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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822991/aquatide-activation-of-sirt1-reduces-cellular-senescence-through-a-sirt1-foxo1-autophagy-axis
#1
Chae Jin Lim, Yong-Moon Lee, Seung Goo Kang, Hyung W Lim, Kyong-Oh Shin, Se Kyoo Jeong, Yang Hoon Huh, Suin Choi, Myungho Kor, Ho Seong Seo, Byeong Deog Park, Keedon Park, Jeong Keun Ahn, Yoshikazu Uchida, Kyungho Park
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a relevant environment factor to induce cellular senescence and photoaging. Both autophagy- and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1)-dependent pathways are critical cellular processes of not only maintaining normal cellular functions, but also protecting cellular senescence in skin exposed to UV irradiation. In the present studies, we investigated whether modulation of autophagy induction using a novel synthetic SIRT1 activator, heptasodium hexacarboxymethyl dipeptide-12 (named as Aquatide), suppresses the UVB irradiation-induced skin aging...
August 21, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822915/immunomodulatory-effects-of-m2000-%C3%AE-d-mannuronic-acid-on-tnf-%C3%AE-il-17-and-foxp3-gene-expression-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Hussaini Alhassan Mohammed, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi, Homayoun Vahedi, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Ghodratollah Panahi, Gholamreza Hemmasi, Mostafa Lakzaei, Abbas Mirshafiey
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are immune-mediated disorders that result from an aberrant immunological response to the gut luminal antigen in genetically susceptible patients. IBD is categorized into two serotype, Crohn's diseases (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), both subtype are important cause of gastrointestinal diseases. The increasing rate of hospitalization, with the high economic burden experienced by the IBD patients, calls for more concerted research efforts to design a potent and affordable treatment option for the treatment of IBD...
August 17, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822846/islet-g-protein-coupled-receptors-therapeutic-potential-for-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Shanta J Persaud
The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing at an alarming rate, which is imposing substantial healthcare and economic burdens worldwide. T2D can be treated by a range of drugs, but there is a need to identify additional therapeutic options. Human islets express nearly three hundred G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which could be targeted for the treatment of T2D. However, to date, the GLP-1 receptor is the only islet GPCR for which agonists are in current clinical use. This review explores pharmaceutical development of drugs that activate individual or multiple β-cell GPCRs and explains how our knowledge of GPCR expression by human islets may inform direction on novel GPCR targets...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822807/spontaneous-activation-of-a-mavs-dependent-antiviral-signaling-pathway-determines-high-basal-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-cardiac-myocytes
#4
Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Nicole DeAngelis, Barbara Sherry
Viral myocarditis is a leading cause of sudden death in young adults as the limited turnover of cardiac myocytes renders the heart particularly vulnerable to viral damage. Viruses induce an antiviral type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response in essentially all cell types, providing an immediate innate protection. Cardiac myocytes express high basal levels of IFN-β to help pre-arm them against viral infections, however the mechanism underlying this expression remains unclear. Using primary cultures of murine cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, we demonstrate here that the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway is spontaneously activated in unstimulated cardiac myocytes but not cardiac fibroblasts or skeletal muscle cells...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822790/galectin-3-as-a-novel-regulator-of-osteoblast-osteoclast-interaction-and-bone-homeostasis
#5
Dominic Simon, Anja Derer, Fabian Andes, Patrick Lezuo, Aline Bozec, Georg Schett, Martin Herrmann, Ulrike Harre
Bone tissue undergoes permanent and lifelong remodeling with a concerted action of bone-building osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. A precise cooperation between those two cell types is critical in the complex process of bone renewal. Galectin-3 is a member of the β-galactoside-binding lectin family playing multiple roles in cell growth, differentiation and aggregation. As it has been described to be expressed in bone, galectin-3 might influence bone homeostasis by regulating the function and/or interplay of osteoblasts and osteoclasts...
