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β cell

Peilin Zheng, Zhixia Li, Zhiguang Zhou
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease, which is characterized by the destruction of islet β cells in the pancreas triggered by genetic and environmental factors. In past decades, extensive familial and genome-wide association studies have revealed more than 50 risk loci in the genome. However, genetic susceptibility cannot explain the increased incidence of T1D worldwide, which is very likely attributed by the growing impact of environmental factors, especially gut microbiome. Recently, the role of gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of T1D have been uncovered by the increasing evidence from both human subjects and animal models, strongly indicating that gut microbiome might be a pivotal hub of T1D-triggering factors, especially environmental factors...
June 21, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Anna Choromanska, Sandra Lubinska, Anna Szewczyk, Jolanta Saczko, Julita Kulbacka
There are still not specified mechanisms how beta-glucan molecules are transported into cells. Supposing, beta-glucan toxicity against tumor cells may be related to the overexpression of the transporter responsible for the transport of glucose molecules in the cells. In this case, glucans - polymers composed of glucose units are much more up-taken by tumor than normal cells. Increased GLUT1 (Glucose Transporter Type 1) expression has been demonstrated earlier in malignant melanomas. GLUT1 expression promotes glucose uptake and cell growth in that cells...
June 6, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Evelina L Zdorovenko, Alexander S Shashkov, Alexandra A Kadykova, Elena P Kiseleva, Victoria V Savich, Galina I Novik, Yuriy A Knirel
Strain of Pseudomonas psychrotolerans was cultured on the nutrient agar and in a liquid nutrient broth. Bacterial cells were phage-typed with bacteriophages specific to Pseudomonas. O-antigen was isolated from cells using phenol-water method and mild acid degradation. The following structures of the polysaccharides extracted were established by sugar analysis and 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopy: PSI→3)-α-D-Manp-(1→2)-α-D-Manp-(1→; PSII→3)-α-D-Rhap-(1→2)-β-D-Rhap-(1→3)-α-D-Rhap-(1→; α-D-Glcp-(1˩; 2...
June 18, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Pau Comajoan, Carme Gubern, Gemma Huguet, Joaquín Serena, Elisabet Kádár, Mar Castellanos
Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only pharmacological approved treatment for ischemic stroke, despite its associated increasing risk of hemorrhagic transformation. Since many of rt-PA effects in blood-brain barrier (BBB) are not well characterized, the study of protein changes in BBB cells after rt-PA administration may help to understand its adverse effects. Our aim was to analyze protein levels of four commonly used housekeeping proteins: β-Actin, α-Tubulin, GAPDH and HPRT in bEnd...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Ibragim Gaidarov, John Adams, John Frazer, Todd Anthony, Xiaohua Chen, Joel Gatlin, Graeme Semple, David J Unett
Angiotensin (1-7) has been reported to be a ligand for the GPCR MAS1. Small molecule MAS1 modulators have also been recently characterized. Aside from convincing evidence for MAS1 activation of Gq signaling, little is known about MAS1 mediated signaling pathways initiated by these ligands, especially Ang (1-7). We performed a comprehensive characterization of recombinant MAS1 signaling induced by Ang (1-7) and small molecule ligands through numerous G protein-dependent and independent pathways, and in a signaling pathway agnostic approach...
June 18, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Verena Surrey, Caren Zöller, Alicia Andrea Lork, Mehri Moradi, Stefanie Balk, Benjamin Dombert, Lena Saal-Bauernschubert, Michael Briese, Silke Appenzeller, Utz Fischer, Sibylle Jablonka
Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is a fatal motoneuron disorder in children with unknown etiology. The disease is caused by mutations in the IGHMBP2 gene, encoding a Super Family 1 (SF1)-type RNA/DNA helicase. IGHMBP2 is a cytosolic protein that binds to ribosomes and polysomes, suggesting a role in mRNA metabolism. Here we performed morphological and functional analyses of isolated Ighmbp2 deficient motoneurons to address the question whether the SMARD1 phenotype results from de-regulation of protein biosynthesis...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience
Tariq Shah, Balaji Krishnamachary, Flonne Wildes, Jannie P Wijnen, Kristine Glunde, Zaver M Bhujwalla
Elevated phosphoethanolamine (PE) is frequently observed in MRS studies of human cancers and xenografts. The role of PE in cell survival and the molecular causes underlying this increase are, however, relatively underexplored. In this study, we investigated the roles of ethanolamine kinases (Etnk-1 and 2) and choline kinases (Chk-α and β) in contributing to increased PE in human breast and pancreatic cancer cells. We investigated the effect of silencing Etnk-1 and Etnk-2 on cell viability as a potential therapeutic strategy...
