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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668114/-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-inhibit-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-human-polymorphonuclear-leukocytes
#1
Franca Marino, Angela Scanzano, Laura Pulze, Monica Pinoli, Emanuela Rasini, Alessandra Luini, Raffaella Bombelli, Massimiliano Legnaro, Magda de Eguileor, Marco Cosentino
This study tests the hypothesis that in isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) adrenergic ligands can affect neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. We have previously shown that, in PMN, adrenaline (A), through the activation of adrenergic receptors (AR), reduces stimulus-dependent cell activation; we have, therefore, planned to investigate if AR are involved in NET production. PMN were obtained from venous blood of healthy subject. The ability of adrenergic ligands to affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, NET production, and cell migration was investigated in cells cultured under resting conditions or after activation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), LPS, or IL-8...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668038/photodynamic-therapy-induces-antifibrotic-alterations-in-primary-human-vocal-fold-fibroblasts
#2
Chi Zhang, Jiajia Wang, Adriana Chou, Ting Gong, Erin E Devine, Jack J Jiang
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for laryngeal dysplasia, early-stage carcinoma, and papilloma, and was reported to have the ability to preserve laryngeal function and voice quality without clinical fibrotic response. We aimed to investigate the mechanism behind the antifibrotic effects of PDT on primary human vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs) in vitro. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro analysis from one human donor. METHODS: Cell viability of VFFs in response to varying doses of PDT was investigated by the Cell Counting Kit-8 method...
April 18, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667914/inactivation-of-map3k7-in-foxd1-expressing-cells-results-in-loss-of-mesangial-pdgfr%C3%AE-and-juvenile-kidney-scarring
#3
Michele J Karolak, Justin A Guay, Leif Oxburgh
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) plays a central role in renal scarring, controlling extracellular matrix deposition by interstitial cells and mesangial cells. TGFβ signals through Smad and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. To understand the role of MAPK in interstitial and mesangial cells, we genetically inactivated TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (Map3k7) using Foxd1+/cre. Embryonic kidney development was unperturbed in mutants, but spontaneous scarring of the kidney ensued during the first postnatal week, with retention of embryonic nephrogenic rests and accumulation of collagen IV in the mesangium...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667777/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-conditional-medium-promotes-leydig-cell-anti-apoptosis-and-proliferation-via-autophagy-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#4
Xiaoling Guo, Yong Chen, Tingting Hong, Xianwu Chen, Yue Duan, Chao Li, Renshan Ge
Leydig cell transplantation is a better alternative in the treatment of androgen-deficient males. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived conditioned medium (iPS-CM) on the anti-apoptosis, proliferation and function of immature Leydig cells (ILCs), and illuminate the underlying mechanisms. ILCs were exposed to 200 μmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for 24 hours with or without iPS-CM treatments. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometric analysis...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667669/structural-characterization-and-antitumor-activity-of-a-novel-se-polysaccharide-from-selenium-enriched-cordyceps-gunnii
#5
Huiqing Sun, Zhenyuan Zhu, Yali Tang, Yuanyuan Ren, Qiaoying Song, Yun Tang, Yongmin Zhang
Selenium (Se) has been recognized as an essential element. Animals and humans absorb and retain more organic Se than inorganic Se. Bio-transformation is a major approach to transform inorganic Se to organic Se. Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii), well known as a Chinese edible and medicinal fungus, has a variety of biological functions. C. gunnii and selenium were combined through liquid-fermentation to obtain selenium-enriched C. gunnii. A novel Se-polysaccharide (SeCPS-II) was extracted from selenium-enriched C...
April 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666892/using-liprotides-to-deliver-cholesterol-to-the-plasma-membrane
#6
Henriette S Frislev, Janni Nielsen, Jesper Nylandsted, Daniel Otzen
Cholesterol (chol) is important in all mammalian cells as a modulator of membrane fluidity. However, its low solubility is a challenge for controlled delivery to membranes. Here we introduce a new tool to deliver chol to membranes, namely, liprotides, i.e., protein-lipid complexes composed of a fatty acid core decorated with partially denatured protein. We focus on liprotides prepared by incubating Ca2+ -depleted α-lactalbumin with oleic acid (OA) for 1 h at 20 °C (lip20) or 80 °C (lip80). The binding and membrane delivery properties of liprotides is compared to the widely chol transporter methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mBCD)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666833/resolving-the-coffey-paradox-what-does-the-androgen-receptor-do-in-normal-vs-malignant-prostate-epithelial-cells
#7
REVIEW
John T Isaacs
Donald Straley Coffey completed his 85 year life's journey on November 9, 2017. In his wake, he left a legion of inspired and loyal students, fellows, and faculty colleagues from all over the world to carry on his passion both for life in general and his 50 year quest to conquer cancer. Early in his career, Dr. Coffey developed a series of animal models to study how androgen regulates the growth of both normal and abnormal prostatic epithelium. As part of these early studies, Dr. Coffey uncovered a paradox in that anti-androgen treatment given at the "wrong" time paradoxically enhanced, not inhibited, normal prostate growth...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666677/should-premarital-screening-for-blood-disorders-be-an-obligatory-measure-in-oman
#8
Amal A Al-Balushi, Budoor Al-Hinai
Due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages in Oman, there is a correspondingly high prevalence of hereditary blood disorders, particularly sickle cell disease and β-thalassaemia. This article proposes the possibility of implementing mandatory premarital carrier screening for blood disorders in Oman, while giving due consideration to potential social and cultural obstacles. Although the implementation of such legislation would require collaboration between different sectors and may negatively affect the autonomy of certain individuals, mandatory premarital screening would help to alleviate the burden of hereditary blood disorders on the national healthcare system, as well as reduce avoidable suffering among carriers and their families...