August 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822725/berberine-modulates-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-generation-by-activating-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#6
Haijing Zhang, Chunhui Zhao, Guoqiong Cao, Limin Guo, Shuai Zhang, Yuexia Liang, Chunxia Qin, Ping Su, Hang Li, Wensheng Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits and cognitive decline. Excessive amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregates and forms soluble oligomers and insoluble cerebral amyloid plaques, which is widely thought to be the underlying pathogenic mechanism of AD. Therefore, effective regulation of Aβ metabolism is an important aspect of preventing and improving AD. Berberine, which is the main active component of the traditional medicinal herb Coptidis rhizoma, has a positive effect on reducing Aβ levels...
August 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822229/vasculogenesis-and-angiogenesis-initiation-under-normoxic-conditions-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-gliomas
#7
Alexandre Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is up-regulated in gliomas and involved in proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation correlates with malignancy. Hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α by inhibiting HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation, which promotes glycolytic energy metabolism, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, whereas HIF-1α is degraded by the HIF prolyl hydroxylase under normoxic conditions. We focus this review on the links between the activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the mechanisms underlying vasculogenesis and angiogenesis through HIF-1α under normoxic conditions in gliomas...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822218/locally-produced-xenin-and-the-neurotensinergic-system-in-pancreatic-islet-function-and-%C3%AE-cell-survival
#8
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Victor A Gault, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin
Modulation of neuropeptide receptors is important for pancreatic β-cell function. Here, islet distribution and effects of the neurotensin (NT) receptor modulators, xenin and NT, was examined. Xenin, but not NT, significantly improved glucose disposal and insulin secretion, in mice. However, both peptides stimulated insulin secretion from rodent β-cells at 5.6 mM glucose, with xenin having similar insulinotropic actions at 16.7 mM glucose. In contrast, NT inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion. Similar observations were made in human 1...
August 28, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822186/-lignan-glycosides-and-sucrose-esters-from-roots-of-securidaca-inappendiculata
#9
Zhi Wang, Xue-Dong Yang, Hai-Yan Zha, Li-Na Guo, Dan Shen, Li-Zhen Xu, Shi-Lin Yang
Nine compounds, including five lignan glycosides (1-5), three sucrose esters (6-8), and one organic acid ester (9), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the roots of Securidaca inappendiculata by various chromatographic methods including silica gel, MPLC and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated as acernikol-4″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (7R, 8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), (7R, 8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), (7R, 8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), (7R, 8S)-5-methoxydihydrodehy-drodiconiferyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), 3, 6'-O-diferuloylsucrose (6), 3-O-feruloyl-6'-O-sinapoylsucrose (7), sibricose A5 (8), and mehyl ferulate (9) on the basis of 1H-, 13C-NMR and MS experiments...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821884/the-atopic-dermatitis-blood-signature-is-characterized-by-increases-in-inflammatory-and-cardiovascular-risk-proteins
#10
Patrick M Brunner, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas, Helen He, Kunal Malik, Huei-Chi Wen, Juana Gonzalez, Tom Chih-Chieh Chan, Yeriel Estrada, Xiuzhong Zheng, Saakshi Khattri, Nancy Dattola, James G Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky
Beyond classic "allergic"/atopic comorbidities, atopic dermatitis (AD) emerges as systemic disease with increased cardiovascular risk. To better define serum inflammatory and cardiovascular risk proteins, we used an OLINK high-throughput proteomic assay to analyze moderate-to-severe AD (n = 59) compared to psoriasis (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 18). Compared to controls, 10 proteins were increased in serum of both diseases, including Th1 (IFN-γ, CXCL9, TNF-β) and Th17 (CCL20) markers. 48 proteins each were uniquely upregulated in AD and psoriasis...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821850/comparative-metabonomics-of-wenxin-keli-and-verapamil-reveals-differential-roles-of-gluconeogenesis-and-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-myocardial-injury-protection
#11
