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Neutrophil imaging

David P Perrault, Athanasios Bramos, Xingtian Xu, Songtao Shi, Alex K Wong
Impaired healing of the skin is a notable cause of patient morbidity and mortality. In diabetic individuals, dysregulated inflammation contributes to delayed wound healing. Specific immunomodulatory agents may have a role in the treatment of diabetic wounds. One of these molecules is interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra; Amgen Corp.). Although interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra; Amgen Corp.) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, little is known about the local use this drug in cutaneous wound healing...
March 16, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
E Trybus, G Krol, T Obarzanowski, W Trybus, A Kopacz-Bednarska, M Obarzanowski, T Krol
Most studies on the effects of glucocorticosteroid therapy in rhinitis relate to their inhibitory effect on activation and the number of inflowing cells that are involved in the development and maintenance of inflammation. It is also very important to determine the range of effect of budesonide on residing cells (epithelial cells). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of local budesonide therapy on the cytological image of the nasal mucosa, with attention paid to columnar cells in patients with rhinitis...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Yanbo Liu, Xuemei Sun, Xiaohui Zhao, Liping An, Zhuxing Wang, Jing Jiang, Weigao Shen, Xueliang Yang, Ying Sun
The research aimed to investigate secretion, expression and location of IL-17 relative ligands, IL-17 relative receptors, infiltrating inflammatory cells and parenchymal structural cells in colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with ulcerative colitis (UC) and benign hyperplastic polyp. 29 human intestinal tissues with CRC, 17 with UC and 7 with polyp were stained using immunohistochemistry to evaluate immunoreactivity for IL-17 family relative ligands including IL-17A, E, F and their respective relative receptors such as IL-17RA, IL-17RB and IL-17RC...
March 7, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Lisa Menegazzo, Valentina Scattolini, Roberta Cappellari, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Mattia Albiero, Mario Bortolozzi, Filippo Romanato, Giulio Ceolotto, Saula Vigili de Kreutzeberg, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
AIMS: Diabetes is associated with an excess release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and an enhanced NETosis, a neutrophil cell death programme instrumental to anti-microbial defences, but also involved in tissue damage. We herein investigated whether the antidiabetic drug metformin protects against NETosis. METHODS: We measured NET components in the plasma of patients with pre-diabetes who were randomized to receive metformin or placebo for 2 months. To control for the effect on glucose, we also measured NET components in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes before and after treatment with insulin or dapagliflozin...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Chungen Lan, Xin Li, Xiuchao Wang, Jihui Hao, He Ren
Objective: Cystic lesions of the pancreas have been increasingly recognized. Some lesions exhibit benign behavior, while others have unequivocal malignant potential. Thus, accurate identification of malignancy in patients diagnosed with pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) remains a major challenge. The aim of this study was to define a combined criterion to better predict malignant lesions in patients with PCNs. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 165 patients who underwent resection of PCNs from October 2011 to May 2017...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Derick Okwan-Duodu, Laura Hansen, Giji Joseph, Alicia N Lyle, Daiana Weiss, David R Archer, W Robert Taylor
OBJECTIVE: The adaptive response to vascular injury is the formation of functional collateral vessels to maintain organ integrity. Many of the clinical complications associated with sickle cell disease can be attributed to repeated bouts of vascular insufficiency, yet the detailed mechanisms of collateral vessel formation after injury are largely unknown in sickle cell disease. Here, we characterize postischemic neovascularization in sickle cell disease and the role of neutrophils in the production of reactive oxygen species...
March 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yusuke Horiuchi, Junko Fujisaki, Noriko Yamamoto, Shoichi Yoshimizu, Akiyoshi Ishiyama, Toshiyuki Yoshio, Toshiaki Hirasawa, Yorimasa Yamamoto, Masatsugu Nagahama, Hiroshi Takahashi, Tomohiro Tsuchida
BACKGROUND: It is unknown how the accuracy rate of diagnostic demarcation of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancers (UD-type EGCs) differs between patients uninfected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and patients with and without H. pylori eradication. This study assessed and compared the diagnostic accuracy rate in the H. pylori-uninfected group and the non-H. pylori eradication and H. pylori eradication groups. METHODS: Subjects were 81 patients with 81 lesions who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection between January 2010 and January 2015...
