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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232694/hyperbranched-poly-%C3%AF%C2%B5-lysine-substrate-presenting-the-laminin-sequence-yigsr-induces-the-formation-of-spheroids-in-adult-bone-marrow-stem-cells
#1
Valeria Perugini, Steve T Meikle, Anna L Guildford, Matteo Santin
Unlike the fibroblast-like cells formed upon monolayer culture of human mesenchymal stem cells, the natural stem cell niche of the bone marrow and other types of tissues favours the formation of 3-dimensional (3D) cell clusters. The structuring and biological activity of these clusters are regulated by the contacts established by cells with both the basement membrane and neighbour cells and results in their asymmetric division and the consequent maintenance of both a stem population and a committed progeny...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232689/a-computational-model-for-regulation-of-nanoscale-glucan-exposure-in-candida-albicans
#2
Michael J Wester, Jia Lin, Aaron K Neumann
Candida albicans is a virulent human opportunistic pathogen. It evades innate immune surveillance by masking an immunogenic cell wall polysaccharide, β-glucan, from recognition by the immunoreceptor Dectin-1. Glucan unmasking by the antifungal drug caspofungin leads to changes in the nanostructure of glucan exposure accessible to Dectin-1. The physical mechanism that regulates glucan exposure is poorly understood, but it controls the nanobiology of fungal pathogen recognition. We created computational models to simulate hypothetical physical processes of unmasking glucan in a biologically realistic distribution of cell wall glucan fibrils...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232661/downregulation-of-long-noncoding-rna-gas5-affects-cell-cycle-and-insulin-secretion-in-mouse-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#3
Feiyan Jin, Ning Wang, Yanan Zhu, Lianghui You, Lintao Wang, Wei De, Wei Tang
BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in individual development, cell differentiation, cell cycle processes and other important life processes and are closely related to major human diseases, including diabetes. Recent studies have reported that lncRNAs are involved in β cell functions and that lncRNA Gas5 levels decreased in T2DM patients' serum. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of lncRNA Gas5 in mouse β cell functions in vitro and in vivo...
October 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232585/synthesis-of-new-triterpenic-monomers-and-dimers-as-potential-antiproliferative-agents-and-their-molecular-docking-studies
#4
Aasim Saeed, Hidayat Hussain, Umair Shamraiz, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Husain Yar Khan, Amin Badshah, Lucie Heller, René Csuk, Majid Ali, Ajmal Khan, Ahmed Al-Harrasi
In the current investigation, new monomers of myrrhanone B and lupeolic acid were prepared via reaction of triterpenic acids with linkers in the presence of K2CO3. In addition, new bis-myrrhanone B homodimers, myrrhanone B-myrrhanol B heterodimers, and bis-myrrhanone β-boswellic acids heterodimer were prepared. Evaluation of these compounds on the proliferation of four different human cancer cell lines, viz., FaDu (pharynx carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), HT29 (colon adenocarcinoma) and A375 (malignant melanoma) has been performed...
December 9, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232396/fatty-acids-rather-than-hormones-restore-in-vitro-angiogenesis-in-human-male-and-female-endothelial-cells-cultured-in-charcoal-stripped-serum
#5
Claudia Vanetti, Francesco Bifari, Lucia M Vicentini, Maria Grazia Cattaneo
Charcoal-stripped serum (CSS) is a well-accepted method to model effects of sex hormones in cell cultures. We have recently shown that human endothelial cells (ECs) fail to growth and to undergo in vitro angiogenesis when cultured in CSS. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the CSS-induced impairment of in vitro EC properties are still unknown. In addition, whether there is any sexual dimorphism in the CSS-induced EC phenotype remains to be determined. Here, by independently studying human male and female ECs, we found that CSS inhibited both male and female EC growth and in vitro angiogenesis, with a more pronounced effect on male EC sprouting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232391/studies-of-the-structure-antioxidant-activity-relationships-and-antioxidant-activity-mechanism-of-iridoid-valepotriates-and-their-degradation-products
#6
Feifei Wang, Yumei Zhang, Shouhai Wu, Yi He, Zhong Dai, Shuangcheng Ma, Bin Liu
Oxidative stress has been associated with diverse diseases, including obesity, cancer and neurodegeneration. In fact, Valeriana jatamansi Jones (valerian) and its extracts possess strong antioxidant activities that extend their application in clinical practice to the treatment of these illnesses, even though the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Iridoid valepotriate, a characteristic iridoid ester in valerian with poor chemical stability, possesses considerable antioxidant components. The original compounds and their degradation products have been found to exhibit strong antioxidant activities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232318/significant-effect-of-acupressure-in-elevating-blood-stem-cell-factor-during-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-gynecologic-cancer
#7
Ya-Wen Shih, Shun-Fa Yang, Ming-Hsien Chien, Ching-Wen Chang, Vincent H S Chang, Hsiu-Ting Tsai
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is used mainly to treat and control the progression of gynecological cancer. Bone marrow suppression, one of the adverse side effects of chemotherapy, may decrease immune function, increasing the risk of serious, fatal infections. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of noninvasive acupressure in preventing and diminishing chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression in patients with gynecologic cancer and to determine whether this effect is associated with the regulation of the expressions of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and stem cell factor (SCF)...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232287/the-effects-of-known-cardioprotective-drugs-on-proinflammatory-cytokine-secretion-from-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#8
Michael J Haas, Marilu Jurado-Flores, Ramadan Hammoud, Victoria Feng, Krista Gonzales, Luisa Onstead-Haas, Arshag D Mooradian
BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell dysfunction in diabetes is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of premature atherosclerosis. High-dextrose has been shown to induce both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). STUDY QUESTION: To determine whether or not several classes of cardioprotective drugs inhibit proinflammatory cytokine expression by HCAEC. MEASURES AND OUTCOMES: To determine the effects of high dextrose on expression of proinflammatory cytokines by HCAEC, cells were treated with either 5...