Miaomiao Jiang, Qiuying Wang, Jingrui Chen, Yanan Wang, Guanwei Fan, Yan Zhu
Metabonomics/metabolomics is a rapid technology for comprehensive profiling of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues, or whole organisms, the application of which has led to understanding pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiometabolic diseases, defining predictive biomarkers for those diseases, and also assessing the efficacious effects of incident drugs. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was employed to identify the metabolic changes in rat plasma caused by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI), and to compare the metabolic regulatory differences between traditional Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli (WXKL) and Western medicine verapamil...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821798/unconventional-mapk-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway-behind-atypical-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Sana Parveen, Dhiviya Vedagiri, Hitha Gopalan Nair, Haripriya Parthasarathy, Krishnan Harinivas Harshan
We recently reported an atypical epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human hepatoma cell culture Huh7.5, which was non-responsive to the canonical EMT-transcription factors. Here we characterize major pathways regulating this atypical EMT through whole genome transcriptome profiling and molecular analysis, and identify a unique regulation of EMT by GSK-3β. Our analysis reveals remarkable suppression of several key liver-specific markers in Huh7.5M cells indicating that EMT not only changes the epithelial properties, but alters the characteristics associated with hepatocytes as well...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821639/amyloid-induced-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-and-islet-inflammation-are-ameliorated-by-4-phenylbutyrate-pba-treatment
#13
Joel Montane, Sara de Pablo, Carlos Castaño, Júlia Rodríguez-Comas, Lisa Cadavez, Mercè Obach, Montse Visa, Gema Alcarraz-Vizán, Melchor Sanchez-Martinez, Alfons Nonell-Canals, Marcelina Parrizas, Joan-Marc Servitja, Anna Novials
Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation is associated with β-cell dysfunction and death in type 2 diabetes (T2D). we aimed to determine whether in vivo treatment with chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) ameliorates hIAPP-induced β-cell dysfunction and islet amyloid formation. Oral administration of PBA in transgenic (Tg) mice expressing hIAPP in pancreatic β cells (hIAPP Tg) counteracted impaired glucose homeostasis and restored glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, PBA treatment almost completely prevented the transcriptomic alterations observed in hIAPP Tg islets, including the induction of genes related to inflammation...
August 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821630/il-17a-deficiency-mitigates-bleomycin-induced-complement-activation-during-lung-fibrosis
#14
Ellyse Cipolla, Amanda J Fisher, Hongmei Gu, Elizabeth A Mickler, Manisha Agarwal, Carol A Wilke, Kevin K Kim, Bethany B Moore, Ragini Vittal
Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and complement (C') activation have each been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have reported that IL-17A induces epithelial injury via TGF-β in murine bronchiolitis obliterans; that TGF-β and the C' cascade present signaling interactions in mediating epithelial injury; and that the blockade of C' receptors mitigates lung fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-17A in regulating C' in lung fibrosis. Microarray analyses of mRNA isolated from primary normal human small airway epithelial cells indicated that IL-17A (100 ng/ml; 24 h; n = 5 donor lungs) induces C' components (C' factor B, C3, and GPCR kinase isoform 5), cytokines (IL8, -6, and -1B), and cytokine ligands (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, -6, and -16)...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821477/tgf-%C3%AE-induced-intracellular-pai-1-is-responsible-for-retaining-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-niche
#15
Takashi Yahata, Abd Aziz Ibrahim, Yukari Muguruma, Mesut Eren, Alexander M Shaffer, Nobuo Watanabe, Satoko Kaneko, Tetsuo Nakabayashi, Takashi Dan, Noriaki Hirayama, Douglas E Vaughan, Toshio Miyata, Kiyoshi Ando
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the supportive stromal niche in bone marrow (BM); when needed, however, they are rapidly mobilized into the circulation, suggesting that HSPCs are intrinsically highly motile but are usually stayed in the niche. We questioned what determines the motility of HSPCs. Here we show that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced intracellular plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 activation is responsible for keeping HSPCs in the BM niche. We found that the expression of PAI-1, a downstream target of TGF-β-signaling, was selectively augmented in niche-residing HSPCs...
