keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

β cell

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046053/ultrastructure-and-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-proteins-concerned-with-the-secretory-machinery-in-goat-ceruminous-glands
#1
Tadashi Yasui, Hiroshi Gomi, Taishi Kitahara, Azuma Tsukise
The expression of soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in apocrine glands has not been fully elucidated. In addition to performing ultrastructural observation of the ceruminous glands in goats, our study focuses on the demonstration of β-defensins, SNARE proteins and Rab3D in these glands with the use of immunohistochemical methods. The secretory cells were equipped with two types of vesicles, Golgi apparatus and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Additionally, in some of them, the characteristic concentric structures composed of rough ER were observed in their circum- and infranuclear parts...
August 8, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045828/prolonged-ikk%C3%AE-inhibition-improves-ongoing-ctl-antitumor-responses-by-incapacitating-regulatory-t-cells
#2
Christoph Heuser, Janine Gotot, Eveline Christina Piotrowski, Marie-Sophie Philipp, Christina Johanna Felicia Courrèges, Martin Sylvester Otte, Linlin Guo, Jonathan Leo Schmid-Burgk, Veit Hornung, Annkristin Heine, Percy Alexander Knolle, Natalio Garbi, Edgar Serfling, César Evaristo, Friedrich Thaiss, Christian Kurts
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevent autoimmunity but limit antitumor immunity. The canonical NF-κB signaling pathway both activates immunity and promotes thymic Treg development. Here, we report that mature Tregs continue to require NF-κB signaling through IκB-kinase β (IKKβ) after thymic egress. Mice lacking IKKβ in mature Tregs developed scurfy-like immunopathology due to death of peripheral FoxP3(+) Tregs. Also, pharmacological IKKβ inhibition reduced Treg numbers in the circulation by ∼50% and downregulated FoxP3 and CD25 expression and STAT5 phosphorylation...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045811/top2a-induces-malignant-character-of-pancreatic-cancer-through-activating-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#3
Yao-Fei Pei, Xi-Min Yin, Xi-Qiang Liu
It has been reported that Topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) could induce tumor development and progression in many cancer types. Herein, through analysis of different independent cohorts, we found TOP2A was up-regulated in pancreatic cancer as compared with non-tumor tissues. Moreover, the up-regulation of TOP2A was significantly correlated with tumor metastasis and shorter survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Knockdown of TOP2A in pancreatic cancer cell lines inhibited cell proliferation and migration...
October 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045420/inhibition-of-apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-alters-the-wound-epidermis-and-enhances-auricular-cartilage-regeneration
#4
Qian-Shi Zhang, Deepa S Kurpad, My G Mahoney, Marla J Steinbeck, Theresa A Freeman
Why regeneration does not occur in mammals remains elusive. In lower vertebrates, epimorphic regeneration of the limb is directed by the wound epidermis, which controls blastema formation to promote regrowth of the appendage. Herein, we report that knockout (KO) or inhibition of Apoptosis Signal-regulated Kinase-1 (ASK1), also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), after full thickness ear punch in mice prolongs keratinocyte activation within the wound epidermis and promotes regeneration of auricular cartilage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045193/a-microdosimetric-kinetic-model-of-cell-killing-by-irradiation-from-permanently-incorporated-radionuclides
#5
Roland B Hawkins
An expression for the surviving fraction of a replicating population of cells exposed to permanently incorporated radionuclide is derived from the microdosimetric-kinetic model. It includes dependency on total implant dose, linear energy transfer (LET), decay rate of the radionuclide, the repair rate of potentially lethal lesions in DNA and the volume doubling time of the target population. This is used to obtain an expression for the biologically effective dose (BEDα/β) based on the minimum survival achieved by the implant that is equivalent to, and can be compared and combined with, the BEDα/β calculated for a fractionated course of radiation treatment...
