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Anaplastic thyroid cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165662/increased-global-dna-hypomethylation-in-distant-metastatic-and-dedifferentiated-thyroid-cancer
#1
E N Klein Hesselink, Carles Zafon, Núria Villalmanzo, Carmela Iglesias, B M van Hemel, M S Klein Hesselink, Cristina Montero-Conde, Raquel Buj, Dídac Mauricio, Miguel A Peinado, Manel Puig-Domingo, Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre, Jordi L Reverter, Mercedes Robledo, T P Links, Mireia Jordà
Introduction: Global DNA hypomethylation is a major event for the development and progression of cancer, although the significance in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate its role in thyroid cancer progression and its potential as a prognostic marker. Methods: Global hypomethylation of Alu repeats was used as a surrogate marker for DNA global hypomethylation, and was assessed using the Quantification of Unmethylated Alu (QUAlu) technique...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163685/expression-of-cancer-testis-antigens-mage-a-mage-c1-gage-and-ctag1b-in-benign-and-malignant-thyroid-diseases
#2
Daniel Hardy Melo, Rui Celso Martins Mamede, Luciano Neder, Wilson Araújo Silva, Mateus Camargo Barros-Filho, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Clóvis Antonio Lopes Pinto, Marco Antônio Zago, David Livingstone Alves Figueiredo, Achim A Jungbluth
Despite considerable advances in the understanding of thyroid gland biology, correctly diagnosing thyroid nodules and treating high-grade thyroid carcinoma remains challenging. Cancer/testis (CT) antigens have emerged as potential diagnostic tools as well as targets of potential cancer vaccinations. In the present study, a total of 117 patients who underwent surgical therapy for thyroid disease were available for analysis. The expression levels of melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) A, MAGE-C1/CT7, cancer/testis antigen 1B (CTAG1B) and G antigen (GAGE) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161986/real-world-experience-with-targeted-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma
#3
Priyanka Iyer, Ramona Dadu, Renata Ferrarotto, Naifa Busaidy, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Mark Zafereo, Neil D Gross, Kenneth Hess, Maria Gule-Monroe, Michelle D Williams, Maria Cabanillas
BACKGROUND: Patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) have a dismal prognosis despite systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy. Our objective was to study the efficacy and safety of targeted therapy in ATC patients when used outside of a clinical trial. METHODS: This is a retrospective review from April 2015 to May 2016 at a single academic institution where we studied 16 ATC patients receiving targeted therapy outside of a clinical trial. Ten patients (8 BRAF wild-type and 2 BRAF V600E mutant) were started on lenvatinib and 6 with BRAF V600E mutated tumors received the combination of dabrafenib plus trametinib...
November 22, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158933/squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-thyroid-as-a-result-of-anaplastic-transformation-from-braf-positive-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#4
Alina Basnet, Aakriti Pandita, Joseph Fullmer, Abirami Sivapiragasam
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. Majority of the PTC carries an excellent prognosis. However, patients with tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma have a worse prognosis than those with the classic variant. On the other hand, squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid (SCT) is an unusual neoplasm thought to arise as a primary tumor or as a component of an anaplastic or undifferentiated carcinoma. We report a patient with TCV of PTC presenting years later with squamous transformation...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156680/vemurafenib-resistance-via-de-novo-rbm-genes-mutations-and-chromosome-5-aberrations-is-overcome-by-combined-therapy-with-palbociclib-in-thyroid-carcinoma-with-braf-v600e
#5
Zeus A Antonello, Nancy Hsu, Manoj Bhasin, Giovanni Roti, Mukta Joshi, Paul Van Hummelen, Emily Ye, Agnes S Lo, S Ananth Karumanchi, Christine R Bryke, Carmelo Nucera
Purpose: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most frequent endocrine tumor. BRAF(V600E) represents the PTC hallmark and is targeted with selective inhibitors (e.g. vemurafenib). Although there have been promising results in clinical trials using these inhibitors, most patients develop resistance and progress. Tumor clonal diversity is proposed as one mechanism underlying drug resistance. Here we have investigated mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance to vemurafenib in BRAF(WT/V600E)-positive PTC patient-derived cells with P16(-/-) (CDKN2A(-/-))...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145304/partially-cystic-thyroid-nodules-in-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration-prevalence-of-thyroid-carcinoma-and-ultrasound-features