November 27, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232160/microrna-145-antagonism-reverses-tgf-%C3%AE-inhibition-of-f508del-cftr-correction-in-airway-epithelia
#9
Farruk Lutful Kabir, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Gang Liu, Peng Li, George M Solomon, Charitharth V Lal, Marina Mazur, Brian Halloran, Tomasz Szul, William T Gerthoffer, Steven M Rowe, William T Harris
INTRODUCTION: microRNAs (miRNAs) destabilize mRNA transcripts and inhibit protein translation. miR-145 is of particular interest in cystic fibrosis (CF) as it has a direct binding site in the 3'-untranslated region of CFTR and is upregulated by the CF genetic modifier TGF-β. HYPOTHESIS: miR-145 mediates TGF-β inhibition of CFTR synthesis and function in airway epithelia. METHODS: Primary human CF (F508del homozygous) and non-CF airway epithelial cells (AECs) were grown to terminal differentiation at air-liquid interface on permeable supports...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232098/amyloid-%C3%AE-1-40-toxicity-depends-on-the-molecular-contact-between-phenylalanine-19-and-leucine-34
#10
Alexander Korn, Steffane McLennan, Juliane Adler, Martin Krueger, Dayana Surendran, Sudipta Maiti, Daniel Huster
The formation of the hydrophobic contact between phenylalanine 19 (F19) and leucine 34 (L34) of amyloid β (1-40) (Aβ(1-40)) is known to be an important step in the fibrillation of Aβ(1-40) peptides. Mutations of this putatively early molecular contact were shown to strongly influence the toxicity of Aβ(1-40) (Das et al., ACS Chem. Neurosci. 6 (2015) 1290-1295). Any mutation of residue F19 completely abolished the toxicity of Aβ(1-40), suggesting that a proper F19 - L34 contact is crucial also for the formation of transient oligomers...
December 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232009/effect-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-on-apoptosis-migration-and-invasion-of-transplanted-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-after-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolization-in-rats
#11
Bao-Ming Wang, Nuo Li
This study aims to investigate the influence of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on apoptosis, migration and invasion of transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in rat models. A total of 60 rats were grouped into sham, TACE, Wnt-C59 and TACE + Wnt-C59 groups (n = 20). Ten days after model establishment, 10 rats in each group were executed to perform pathological examination and follow-up experiment, and the remaining 10 rats in each group were reared to observe the survival condition...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231998/phosphorylated-tyr142-%C3%AE-catenin-localizes-to-centrosomes-and-is-regulated-by-syk
#12
D Bhardwaj, M Náger, A Visa, M C Sallán, P J Coopman, C Cantí, J Herreros
β-catenin is a central component of adherent junctions and a key effector of canonical Wnt signalling, in which dephosphorylated Ser/Thr β-catenin regulates gene transcription. β-catenin phosphorylation at Tyr142 (PTyr142 β-catenin), which is induced by receptor and Src family Tyr kinases, represents a previously described β-catenin switch from adhesive to migratory roles. In addition to classical β-catenin roles, phosphorylated Ser/Thr β-catenin and total β-catenin were involved in centrosomal functions, including mitotic spindle formation and centrosome separation...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231996/molecular-mechanisms-of-tributyltin-induced-alterations-in-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-steroidogenesis-in-hamster-testis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#13
V Kanimozhi, K Palanivel, M A Akbarsha, B Kadalmani
Tributyltins (TBT) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants that disturb normal endocrine function including gonadal function in humans and marine organisms. TBT was administered through oral route to male Syrian hamsters at daily doses of 50, 100 and 150 ppm/kg for 65 days. Changes in testis morphology, immunohistochemistry of iNOS, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD, cholesterol transport receptor, nuclear receptors, and transcription factors were analyzed. TBT treatment affected each of these parameters to significant levels in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle treated control...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231992/hcfu-inhibits-cervical-cancer-cells-growth-and-metastasis-by-inactivating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#14
Ping Liu, Shuying Ma, Hua Liu, Huazhen Han, Shanshan Wang
BACKGROUND: 1-hexylcarbamoyl-5-fluorouracil (HCFU), also known as carmofur, is an effective chemotherapeutic agent applied to several cancers. This study was aimed to explore the functional effects of HCFU on cervical cancer cells and tried to uncover its possible mechanism. METHODS: Two immortalized cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa and Caski) and primary cervical cancer cells prepared from two cervical cancer patients were used in this study. Cell viability, apoptosis, colony formation, migration, invasion, and the expressions of cell growth- and metastasis-associated factors were respectively assessed following 0-1 µg/mL of HCFU treatment for 0-48 h...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231977/dids-inhibits-overexpression-bak1-induced-mitochondrial-apoptosis-through-gsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#15