February 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666675/transfusion-in-haemoglobinopathies-review-and-recommendations-for-local-blood-banks-and-transfusion-services-in-oman
#9
REVIEW
Arwa Z Al-Riyami, Shahina Daar
Sickle cell disease and homozygous β-thalassaemia are common haemoglobinopathies in Oman, with many implications for local healthcare services. The transfusions of such patients take place in many hospitals throughout the country. Indications for blood transfusions require local recommendations and guidelines to ensure standardised levels of care. This article summarises existing transfusion guidelines for this group of patients and provides recommendations for blood banks and transfusion services in Oman...
February 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666619/deletion-of-a-gene-encoding-a-putative-peptidoglycan-associated-lipoprotein-prevents-degradation-of-the-crystalline-region-of-cellulose-in-cytophaga-hutchinsonii
#10
Xifeng Wang, Zhiquan Wang, Xinfeng Bai, Yue Zhao, Weican Zhang, Xuemei Lu
Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a gliding Gram-negative bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes with the capability to digest crystalline cellulose rapidly, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, deletion of chu_0125 , encoding a homolog of the peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (Pal), was determined to prevent degradation of the crystalline region of cellulose. We found that the chu_0125 deletion mutant grew normally in regenerated amorphous cellulose medium but displayed defective growth in crystalline cellulose medium and increased the degree of crystallinity of Avicel...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666569/inhibitory-effects-of-betulinic-acid-on-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-involve-m2-microglial-polarization-via-camkk%C3%AE-dependent-ampk-activation
#11
Chuwen Li, Chao Zhang, Hefeng Zhou, Yu Feng, Fan Tang, Maggie P M Hoi, Chengwei He, Dan Ma, Chao Zhao, Simon M Y Lee
In response to the microenvironment, microglia may polarize into either an M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype, exacerbating neurotoxicity, or an M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype, conferring neuroprotection. Betulinic acid (BA) is a naturally pentacyclic triterpenoid with considerable anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we aim to investigate the potential effects of BA on microglial phenotype polarization and to reveal the underlying mechanisms of action. First, we confirmed that BA promoted M2 polarization and inhibited M1 polarization in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666551/impact-of-new-ingredients-obtained-from-brewer-s-spent-yeast-on-bread-characteristics
#12
Z E Martins, O Pinho, I M P L V O Ferreira
The impact of bread fortification with β-glucans and with proteins/proteolytic enzymes from brewers' spent yeast on physical characteristics was evaluated. β-Glucans extraction from spent yeast cell wall was optimized and the extract was incorporated on bread to obtain 2.02 g β-glucans/100 g flour, in order to comply with the European Food Safety Authority guidelines. Protein/proteolytic enzymes extract from spent yeast was added to bread at 60 U proteolytic activity/100 g flour. Both β-glucans rich and proteins/proteolytic enzymes extracts favoured browning of bread crust...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666475/lincrna-cox2-regulates-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-autophagy-mediated-neuroinflammation
#13
Zhenyi Xue, Zimu Zhang, Hongkun Liu, Wen Li, Xiangdong Guo, Zhihui Zhang, Ying Liu, Long Jia, Yan Li, Yinghui Ren, Hongwei Yang, Lijuan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Yurong Da, Junwei Hao, Zhi Yao, Rongxin Zhang
Inflammasome activation plays key roles in host defense, but also contributes to the pathogenesis of auto-inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. As autophagy is connected with both the innate and adaptive immune systems, autophagic dysfunction is also closely related to inflammation, infection, and neurodegeneration. Here we identify that lincRNA-Cox2, previously known as a mediator of both the activation and repression of immune genes expression in innate immune cells, could bind NF-κB p65 and promote its nuclear translocation and transcription, modulating the expression of inflammasome sensor NLRP3 and adaptor ASC...