October 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045142/measuring-intracellular-secondary-structure-of-a-cell-penetrating-peptide-in-situ
#6
Frederik Fleissner, Sabine Pütz, Mischa Schwendy, Mischa Bonn, Sapun H Parekh
Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptide sequences that can translocate across cellular plasma membranes and are thus potential delivery vectors for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Many CPPs exhibit some sort structural polymorphism, where the secondary structure of the peptide is altered strongly by its local environment, which is believed to facilitate membrane translocation. However, the fate and structure of CPPs within cells is much less known due to measurement difficulty. Here we employ isotopic labelling combined with hyperspectral, quantitative coherent-Raman vibrational microscopy to localize a model CPP - deuterated Penetratin (d-Pen) - and determine its secondary structure in different cellular compartments...
October 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045075/immunocytochemistry-for-sox-11-and-tfe3-as-diagnostic-markers-for-solid-pseudopapillary-neoplasms-of-the-pancreas-in-fna-biopsies
#7
Wen-Chi Foo, Grant Harrison, Xuefeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) of the pancreas are rare malignant tumors that can be sampled via endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Although diagnosing SPNs can be straightforward in cases with a classic morphology and a typical immunoprofile, challenges can occur with morphologic variants or limited specimens. Recently, 2 immunohistochemical stains, SRY-related high-mobility group box 11 (SOX-11) and transcription factor E3 (TFE3), have been demonstrated to be highly sensitive and specific for SPNs in pancreatic resection specimens...
October 16, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045061/suppression-of-mapk-signaling-in-braf-activated-pten-deficient-melanoma-by-blocking-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#8
Linli Zhou, Kun Yang, Spencer Dunaway, Zalfa Abdel-Malek, Thomas Andl, Ana Luisa Kadekaro, Yuhang Zhang
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment have been associated with formation of a dynamic and optimized niche for tumor cells to grow and evade cell death induced by therapeutic agents. We recently reported that ablation of β-catenin expression in stromal fibroblasts and CAFs disrupted their biological activities in in vitro studies and in an in vivo B16F10 mouse melanoma model. Here, we show that the development of a BRAF-activated PTEN-deficient mouse melanoma was significantly suppressed in vivo after blocking β-catenin signaling in CAFs...
October 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045053/ensamble-based-adme-tox-profiling-and-virtual-screening-for-the-discovery-of-new-inhibitors-of-the-leishmania-mexicana-cysteine-protease-cpb2-8%C3%AE-cte
#9
Angela Scala, Antonio Rescifina, Nicola Micale, Anna Piperno, Tanja Schirmeister, Louis Maes, Giovanni Grassi
In an effort to identify novel molecular warheads able to inhibit Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB2.8ΔCTE, fused benzo[b]thiophenes and β,β'-triketones emerged as covalent inhibitors binding the active site cysteine residue. Enzymatic screening showed a moderate to excellent activity (12-90% inhibition of the target enzyme at 20 μM). The most promising compounds were selected for further profiling including in vitro cell-based assays and docking studies. Computational data suggest that benzo[b]thiophenes act immediately as non-covalent inhibitors and then as irreversible covalent inhibitors, whereas a reversible covalent mechanism emerged for the 1,3,3'-triketones with a Y-topology...
October 17, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044994/characterization-and-expression-pattern-of-r-spondin1-in-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#10
Hailong Li, Wenteng Xu, Ying Zhu, Ning Zhang, Jialu Ma, Ai Sun, Zhongkai Cui, Fengtao Gao, Na Wang, Changwei Shao, Zhongdian Dong, Yangzhen Li
r-spondin1 (rspo1) encodes a secreted protein that is involved in the determination and differentiation of the mammalian ovary. However, little information is yet available for teleosts. Here, we identified a homologue of rspo1 in Cynoglossus semilaevis. The full-length cDNA of rspo1 had a length of 2,703 bp with an open reading frame of 834 bp, encoding a protein with a length of 277 amino-acids. rspo1 expression was detected via qRT-PCR in various tissues, and significant sexually dimorphic expression was observed in the gonads...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044966/v1b-vasopressin-receptor-trafficking-and-signaling%C3%A2-role-of-arrestins-g-proteins-and-src-kinase
#11
Sanja Perkovska, Catherine Méjean, Mohammed Akli Ayoub, Juan Li, Floriane Hemery, Maithé Corbani, Nadine Laguette, Maria-Angeles Ventura, Hélène Orcel, Thierry Durroux, Bernard Mouillac, Christiane Mendre
The signaling pathway of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is strongly linked to their trafficking profile. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the vasopressin receptor V1b subtype (V1b R) trafficking and its impact on receptor signaling and regulation. For this purpose, we investigated the role of β-arrestins in receptor desensitization, internalization and recycling and attempted to dissect the V1b R-mediated MAP Kinase pathway. Using β-arrestin 1-2 KO-MEF cells, we demonstrated that both β-arrestin 1 and 2 play a fundamental role in internalization and recycling of V1b R with a rapid and transient V1b R-β-arrestin interaction in contrast to a slow and long-lasting β-arrestin recruitment of the V2 vasopressin receptor subtype (V2 R)...