#6
Wenbo Li, Qingli Zhu, Yuxin Jiang, Qing Zhang, Zhilan Meng, Jian Sun, Jianchu Li, Qing Dai
Partially cystic thyroid nodules (PCTNs) are common on ultrasound (US). However, there are insufficient data on the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma among such nodules. The purpose of this study was thus to evaluate the prevalence and differentiation of partially cystic thyroid cancers in US-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA).A total of 1342 consecutive patients with 1360 thyroid nodules underwent prospective US diagnosis and FNA biopsy. In total, 281 nodules (20.7%) were partially cystic lesions. The nodules were prospectively analyzed based on US features (ie, solid portion positions, shapes, margins, and microcalcifications) and US diagnosis (benign, suspicious, or malignant)...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127087/dabrafenib-plus-trametinib-is-active-in-braf-v600e-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer
#7
(no author information available yet)
Dual BRAF/MEK inhibition achieves responses in 69% of BRAFV(600E) anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC).
November 10, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123502/anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-in-sicily-the-role-of-environmental-characteristics
#8
Martina Tavarelli, Pasqualino Malandrino, Paolo Vigneri, Pierina Richiusa, Adele Maniglia, Maria A Violi, Giulia Sapuppo, Veronica Vella, Gabriella Dardanoni, Riccardo Vigneri, Gabriella Pellegriti
Background: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare but extremely aggressive cancer of the thyroid, contributing up to 30-40% of thyroid cancer-specific mortality. We analyzed ATC characteristics and survival rates in Sicily to evaluate the possible influence of environmental factors. With this aim, data regarding ATC incidences in urban/rural and industrial, iodine-deficient, and volcanic vs control areas were compared in Sicily as well as ATC data from Sicily and USA. Methods: Using the Sicilian Register of Thyroid Cancer (SRTC) database incidence, age, gender, tumor size and histotype, extrathyroidal extension, stage, and coexistence with pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) were evaluated in different areas of Sicily and also compared with Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data in USA...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120653/-thyroid-carcinomas-the-present-view-on-diagnostics-and-therapy
#9
Petr Vlček, Dana Nováková, Rami Katra
Thyroid carcinoma (TC) represents 1-2 % of all human tumors, and is the seventh most common tumor. Women are in large majority among new patients. For women, this is the fifth most common tumor. In the Czech Republic, 1 143 new cases of TC were diagnosed in 2015. It is the tumor with the highest increase in incidence. Among newly diagnosed tumors, most of those are differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas (DTCs) originating from follicular thyroid cells. These tumors are follicular and papillary carcinomas and Hurthle carcinoma, accounting for 95 % of new cases...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108325/ratio-of-positive-lymph-nodes-the-prognostic-value-in-stage-iv-thyroid-cancer
#10
Tingyin Jiang, Chunling Huang, Yuan Xu, Yingrui Su, Guanjie Zhang, Long Xie, Liqun Huang, Shuchun You, Jinshun Zha
To assess the prognostic value of lymph node ratio (LNR) in patients with stage IV thyroid cancer based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. A total of 4,940 eligible patients were included for the analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression were used to reveal the effect of LNR on overall survival (OS) and disease specific survival (DSS). The optimal cut-off value of LNR for predicting OS and DSS was determined by the time-dependent Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092098/differentiated-and-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma-major-changes-in-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-eighth-edition-cancer-staging-manual
#11
REVIEW
Nancy D Perrier, James D Brierley, R Michael Tuttle
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE This is a review of the major changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging manual, eighth edition, for differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. All patients younger than 55 years have stage I disease unless they have distant metastases, in which case, their disease is stage II. In patients aged 55 years or older, the presence of distant metastases confers stage IVB, while cases without distant metastases are further categorized based on the presence/absence of gross extrathyroidal extension, tumor size, and lymph node status...