April 17, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666215/control-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-bioenergetics
#14
REVIEW
Charles Affourtit, Ben Alberts, Jonathan Barlow, Jane E Carré, Anthony G Wynne
The canonical model of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by pancreatic β-cells predicts a glucose-induced rise in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio. Such bioenergetic sensitivity to metabolic fuel is unusual as it implies that ATP flux is governed, to a significant extent, by ATP supply, while it is predominantly demand-driven in other cell types. Metabolic control is generally shared between different processes, but potential control of ATP consumption over β-cell bioenergetics has been largely ignored to date...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666061/deptor-is-a-novel-target-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-c-myc-and-contributes-to-colorectal-cancer-cell-growth
#15
Qingding Wang, Yuning Zhou, Piotr Rychahou, Jennifer W Harris, Yekaterina Y Zaytseva, Jinpeng Liu, Chi Wang, Heidi L Weiss, Chunming Liu, Eun Y Lee, B Mark Evers
Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway drives colorectal cancer (CRC) growth by deregulating expression of downstream target genes including the c-Myc proto-oncogene. The critical targets that mediate the functions of oncogenic c-Myc in CRC have yet to be fully elucidated. Previously, we showed that activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR contributes to CRC growth and metastasis. Here we show that Deptor, a suppressor of mTOR, is a direct target of Wnt/β-catenin/c-Myc signaling in CRC cells. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin or knockdown of c-Myc decreased, while activation of Wnt/β-catenin or overexpression of c-Myc increased, the expression of Deptor...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665939/-research-progress-of-%C3%AE-catenin-in-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-review
#16
Wei Ding, Yu-Feng Li
β-catenin is an important member of Wnt signaling pathway. With more and more research on the relationship between β-catenin and cancers, it is noted that the concentration of β-catenin in cells is not only the landmark of activating the Wnt signaling pathway, but also a common phenomenon in various tumor cells. Moreover, abnormal expression of β-catenin is reported in blastic phase of CML and IM-resistant CML. Besides, β-catenin inhibitor is proved to be effective for the improvement of the IM susceptibility and the postponment of blastic phase...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665811/recombinant-mouse-periostin-ameliorates-coronal-sutures-fusion-in-twist1-mice
#17
Shanshan Bai, Dong Li, Liang Xu, Huichuan Duan, Jie Yuan, Min Wei
BACKGROUND: Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder caused by mutations in the twist family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 (TWIST1) gene. Surgical procedures are frequently required to reduce morphological and functional defects in patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Therefore, the development of noninvasive procedures to treat Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is critical. We identified that periostin, which is an extracellular matrix protein that plays an important role in both bone and connective tissues, is downregulated in craniosynostosis patients...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665787/valproic-acid-sensitizes-metformin-resistant-human-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells-by-upregulating-h3-acetylation-and-emt-reversal
#18
Muyun Wei, Shaowei Mao, Guoliang Lu, Liang Li, Xiaopeng Lan, Zhongxian Huang, Yougen Chen, Miaoqing Zhao, Yueran Zhao, Qinghua Xia
BACKGROUND: Metformin (Met) is a widely available diabetic drug and shows suppressed effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metabolism and proliferation. Laboratory studies in RCC suggested that metformin has remarkable antitumor activities and seems to be a potential antitumor drug. But the facts that metformin may be not effective in reducing the risk of RCC in cancer clinical trials made it difficult to determine the benefits of metformin in RCC prevention and treatment. The mechanisms underlying the different conclusions between laboratory experiments and clinical analysis remains unclear...
April 17, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665690/structural-characterization-of-lignin-from-maize-zea-mays-l-fibers-evidences-for-diferuloylputrescine-incorporated-into-the-lignin-polymer-in-maize-kernels
#19
José C Carlos Del Río, Jorge Rencoret, Ana Gutierrez, Hoon Kim, John Ralph
The structure of the phenolic polymer in maize grain fibers, with 5.5% Klason lignin content, has been studied. For this, the milled wood lignin (MWL) and dioxane lignin (DL) preparations were isolated and analyzed. The data indicated that the lignin in maize fibers was syringyl-rich, mostly involved in β-aryl ether, resinol and phenylcoumaran substructures. 2D-NMR and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC) also revealed the occurrence of associated ferulates together with trace amounts of p-coumarates acylating the γ-OH of lignin side-chains, predominantly on S-lignin units...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665664/-resting-metabolic-rate-estimated-by-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-and-its-determinants-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients
#20
J J Da, H Y Peng, X Lin, Y Shen, J Q Zhao, S He, Y Zha
Objective: To explore the level of resting energy expenditure (REE) estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and the association of resting metabolic rate (RMR) with clinical related factors, and provide new ideas for improving protein energy wasting (PEW) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Methods: Seven hundred and sixty-five subjects receiving MHD between July 2015 and September 2016 in 11 hemodialysis centers in Guizhou province were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure RMR and body composition, such as lean body mass, fat mass and body cell mass (BCM)...
March 27, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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