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Crescentic glomerulonephritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807596/the-role-of-angiotensin-ii-in-parietal-epithelial-cell-proliferation-and-crescent-formation-in-glomerular-diseases
#1
Paola Rizzo, Rubina Novelli, Cinzia Rota, Elena Gagliardini, Barbara Ruggiero, Daniela Rottoli, Ariela Benigni, Giuseppe Remuzzi
Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) is a devastating disease with rapidly progressive deterioration in kidney function, which, histologically, manifests as crescent formation in most glomeruli. We previously found that crescents derive from the aberrant proliferation and migration of parietal epithelial cells (PECs)/progenitor cells, and that the angiotensin (ang) II/ang II type-1 (AT1) receptor pathway may participate, together with the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 axis, in the development of those lesions...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756872/retinoic-acid-improves-nephrotoxic-serum-induced-glomerulonephritis-through-activation-of-podocyte-retinoic-acid-receptor-%C3%AE
#2
Yan Dai, Anqun Chen, Ruijie Liu, Leyi Gu, Shuchita Sharma, Weijing Cai, Fadi Salem, David J Salant, Jeffrey W Pippin, Stuart J Shankland, Marcus J Moeller, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Xiaquiang Ding, Peter Y Chuang, Kyung Lee, John Cijiang He
Proliferation of glomerular epithelial cells, including podocytes, is a key histologic feature of crescentic glomerulonephritis. We previously found that retinoic acid (RA) inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation of podocytes by activating RA receptor-α (RARα) in a murine model of HIV-associated nephropathy. Here, we examined whether RA would similarly protect podocytes against nephrotoxic serum-induced crescentic glomerulonephritis and whether this effect was mediated by podocyte RARα. RA treatment markedly improved renal function and reduced the number of crescentic lesions in nephritic wild-type mice, while this protection was largely lost in mice with podocyte-specific ablation of Rara (Pod-Rara knockout)...
July 27, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731865/-joining-the-spots-in-adults-and-young-tots-a-clinicopathological-study-of-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura-iga-vasculitis
#3
Priyanka P Kedia, Rajalakshmi Tirumalae, Divya Puttegowda, Meryl Antony
INTRODUCTION: Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP; IgA vasculitis), the most common vasculitis of childhood, has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from palpable purpura with abdominal pain and arthritis to the more morbid renal involvement. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study and correlate the clinical presentation, laboratory values, skin and renal histopathology and immunofluoroscence findings in HSP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 44 cases of HSP from March 2011 to February 2014 were studied for the above features along with their clinical outcomes...
August 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699638/bcat1-controls-metabolic-reprogramming-in-activated-human-macrophages-and-is-associated-with-inflammatory-diseases
#4
Adonia E Papathanassiu, Jeong-Hun Ko, Martha Imprialou, Marta Bagnati, Prashant K Srivastava, Hong A Vu, Danilo Cucchi, Stephen P McAdoo, Elitsa A Ananieva, Claudio Mauro, Jacques Behmoaras
Branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT) are enzymes that initiate the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), such as leucine, thereby providing macromolecule precursors; however, the function of BCATs in macrophages is unknown. Here we show that BCAT1 is the predominant BCAT isoform in human primary macrophages. We identify ERG240 as a leucine analogue that blocks BCAT1 activity. Selective inhibition of BCAT1 activity results in decreased oxygen consumption and glycolysis. This decrease is associated with reduced IRG1 levels and itaconate synthesis, suggesting involvement of BCAA catabolism through the IRG1/itaconate axis within the tricarboxylic acid cycle in activated macrophages...