November 1, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079175/aberrant-expression-of-cd20-in-thyroid-cancer-and-its-clinicopathologic-significance
#12
Andrey Bychkov, Chan Kwon Jung
CD20 is the first line diagnostic marker of B-cells, which serves as the target of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in B-cell lymphomas and leukemias. Recently, aberrant CD20 expression has been described in a small series of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). We aimed to evaluate CD20 immunoexpression and to perform clinicopathologic correlation in a large set of thyroid tumors, including a cohort of high-grade thyroid cancer. A total of 625 cases of thyroid tumor comprised tissue microarrays of 538 PTCs and 47 follicular adenomas, and whole-slide sections of 40 aggressive thyroid carcinomas (10 radioiodine-refractory PTCs, 8 poorly differentiated, 5 anaplastic and 17 medullary thyroid carcinomas) were immunostained with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody...
October 24, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072975/dabrafenib-and-trametinib-treatment-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-or-metastatic-braf-v600-mutant-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer
#13
Vivek Subbiah, Robert J Kreitman, Zev A Wainberg, Jae Yong Cho, Jan H M Schellens, Jean Charles Soria, Patrick Y Wen, Christoph Zielinski, Maria E Cabanillas, Gladys Urbanowitz, Bijoyesh Mookerjee, Dazhe Wang, Fatima Rangwala, Bhumsuk Keam
Purpose We report the efficacy and safety of dabrafenib (BRAF inhibitor) and trametinib (MEK inhibitor) combination therapy in BRAF V600E-mutated anaplastic thyroid cancer, a rare, aggressive, and highly lethal malignancy with poor patient outcomes and no systemic therapies with clinical benefit. Methods In this phase II, open-label trial, patients with predefined BRAF V600E-mutated malignancies received dabrafenib 150 mg twice daily and trametinib 2 mg once daily until unacceptable toxicity, disease progression, or death...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070621/fatal-outcome-of-an-anaplastic-thyroid-tumour
#14
Rafael García Carretero, Cristina Peña-Arce, Gabriel Martinez-Quesada, Javier Garcia-Alvarez
Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare form of thyroid cancer, known for its very poor prognosis, even with the appropriate management. It is very aggressive, with a tendency to invade locally and lymph node metastasis is often present at the time of diagnosis. We present an elderly patient, who presented with rapid enlarging neck mass, which, within weeks, led to his death. His family gave their consent to perform an autopsy, and here we describe and illustrate the profound aggressiveness of this tumour.
October 25, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057760/anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma-treated-with-lenvatinib
#15
Jun-Ichi Ohkubo, Azusa Takahashi, Shoji Ikezaki, Fumiko Takenaga, Yufu Ohkubo, Hideaki Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: We report a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) with local recurrence and distant metastasis that responded very well to treatment with lenvatinib, a new molecular-targeted anticancer drug. CASE REPORT: A 91-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 5-month history of a painless mass in her left anterior neck. She had a past history of total thyroidectomy and neck dissection for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Here she underwent neck dissection, and the histopathological diagnosis was lymph node metastasis of papillary carcinoma with anaplastic transformation...