June 21, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Yu Tsurekawa, Misaki Morita, Mary Ann Suico, Masataka Moriuchi, Yoshio Nakano, Mariam Piruzyan, Masafumi Takada, Sanako Fukami, Tsuyoshi Shuto, Hirofumi Kai
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease caused by immune disorder. The chronic skin inflammation involves inflammatory molecules that are released from T lymphocytes and keratinocytes. Therefore, developing an anti-inflammatory therapy that is suitable for long-term treatment is needed. Electrical stimulation induces biological responses by modulating intracellular signaling pathways. Our previous studies showed that the optimized combination treatment of mild electrical stimulation (MES, 0.1-millisecond; ms, 55-pulses per second; pps) and heat shock (HS, 42°C) modulates inflammatory symptoms of metabolic disorders and chronic kidney disease in mice models and clinical trials...
June 21, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Tomoko Tsuchiya, Kenshiro Shiraishi, Keiichi Nakagawa, Jae-Ryong Kim, Shiro Kanegasaki
Background and purpose: Intravenous administration of a single amino acid-substituted chemokine CCL3 derivative named eMIP elicits the abscopal effect (an effect distal to the target), after local irradiation at a tumor-bearing site. To distinguish the active portion of eMIP, we tested the antitumor activity of chemically synthesized partial peptides of eMIP. Synthetic peptide has various advantages in its clinical application. Material and methods: Colon26 adenocarcinoma cells were implanted subcutaneously in the right and left flanks of mice...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Catherine A Mowbray, Syema Shams, Git Chung, Anna Stanton, Phillip Aldridge, Andrejus Suchenko, Robert S Pickard, Ased Sm Ali, Judith Hall
Objectives: Recurrent urinary tract infections are associated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) ascending and infecting the urinary tract. Antibiotics provide only symptomatic relief, not prevent recurrence. Clinical evidence suggests that intravesical glycosaminoglycan therapy, such as hyaluronic acid (HA), helps reduce UTI recurrence. This has been investigated here using in vitro systems modelling the urogenital tract tissues. Methods: RT4 bladder cells were preconditioned with high molecular weight HA (> 1500 kDa) at 2 mg mL-1 and challenged with UPEC to analyse barrier protection and bacterial adherence...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Gagandeep Kaur, Caiyun Grace Li, Andrew Chantry, Cherie Stayner, Julia Horsfield, Michael R Eccles
Canonical TGF-β1 signalling promotes tumor progression by facilitating invasion and metastasis, whereby release of TGF-β1, by (for example) infiltrating immune cells, induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). PAX2, a member of the Paired box family of transcriptional regulators, is normally expressed during embryonic development, including in the kidney, where it promotes mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). PAX2 expression is silenced in many normal adult tissues. However, in contrast, PAX2 is expressed in several cancer types, including kidney, prostate, breast, and ovarian cancer...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Lingchi Ding, Weidong Yao, Junguo Lu, Jun Gong, Xiaodong Zhang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of RNAs that have previously been identified to be involved in certain diseases, including the development of cancer. However, the role of circ_001569 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown. In the present study, it was demonstrated that expression levels of circ_001569 were significantly increased in NSCLC tissues compared with in adjacent normal tissues. Increased circ_001569 expression was closely associated with tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and Tumor-Node-Metastasis classification in NSCLC...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Yanyan Liang, Yu Wang, Meng Xiao, Yunliang Hao, Yongtian Zhang, Shumei Li
Circulating soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2) has been associated with a relatively poor prognosis in various types of lymphoma. However, the specific role of TNFR2 expression in lymphoma cells remains uncharacterized. In the present study, TNFR2 expression was quantified in the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line, L428, and the anaplastic large-cell lymphoma cell line, Karpas299, using RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Karpas299 cells exhibited higher TNFR2 expression than L428 cells. Proliferation and drug resistance experiments demonstrated that Karpas299 cells also possessed a greater proliferative ability and resistance to adriamycin (ADM) than L428 cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ) of 1...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Wasilijiang Wahafu, Junwei Gai, Liming Song, Hao Ping, Mingshuai Wang, Feiya Yang, Yinong Niu, Nianzeng Xing