July 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676642/label-free-detection-of-sensitive-mid-infrared-biomarkers-of-glomerulonephritis-in-urine-using-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#5
Mei-Ching Yu, Peter Rich, Liberty Foreman, Jennifer Smith, Mei-Shiuan Yu, Anisha Tanna, Vinod Dibbur, Robert Unwin, Frederick W K Tam
More reliable biomarkers using near-patient technologies are needed to improve early diagnosis and intervention for patients with renal disease. Infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy/microspectroscopy is an established analytical method that was first used in biomedical research over 20 years ago. With the advances in instrumentation, computational and mathematical techniques, this technology has now been applied to a variety of diseases; however, applications in nephrology are just beginning to emerge. In the present study, we used attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to analyze urine samples collected from rodent models of inflammatory glomerulonephritis (GN) as well as from patients with crescentic GN, with the aim of identifying potential renal biomarkers; several characteristic mid-IR spectral markers were identified in urine samples...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670084/medullary-angiitis-and-pauci-immune-crescentic-glomerulonephritis
#6
Jeffrey Klein, William Rodriguez, Michael Kuperman, Harold Szerlip
Although almost all pathological diagnoses made from a native kidney biopsy come from careful examination of the renal cortex, certain diseases have a characteristic medullary component. Medullary angiitis has histological features of interstitial hemorrhage in the medulla with an associated polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrate. These findings are primarily found in the setting of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Medullary angiitis identified in the setting of negative immunofluorescence is most suggestive of pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis, as presented in this case...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667835/monocytes-promote-crescent-formation-in-anti-myeloperoxidase-antibody-induced-glomerulonephritis
#7
Anthony Rousselle, Ralph Kettritz, Adrian Schreiber
Neutrophils and monocytes express anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) antigens, and activation of these cells by ANCA is central to ANCA-associated vasculitis and necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis (NCGN). The importance of neutrophils is established; however, any role of monocytes is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that depletion of CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes and their derivatives would abrogate anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) antibody-induced NCGN in a mouse model. We used passive anti-MPO antibody transfer for NCGN induction in wild-type mice or mice expressing the CCR2 promoter-controlled diphtheria toxin receptor...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646482/clinical-serological-and-histological-determinants-of-patient-and-renal-outcome-in-anca-associated-vasculitis-with-renal-involvement-an-analysis-from-a-referral-centre
#8
Matija Crnogorac, Ivica Horvatic, Luka Toric, Danica Galesic Ljubanovic, Miroslav Tisljar, Krešimir Galesic
PURPOSE: To evaluate significance of clinical and histopathological prognostic factors for renal and patient outcome in AAV patient cohort. METHODS: Retrospective study included consecutive patients diagnosed with pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis from January 2003 to December 2013. Primary outcome was combined endpoint patient death or progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Secondary outcomes were patient survival and progression to ESRD (renal survival) singularly and disease relapse...
August 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612242/histopathologic-classification-of-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-glomerulonephritis-achievements-limitations-and-perspectives
#9
Andrea Hinojosa-Azaola, Ariadna Jiménez-González
Clinical and histological factors have been identified as predictors of early and late renal outcome in ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV). The presence and severity of kidney involvement at diagnosis are associated with poor prognosis in both patient and renal survival. Histologic findings remain the gold standard for diagnosing patients with AAV. In order to quantify the extent of the morphological parameters in the renal biopsies and to identify the histopathological lesions that predict renal outcome, several scoring systems have been proposed to systematically assess kidney biopsies in AAV...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595914/ischemia-induced-glomerular-parietal-epithelial-cells-hyperplasia-commonly-misdiagnosed-cellular-crescent-in-renal-biopsy
#10
Yeting Zeng, Xinrui Wang, Feilai Xie, Zhiyong Zheng
Ischemic pseudo-cellular crescent (IPCC) that is induced by ischemia and composed of hyperplastic glomerular parietal epithelial cells resembles cellular crescent. In this study, we aimed to assess the clinical and pathological features of IPCC in renal biopsy to avoid over-diagnosis and to determine the diagnostic basis. 4 IPCC cases diagnosed over a 4-year period (2012-2015) were evaluated for the study. Meanwhile, 5 cases of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis and 5 cases of lupus nephritis (LN) were selected as control...
August 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593446/c3-glomerulonephritis-with-a-severe-crescentic-phenotype
#11
Aishwarya Ravindran, Fernando C Fervenza, Richard J H Smith, Sanjeev Sethi
BACKGROUND: C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is rare type of glomerulonephritis resulting from the glomerular deposition of C3 due to dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement. It is further subdivided into C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) and dense deposit disease (DDD), depending on the ultrastructural features. C3GN usually presents with a membranoproliferative pattern of injury. Crescents may or may not be present. However, we have noted a severe necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis in a small subset of C3GN patients...
June 7, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584626/mmp2-and-mmp9-associate-with-crescentic-glomerulonephritis
#12
Tessa M Phillips, Mitali Fadia, Tom N Lea-Henry, Jonathan Smiles, Giles D Walters, Simon H Jiang
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ involvement. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common manifestation with a wide variety of histological appearances. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 are gelatinases capable of degrading glomerular basement membrane type IV collagen, which have been associated with LN. We examine the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in different classes of LN. Methods: MMP2 and MMP9 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in sections from renal biopsy specimens with class III, class IV and class V LN (total n = 31), crescentic immunoglobulin A nephropathy (n = 6), pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (n = 7), minimal change disease (n = 2), mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (n = 7), diabetic nephropathy (n = 12) and histologically normal controls (n = 8)...
April 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580649/myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-causes-different-renal-diseases-by-immune-complex-formation-and-pauci-immune-mechanism-a-case-report
#13
Shun Manabe, Michiyasu Hatano, Marie Nakano, Teruhiro Fujii, Kosaku Nitta, Michio Nagata
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) has been known to cause pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. In addition, several reports described membranous glomerulonephritis (MN) concurrent with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis. Because the two glomerular diseases simultaneously appear in an ANCA-positive patient, the mechanisms whereby ANCA causes the two different glomerular diseases remain ambiguous. Herein, we report a case of 19-year-old man who presented with hematuria, pre-nephrotic proteinuria, and high titer of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA...