October 20, 2017: Kurume Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038462/development-of-an-athyroid-mouse-model-using-131-i-ablation-after-preparation-with-a-low-iodine-diet
#16
Ji Min Oh, Ho Won Lee, Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Prakash Gangadaran, Se Hwan Baek, Man-Hoon Han, Chae Moon Hong, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
We optimized the protocol for thyroid ablation in living mice using radioactive iodine (RAI) and a low-iodine diet (LID). To examine the effect of LID on thyroid ablation, mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: Vehicle, (131)I 2.775 MBq, (131)I 5.55 MBq, and LID + (131)I 2.775 MBq. The LID group was fed a LID for up to 7 days and then mice in the (131)I 2.775, (131)I 5.55, and LID + (131)I 2.775 MBq groups were intravenously administrated with (131)I, respectively. Scintigraphy imaging with (99m)Tc pertechnetate was performed once in 2 weeks for 4 weeks...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037860/neurotrophin-receptors-trka-p75-ntr-and-sortilin-are-increased-and-targetable-in-thyroid-cancer
#17
Sam Faulkner, Philip Jobling, Christopher Rowe, Sonia Rodriguez-Oliveira, Severine Roselli, Rick Thorne, Christopher Oldmeadow, John Attia, Chen Chen Jiang, Xu Dong Zhang, Marjorie M Walker, Hubert Hondermarck
Neurotrophin receptors are emerging targets in oncology, but their clinicopathologic significance in thyroid cancer is unclear. In this study, the neurotrophin tyrosine receptor kinase TrkA (also called NTRK1), the common neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR), and the proneurotrophin receptor sortilin were analyzed with immunohistochemistry in a cohort of thyroid cancers (n = 128) and compared with adenomas and normal thyroid tissues (n = 62). TrkA was detected in 20% of thyroid cancers, compared with none of the benign samples (P = 0...
October 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032724/reintroducing-the-sodium-iodide-symporter-to-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma
#18
Kathrin A Schmohl, Patrick Dolp, Christina Schug, Kerstin Knoop, Kathrin Klutz, Nathalie Schwenk, Peter Bartenstein, Peter J Nelson, Manfred Ogris, Ernst Wagner, Christine Spitzweg
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer, is unresponsive to radioiodine therapy. The current study aimed to extend the diagnostic and therapeutic application of radioiodine beyond the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer by targeting the functional sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) to ATC. METHODS: The study employed nanoparticle vectors (polyplexes) based on linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), shielded by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and coupled to the synthetic peptide GE11 as an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific ligand in order to target a NIS-expressing plasmid (LPEI-PEG-GE11/NIS) to EGFR overexpressing human thyroid carcinoma cell lines...
November 10, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029287/survival-in-response-to-multimodal-therapy-in-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer
#19
Naiyarat Prasongsook, Aditi Kumar, Ashish V Chintakuntlawar, Robert L Foote, Jan Kasperbauer, Julian Molina, Yolanda Garces, Daniel Ma, Michelle A Neben Wittich, Joseph Rubin, Ronald Richardson, John Morris, Ian Hay, Vahab Fatourechi, Bryan McIver, Mabel Ryder, Geoffrey Thompson, Clive Grant, Melanie Richards, Thomas J Sebo, Michael Rivera, Vera Suman, Sarah M Jenkins, Robert C Smallridge, Keith C Bible
Context: Historical outcomes in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) have been dismal. Objective: To define whether initial intensive multimodal therapy combining surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation might be associated with improved ATC survival. Design: Multimodal therapy was offered to all newly-diagnosed ATC patients treated at the Mayo Clinic, 2003-2015; multimodal vs. palliative therapy was individualized considering clinical status and patient preferences...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025766/car-t-therapy-targeting-icam-1-eliminates-advanced-human-thyroid-tumors
#20
Irene M Min, Enda Shevlin, Yogindra Vedvyas, Marjan Zaman, Brian Wyrwas, Theresa Scognamiglio, Maureen D Moore, Weibin Wang, Susan Park, Spencer Park, Suraj Panjwani, Katherine D Gray, Andrew B Tassler, Rasa Zarnegar, Thomas J Fahey, Moonsoo M Jin
PURPOSE: Poorly-differentiated thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) are rare yet lethal malignancies with limited treatment options. Many malignant tumors including papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and ATC are associated with increased expression of ICAM-1, providing a rationale for utilizing ICAM-1-targeting agents for the treatment of aggressive cancer. We developed a third-generation CAR targeting ICAM-1 to leverage adoptive T cell therapy as a new treatment modality. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ICAM-1 CAR T cells were applied on multiple malignant and non-malignant target cells to investigate specific target cell death and 'off-tumor' toxicity in vitro...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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