Xiayun Yang, Shusheng Tang, Daowen Li, Xiaohong Yu, Fuyun Wang, Xilong Xiao
Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (BAK1) is a critical regulator of mitochondrial apoptosis. Although upregulation of BAK1 induces apoptosis has been established, the underlying molecular mechanism is far from clear. 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an organic anion used as a blocker of anion exchangers and chloride channels, has been proved to rescue cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. However, whether DIDS can inhibit BAK1-induced mitochondrial apoptosis remains undefined. Thus, this study aimed to explore whether DIDS could protect BAK1-induced apoptosis through GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231738/affinity-purification-and-single-molecule-analysis-of-integral-membrane-proteins-from-crude-cell-membrane-preparations
#16
Anders Oskar Lundgren, Björn Johansson Fast, Stephan Block, Björn Agnarsson, Erik Reimhult, Anders Gunnarsson, Fredrik Höök
The function of integral membrane proteins is critically dependent on their naturally surrounding lipid membrane. Detergent-solubilized and purified membrane proteins are therefore often reconstituted into cell-membrane mimics and analysed for their function with single-molecule microscopy. Expansion of this approach towards a broad range of pharmaceutically interesting drug targets and biomarkers however remains hampered by the fact that these proteins have low expression levels, and that detergent solubilisation and reconstitution often cause protein conformational changes and loss of membrane-specific co-factors, which may impair protein function...
December 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231282/new-insight-into-the-synthesis-and-biological-activity-of-the-polymeric-materials-consisting-of-folic-acid-and-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin
#17
Artur Kasprzak, Ireneusz P Grudzinski, Magdalena Bamburowicz-Klimkowska, Andrzej Parzonko, Maciej Gawlak, Magdalena Poplawska
This work presents a very new look at folate targeting and is focused on synthesizing and assessing the biological activity of folic acid-targeted drug delivery materials based on β-cyclodextrin. Both folic acid and β-cyclodextrin have been covalently conjugated to branched polyethylenimine as the polymeric vector. Host-guest inclusion of folic acid into a β-cyclodextrin cavity, demonstrated by means of the spectroscopic methods (2-D NMR, IR, UV-Vis), is found to be of crucial importance for biological activity of nanotherapeutics...
December 12, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231135/preparation-characterization-toxicity-and-pharmacodynamics-of-the-inclusion-complex-of-brucea-javanica-oil-with-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-polymers
#18
Rong-Rong Xu, Lin Chen, Bo Pan, Xing-Chen Wang, Huan-Huan Wu, Xian-Hong Song, Rong Hu
BACKGROUND: The novel water-soluble inclusion complex of Brucea javanica oil (BJO) by β-cyclodextrin polymers (CDP) was prepared by saturated aqueous method and characterized by SEM, FT-IR and 1H NMR. Compared with BJO, the aqueous solubility of BJO-CDP (77.76%) was greatly enhanced due to the water-soluble CDP host. RESULTS: In the acute toxicity test, the value of LD50 of BJO-CDP was 11.94 g/kg, suggesting the lower toxicity of BJO-CDP. Moreover, the pharmacodynamics of BJO-CDP was investigated by evaluating its inhibition effects on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells and mice transplantable colon cancer CT-26 cells...
December 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230879/microrna-143-5p-regulates-alpaca-melanocyte-migration-proliferation-and-melanogenesis
#19
Kaiyuan Ji, Pengqian Zhang, Junzhen Zhang, Ruiwen Fan, Yu Liu, Shanshan Yang, Shuaipeng Hu, Xuexian Liu, Changsheng Dong
microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be closely involved in the control of melanogenesis and hair colour in mammals. Previous data also indicate that miR-143 regulates cell growth in melanoma. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-143-5p in alpaca melanocytes. We found that miR-143-5p was highly expressed in the cytoplasm of alpaca melanocytes as demonstrated by an in situ hybridization assay. Prediction analysis revealed that miR-143-5p could regulate TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) expression, which we confirmed by luciferase reporter assay, indicating that miR-143-5p controls TAK1 expression by directly targeting its 3' untranslated region (UTR)...
December 11, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230688/therapeutic-effects-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-on-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Pusoon Chun
Increasing evidence has shown the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the development and progression of various renal diseases, highlighting its inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent kidney diseases. Accordingly, numerous studies have shown that HDAC inhibitors protect the kidneys from various diseases through their effects on multiple pathways, such as suppression of transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways, augmentation of apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis...
December 11, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
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