June 4, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554749/significance-of-m2-macrophages-in-glomerulonephritis-with-crescents
#14
Jun Li, Ya-Fen Yu, Chang-Hua Liu, Cui-Mei Wang
OBJECTIVES: CD163 and CD206, markers of M2 macrophages, possesses anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims to investigate the clinicopathologic significance of M2 macrophages in patients of glomerulonephritis with crescents. METHODS: Renal tissue samples from patients of glomerulonephritis with more than 30% cell or cell-fibrous crescents, including lupus nephritis (LN, n=14), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV, n=14), IgA nephropathy(IgAN) (n=11), Henoch Schonlein purpura glomerulonephritis(HSPGN)(n=8)were included in this study...
April 20, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550388/antibodies-against-linear-epitopes-on-goodpasture-autoantigen-in-patients-with-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-vasculitis
#15
Xiao-Yu Jia, Jun-Tao Yu, Shui-Yi Hu, Jian-Nan Li, Miao Wang, Chen Wang, Min Chen, Zhao Cui, Ming-Hui Zhao
In a substantial number of patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis, both anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are detected simultaneously. ANCA is presumed to be the initial event but the mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the antibodies against linear epitopes on Goodpasture autoantigen in sera from patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis, aiming to reveal the mechanisms of the coexistence of the two kinds of autoantibodies...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540906/an-overlap-of-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#16
Sujit Surendran, Chandramohan Gundappa, Arun Gandhi, Anila Abraham Kurien, Edwin Fernando
We present a case report of overlap of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA; formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome). We report a 45-year-old female who presented with rapidly progressive renal failure associated with fever, polyarthralgia, and respiratory symptoms with cytoplasmic antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and proteinase (PR-3) antigen positivity. Computerized tomography scan of the chest showed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with renal biopsy revealing pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis with intense eosinophilic infiltration suggestive of eosinophilic GPA (EGPA)...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540889/patterns-of-glomerulonephritis-with-crescents-experience-at-a-tertiary-medical-center-in-saudi-arabia
#17
Turki Al-Hussain, Shuaa Asiri, Sadiq Amer, Hadeel Al Mana, Mohammed Akhtar
A series of 78 cases of glomerulonephritis (GN), in which renal biopsy revealed changes of GN associated with crescent formation, were reviewed. Renal pathology findings were correlated with clinical features including patient's age, renal function, and serologic findings. In most of the cases (71.8%), the crescents were due to immune complex-mediated GN. This was followed by pauci-immune GN (20.5%) and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (GBM) GN (7.7%). The percentage of glomeruli with crescents was the highest in cases of anti-GBM disease (mean of 93...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514287/concurrent-igg4-related-tubulointerstitial-nephritis-and-igg4-myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-positive-crescentic-glomerulonephritis-a-case-report
#18
Tao Su, Li Yang, Zhao Cui, Su-Xia Wang, Ming-Hui Zhao
RATIONALE: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic disease. The typical pathological finding in the kidney is abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration with characteristic storiform fibrosis in the interstitium. Antibodies of the IgG4 subclass have been linked to certain autoimmune diseases including antiproteinase 3 (PR3) anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) of the IgG4 subclass. Here, we report a rare case of kidney injury with concurrent typical IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 subclass of myeloperoxidase (MPO) ANCA-positive necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509135/renal-limited-vasculitis-with-elevated-levels-of-multiple-antibodies
#19
Noriaki Sato, Hideki Yokoi, Hirotaka Imamaki, Eiichiro Uchino, Kaoru Sakai, Takeshi Matsubara, Tatsuo Tsukamoto, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Motoko Yanagita
Renal-limited vasculitis (RLV) is a type of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis that presents with crescentic glomerulonephritis with no other organ involvement. Although several studies reported patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis who were dual positive for proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA or ANCA and anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody, patients positive for all three antibodies, i.e., triple-positive patients, were rarely reported. We herein report the case of a male with pauci-immune type crescentic glomerulonephritis positive for MPO-ANCA, PR3-ANCA, and anti-GBM antibody...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509125/a-case-of-pr3-anca-positive-anti-gbm-disease-associated-with-intrarenal-arteritis-and-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#20
Shun Manabe, Mayuko Banno, Marie Nakano, Teruhiro Fujii, Yukio Kakuta, Kosaku Nitta, Michiyasu Hatano
Coexistence of anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) is occasionally reported and termed "double positive" disease. Interestingly, the majority of "double positive" ANCA is myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA, and some of the MPO-ANCA-positive cases reveal intrarenal arteritis indicating an ANCA-associated renal lesion. In contrast, proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA-positive "double positive" disease had rarely been reported, and as far as we know, none of the cases showed intrarenal arteritis...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
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