H2 S, synthesized by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST), functions as a signalling molecule in mammalian cells. H2 S serves complex functions in physiological and pathological processes, including in bladder cancer. In the present study, H2 S production, the expression of the associated enzymes and the effect of H2 S on human urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) tissue and cell lines were evaluated, and whether decreasing H2 S levels influenced cell viability and tumour growth following treatment with cisplatin (CDDP) was assessed in UCB cells in vitro and in vivo ...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Natasha L Maia, Mariana de Barros, Leandro L de Oliveira, Silvia A Cardoso, Marcelo H Dos Santos, Fabio A Pieri, Teodorico C Ramalho, Elaine F F da Cunha, Maria A S Moreira
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that causes major losses in the dairy industry. Streptococcus spp. are among the main agents of this disease. Increased resistance to antibiotics is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. Plants, due to their broad chemodiversity, are an interesting source of new molecules with antibacterial activity. Using these compounds along with traditional antibiotics is a possible method for reversing resistance. The objective of this work was to determine the interactions between the activities of guttiferone-A and 7-epiclusianone, two active substances isolated from the fruits of Garcinia brasiliensis , and traditional antibiotics against Streptococcus spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fan Bai, Xuewu Chen, Hui Yang, Hong-Guang Xu
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α plays a crucial role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related bone loss disease. The main mechanism of action of RA induced bone loss is the significant inhibitory effect of TNF-α on osteoblast differentiation. TNF-α inhibits osteoblast differentiation mainly by activating nuclear factor (NF) -κB signaling pathway. Owing to the crucial role of TNF-α and NF-κB in the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation, they are considered as targets for the development of therapeutic drugs...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Xiao-Ru Shao, Wen-Juan Ma, Xue-Ping Xie, Qian-Shun Li, Shi-Yu Lin, Tao Zhang, Yun-Feng Lin
Accumulating evidence supports the abnormal deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Aβ) as the main cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, fighting against the formation, deposition, and toxicity of Aβ is a basic strategy for the treatment of AD. In the process of in vitro nerve cell culture, screening out drugs that can antagonize a series of toxic reactions caused by β-amyloid deposition has become an effective method for the follow-up treatment of AD. Our previous studies showed that tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) had good biocompatibility and had some positive effects on the biological behavior of cells...
June 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yue Gu, Li-Ping Xie, Guo-Liang Meng, Yong Ji
Diabetes and its complications continue to be an increasing global health problem. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)has emerged as the third gasotransmitter following the nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in the body, and plays an important role in both physiology and pathophysiology. Recent work has suggested important roles for H2S in the regulation of pancreatic β-cell function, as well as development of insulin resistance and diabetic complications. Targeting H2S represents a novel therapeutic approach in diabetes and its associated complications...
June 21, 2018: Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan [Progress in Physiology]
Shi-Jin Chen, Dong Chen, Yu-Fang Shi, Jun Liu, Song Han, Wei Li
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of tetramethylpyrazine(TMP) nitrone in proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). METHODS: We separated and cultivated the original generation of NSCs from cerebral cortex of 14 days rat embryo, and the phenotype characteristics of the third-generation NSCs was tested by immunofluorescence. The experiment was divided into control group, β-mercaptoethanol positive control group, tetramethylpyrazine nitrone group and tetramethylpyrazine nitrone + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid(EGTA) group ( n =4)...
February 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Yang Wu, Yuan-Yuan Guo, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Yi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) on the negatively regulation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the relationship between the effect of H2 S with miRNA-133a-mediated Ca2+ /calcineurin/NFATc4 signal pathway. METHODS: Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by isoproterenol (ISO). The cell surface area was measured by image analysis system (Leica). The expression of brain natriuretic peptide(BNP), β-myosin heavy chain(β-MHC), cystathionase (CSE), miRNA-133a, calcineurin (CaN) were detected by qRT-PCR...
January 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
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