October 16, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044703/a-comparative-study-on-the-effect-of-promoting-the-osteogenic-function-of-osteoblasts-using-isoflavones-from-radix-astragalus
#12
Xianghe Kong, Fang Wang, Yinbo Niu, Xianglong Wu, Yalei Pan
Radix Astragalus has been shown to exert beneficial effects regarding the prevention postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, its mechanism of action remains to be investigated. Calycosin, formononetin, and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside are the main isoflavone constituents of Astragalus. In this study, the abilities of these 3 compounds to promote osteogenic function of osteoblasts were compared, and the structure-activity relationships of these osteotrophic isoflavones were determined. Calycosin exhibited a greater effect than formononetin and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside regarding improvements in osteogenic function of osteoblasts, as demonstrated by cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen I and osteocalcin secretion, and the number and area of mineralized bone nodules...
October 18, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044515/the-human-pkp2-plakophilin-2-gene-is-induced-by-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-in-normal-and-colon-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#13
Núria Niell, María Jesús Larriba, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Isabel Sánchez-Pérez, Ramón Cantero, Francisco X Real, Luis Del Peso, Alberto Muñoz, José Manuel González-Sancho
Colorectal cancer results from the malignant transformation of colonic epithelial cells. Stromal fibroblasts are the main component of the tumour microenvironment, and play an important role in the progression of this and other neoplasias. Wnt/β-catenin signalling is essential for colon homeostasis, but aberrant, constitutive activation of this pathway is a hallmark of colorectal cancer. Here we present the first transcriptomic study on the effect of a Wnt factor on human colonic myofibroblasts. Wnt3A regulates the expression of 1136 genes, of which 662 are upregulated and 474 are downregulated in CCD-18Co cells...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044511/second-trimester-levels-of-fetoplacental-hormones-among-women-with-placenta-accreta-spectrum-disorders
#14
Marina Pekar-Zlotin, Yaakov Melcer, Ron Maymon, Eric Jauniaux
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its free β-subunit (β-hCG) are exclusively synthesized by the villous trophoblast. α-Fetoprotein (AFP) is synthesized by the secondary yolk sac and fetal liver. Levels of both hormones differ between women with placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders and those with non-accreta previa.(1,2) Second-trimester maternal serum levels of AFP are increased,(1) and first-trimester serum β-hCG is decreased in women with PAS,(2) compared with those with non-accreta placenta previa...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044509/comprehensive-transcriptome-analysis-of-fluid-shear-stress-altered-gene-expression-in-renal-epithelial-cells
#15
Steven J Kunnen, Tareq B Malas, Cornelis M Semeins, Astrid D Bakker, Dorien J M Peters
Renal epithelial cells are exposed to mechanical forces due to flow-induced shear stress within the nephrons. Shear stress is altered in renal diseases caused by tubular dilation, obstruction and hyperfiltration, which occur to compensate for lost nephrons. Fundamental in regulation of shear stress are primary cilia and other mechano-sensors, and defects in cilia formation and function have profound effects on development and physiology of kidneys and other organs. We applied RNA sequencing to get a comprehensive overview of fluid-shear regulated genes and pathways in renal epithelial cells...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044421/heterogeneous-hcg-and-hmg-commercial-preparations-result-in-different-intracellular-signalling-but-induce-a-similar-long-term-progesterone-response-in-vitro
#16
Laura Riccetti, Danièle Klett, Mohammed Akli Ayoub, Thomas Boulo, Elisa Pignatti, Simonetta Tagliavini, Manuela Varani, Tommaso Trenti, Alessia Nicoli, Francesco Capodanno, Giovanni Battista La Sala, Eric Reiter, Manuela Simoni, Livio Casarini