August 18, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821450/carvedilol-abrogates-hypoxia-induced-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-in-microglial-bv2-cells
#16
Xiujuan Gao, Bin Wu, Zhijian Fu, Zongwang Zhang, Guangjun Xu
Microglia initially undergo rapid activation in response to injury and stressful stimuli, such as hypoxia. Oxidative stress and the inflammatory response play critical roles in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Carvedilol is a β-blocker used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. In this study, we investigated whether carvedilol had a protective effect against hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in microglial BV2 cells. Our results indicate that hypoxic exposure significantly reduced mean cell viability of BV2 microglia, which was significantly restored by carvedilol (10 and 50μM)...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821400/alzheimer-s-disease-as-oligomeropathy
#17
REVIEW
Kenjiro Ono
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by pathological aggregates of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and tau protein. On the basis of genetic evidence, biochemical data, and animal models, Aβ has been suggested to be responsible for the pathogenesis of AD (the amyloid hypothesis). Aβ molecules tend to aggregate to form oligomers, protofibrils, and mature fibrils. Although mature fibrils in the final stage have been thought to be the cause of AD pathogenesis, recent studies using synthetic Aβ peptides, a cell culture model, Aβ precursor protein transgenic mice models, and human samples, such as cerebrospinal fluids and postmortem brains of AD patients, suggest that pre-fibrillar forms (oligomers of Aβ) are more deleterious than are extracellular fibril forms...
August 16, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821190/fibromatosis-of-the-breast-diagnostic-accuracy-of-core-needle-biopsy
#18
M Gabriela Kuba, Susan C Lester, Catherine S Giess, Monica M Bertagnolli, Tad J Wieczorek, Jane E Brock
Objectives: Fibromatosis of the breast is an uncommon neoplasm with potential for local recurrence. Treatment has traditionally been surgical excision with current trends toward conservative management. Given the option of observation after diagnosis by core needle biopsy (CNB), we sought to evaluate the accuracy of CNB for diagnosing fibromatosis. Methods: We identified a total of 31 cases in which fibromatosis had been diagnosed or included in the differential diagnosis on a CNB, an excision, or both...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821056/fabrication-of-salecan-poly-amps-co-hmaa-semi-ipn-hydrogels-for-cell-adhesion
#19
Xinyu Hu, Yongmei Wang, Liangliang Zhang, Man Xu, Wei Dong, Jianfa Zhang
Salecan is a novel water-soluble extracellular β-glucan and has excellent physicochemical and biological properties. A series of hydrogels were fabricated from Salecan and poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide) (poly(AMPS-co-HMAA), PAH) by semi-IPN technique. The introduction of Salecan into the PAH network endows the system with enhanced cell adhesion properties. These semi-IPN hydrogels with open interconnected pores had pH and salt-sensitive swelling behavior. The increase in the content of hydrophilic Salecan could enhance the water uptake of the hydrogels...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821047/structural-analysis-and-immunomodulatory-effect-of-polysaccharide-from-atractylodis-macrocephalae-koidz-on-bovine-lymphocytes
#20
Wei Xu, Ran Guan, Fushan Shi, Aifang Du, Songhua Hu
RAMP60, RAMP70, RAMP80 and RAMPtp extracted from the rhizome of Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz. were chemically analyzed and tested for their lymphocyte stimulation. Among them, only RAMPtp was found to induce proliferation of lymphocytes from bovine supramammary lymph node (SMLN). It was found that RAMPtp was homogeneous polysaccharide with Mn of 1.867×10(3) by GPC analysis, composed of glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose and galactose, with mass percentages of 60.67%, 14.99%, 10.61%, 8.83% and 4.90%, respectively by HPLC analysis, connected by 1, 3-linked β-D Galp and 1, 6-linked β-D Galp residues by NMR analysis and was amorphous in structure by SEM analysis...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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