism are underdetermined. Rats at postnatal day 7 were exposed to 1.1% isoflurane for 4 h and the expression of AIF, cytochrome c, caspase-3, μ-calpain, m-calpain, Bcl-2 and Bax in the mitochondrial, cytosolic, and nuclear fraction, as well as the number of both AIF and TUNEL positive neurons in the cortices of rats were measured...
December 28, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286365/proper-positioning-and-restraint-of-a-rat-hind-limb-for-focused-high-resolution-imaging-of-bone-micro-architecture-using-in-vivo-micro-computed-tomography
#15
Amanda B Longo, Sandra M Sacco, Wendy E Ward
The use of in vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) is a powerful tool which involves the non-destructive imaging of internal structures at high resolutions in live animal models. This allows for repeated imaging of the same rodent over time. This feature not only reduces the total number of rodents required in an experimental design and thereby reduces the inter-subject variation that can arise, but also allows researchers to assess longitudinal or life-long responses to an intervention. To acquire high quality images that can be processed and analyzed to more accurately quantify outcomes of bone micro-architecture, users of in vivo µCT scanners must properly anesthetize the rat, and position and restrain the hind limb...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284842/randomized-comparison-of-isoflurane-versus-sevoflurane-and-desflurane-for-maintenance-of-ambulatory-anesthesia
#16
Pranjali Kurhekar, Krishnagopal Vinod, J Shesha Dhiviya Krishna, M Sethuraman Raghuraman
Background: Ambulatory surgeries demand safe anesthesia with faster recovery which makes it expensive due to the cost of inhalational anesthetic agents such as sevoflurane and desflurane. Isoflurane is inexpensive agent but can cause delayed recovery. The aim of this study was to evaluate cost-benefit ratio of all three agent with respect to recovery and safety profile. Materials and Methods: Patients posted for elective ambulatory surgeries were divided into three groups...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279051/early-gestational-exposure-to-isoflurane-causes-persistent-cell-loss-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-adult-male-rats
#17
Arvind Palanisamy, Gregory Crosby, Deborah J Culley
BACKGROUND: Our previous research showed that 4 h of maternal anesthesia with isoflurane during early gestation in pregnant rats leads to a deficit in spatial memory of adult male offspring. Because spatial memory is predominantly a hippocampally-mediated task, we asked the question if early gestational exposure to isoflurane affects development of the hippocampus in the offspring. FINDINGS: Previously behaviorally characterized adult male rats that were exposed to isoflurane during second trimester were sacrificed at 4 months of age (N = 10 and 13, control and isoflurane groups, respectively) for quantitative histology of hippocampal subregions...
December 26, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277297/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-isoflurane-versus-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-brain-injury-after-cardiac-valve-replacement-surgery
#18
Fang Kang, ChaoLiang Tang, MingMing Han, XiaoQing Chai, Xiang Huang, Juan Li
OBJECTIVES: To compare dexmedetomidine combined with isoflurane versus isoflurane anesthesia on brain injury after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, single-blind study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients undergoing elective valve replacement surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Ninety-seven patients scheduled for valve replacement surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: dexmedetomidine and isoflurane (Dex-Iso, n = 50) and isoflurane alone (Iso, n = 47)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275514/correction-to-cerebrovascular-co2-reactivity-during-isoflurane-nitrous-oxide-anesthesia-in-patients-with-chronic-renal-failure
#19
Kazuyoshi Ishida, Masato Uchida, Kohji Utada, Atsuo Yamashita, Satoshi Yamashita, Shiro Fukuda, Mishiya Matsumoto, Takefumi Sakabe
In the original publication of the article, the first sentence was published incorrectly under the section "Patients and preoperative assessment". The correct sentence should read as, "The Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine Ethics Committee for Human Study approved the study protocol (18th August 2004: H16-71)".
December 23, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247482/commonalities-in-epileptogenic-processes-from-different-acute-brain-insults-do-they-translate
#20
REVIEW
Pavel Klein, Raymond Dingledine, Eleonora Aronica, Christophe Bernard, Ingmar Blümcke, Detlev Boison, Martin J Brodie, Amy R Brooks-Kayal, Jerome Engel, Patrick A Forcelli, Lawrence J Hirsch, Rafal M Kaminski, Henrik Klitgaard, Katja Kobow, Daniel H Lowenstein, Phillip L Pearl, Asla Pitkänen, Noora Puhakka, Michael A Rogawski, Dieter Schmidt, Matti Sillanpää, Robert S Sloviter, Christian Steinhäuser, Annamaria Vezzani, Matthew C Walker, Wolfgang Löscher
The most common forms of acquired epilepsies arise following acute brain insults such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, or central nervous system infections. Treatment is effective for only 60%-70% of patients and remains symptomatic despite decades of effort to develop epilepsy prevention therapies. Recent preclinical efforts are focused on likely primary drivers of epileptogenesis, namely inflammation, neuron loss, plasticity, and circuit reorganization. This review suggests a path to identify neuronal and molecular targets for clinical testing of specific hypotheses about epileptogenesis and its prevention or modification...
December 15, 2017: Epilepsia
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