STUDY QUESTION: Are four urinary hCG/menotropin (hMG) and one recombinant preparation characterized by different molecular features and do they mediate specific intracellular signaling and steroidogenesis? SUMMARY ANSWER: hCG and hMG preparations have heterogeneous compositions and mediate preparation-specific cell signaling and early steroidogenesis, although similar progesterone plateau levels are achieved in 24 h-treated human primary granulosa cells in vitro...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044326/in-vitro-antiparasitic-activity-and-chemical-composition-of-the-essential-oil-from-protium-ovatum-leaves-burceraceae
#17
Elisângela B B Estevam, Isabella P B DE Deus, Vanessa P DA Silva, Elizabeth A J DA Silva, Cassia C F Alves, José Milton Alves, Cristiane M Cazal, Lizandra G Magalhães, Mariana C Pagotti, Viviane R Esperandim, Alex F Souza, Mayker L D Miranda
Leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are globally widespread parasitic diseases which have been responsible for high mortality rates. Since drugs available for their treatment are highly hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and cardiotoxic, adherence to therapy has been affected. Thus, the search for new, more effective and safer drugs for the treatment of these diseases is necessary. Natural products have stood out as an alternative to searching for new bioactive molecules with therapeutic potential. In this study, the chemical composition and antiparasitic activity of the essential oil from Protium ovatum leaves against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and the promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were evaluated...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044292/investigation-of-the-filamin-a-dependent-mechanisms-of-tissue-factor-incorporation-into-microvesicles
#18
Mary Collier, Mary E W Collier, Camille Ettelaie, Benjamin T Goult, Anthony Maraveyas, Alison H Goodall
We have previously shown that phosphorylation of tissue factor (TF) at Ser253 increases the incorporation of TF into microvesicles (MVs) following protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) activation through a process involving filamin A, whereas phosphorylation of TF at Ser258 suppresses this process. Here, we examined the contribution of the individual phosphorylation of these serine residues to the interaction between filamin A and TF, and further examined how filamin A regulates the incorporation of TF into MVs...
October 10, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044226/bone-marrow-transplant-induced-alterations-in-notch-signaling-promote-pathologic-th17-responses-to-%C3%AE-herpesvirus-infection
#19
S J Gurczynski, X Zhou, M Flaherty, C A Wilke, B B Moore
Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a common, often fatal, complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) characterized by severe pneumonitis and interstitial fibrosis. Fully reconstituted syngeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) mice infected with murine γ-herpesvirus-68 develop interleukin-17 (IL-17)-driven pneumonitis and fibrosis, which mimics clinical manifestations of IPS. We found CD103+ and CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs) are selectively deficient for the Notch ligand, DLL4, following BMT and CD4+ T cells isolated from lungs and spleens of infected BMT mice display Notch signaling defects...
October 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044189/tgf-%C3%AE-signalling-and-peg10-are-mutually-exclusive-and-inhibitory-in-chondrosarcoma-cells
#20
Naohiro Shinohara, Shingo Maeda, Yuhei Yahiro, Daisuke Sakuma, Kanehiro Matsuyama, Katsuyuki Imamura, Ichiro Kawamura, Takao Setoguchi, Yasuhiro Ishidou, Satoshi Nagano, Setsuro Komiya
Histological distinction between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma is difficult because of a lack of definitive biomarkers. Here, we found highly active transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling in human chondrosarcomas compared with enchondromas by immunohistochemistry of phosphorylated SMAD3 and SMAD1/5. In contrast, the chondrogenic master regulator SOX9 was dramatically down-regulated in grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10) was identified by microarray analysis as a gene overexpressed in chondrosarcoma SW1353 and Hs 819...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
keyword
keyword
53548
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"