March 13, 2018: Gastric Cancer
Emmet A Francis, Volkmar Heinrich
Global bursts in free intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) are among the most conspicuous signaling events in immune cells. To test the common view that Ca2+ bursts mediate rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in response to the activation of G protein-coupled receptors, we combined single-cell manipulation with fluorescence imaging and monitored the Ca2+ concentration in individual human neutrophils during complement-mediated chemotaxis. By decoupling purely chemotactic pseudopod formation from cell-substrate adhesion, we showed that physiological concentrations of anaphylatoxins, such as C5a, induced nonadherent human neutrophils to form chemotactic pseudopods but did not elicit Ca2+ bursts...
March 13, 2018: Science Signaling
Chiaki Yoshihara-Hirata, Keisuke Yamashiro, Tadashi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Aoyagi, Hidetaka Ideguchi, Mari Kawamura, Risa Suzuki, Mitsuaki Ono, Hidenori Wake, Masahiro Nishibori, Shogo Takashiba
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone DNA-binding protein, secreted into the extracellular milieu in response to inflammatory stimuli. The secreted HMGB1 mediates various inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis; however, the underlying mechanisms of HMGB1-induced periodontal inflammation are not completely understood. Here, we examined whether anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody inhibits periodontal progression and investigated the molecular pathology of HMGB1 in vitro and in vivo In vitro analysis indicated that HMGB1, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were secreted in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimuli in human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) treated with phorbol myristate acetate...
March 12, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Muxin Yu, Rujuan Xie, Yan Zhang, Hui Liang, Li Hou, Chengyuan Yu, Jinming Zhang, Zengxiang Dong, Ye Tian, Yayan Bi, Junjie Kou, Valerie A Novakovic, Jialan Shi
Background: Relatively little is known about the role of phosphatidylserine (PS) in procoagulant activity (PCA) in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This study was designed to evaluate whether exposed PS on microparticles (MPs) and MP-origin cells were involved in the hypercoagulability in DKD patients. Methods: DKD patients (n = 90) were divided into three groups based on urinary albumin excretion rate, defined as normoalbuminuria (No-A) (<30 mg/24 h), microalbuminuria (Mi-A) (30-299 mg/24 h) or macroalbuminuria (Ma-A) (>300 mg/24 h), and compared with healthy controls (n = 30)...
February 26, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Okan W Bastian, Mikolaj H Mrozek, Marco Raaben, Luke P H Leenen, Leo Koenderman, Taco J Blokhuis
A controlled local inflammatory response is essential for adequate fracture healing. However, the current literature suggests that local and systemic hyper-inflammatory conditions after major trauma induce increased influx of neutrophils into the fracture hematoma (FH) and impair bone regeneration. Inhibiting neutrophil chemotaxis towards the FH without compromising the hosts' defense may therefore be a target of future therapies that prevent impairment of fracture healing after major trauma. We investigated whether chemotaxis of neutrophils towards the FH could be studied in vitro...
March 6, 2018: Inflammation
Chi Ching Goh, Maximilien Evrard, Shu Zhen Chong, Yingrou Tan, Leonard De Li Tan, Karen Wei Weng Teng, Wolfgang Weninger, David Laurence Becker, Hong Liang Tey, Evan William Newell, Bin Liu, Lai Guan Ng
Pressure ulcers are a chronic problem for patients or the elderly who require extended periods of bed rest. The formation of ulcers is due to repeated cycles of ischemia-reperfusion (IR), which initiates an inflammatory response. Advanced ulcers disrupt the skin barrier, resulting in further complications. To date, the immunological aspect of skin IR has been understudied, partly due to the complexity of the skin immune cells. Through a combination of mass cytometry, confocal imaging and intravital multiphoton imaging, this study establishes a workflow for multidimensionality single cell analysis of skin myeloid responses in the context of IR injury with high spatiotemporal resolution...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Margarita N German, Kristina A Matkowskyj, Robert J Hoffman, Parul D Agarwal
While the incidence of syphilis has been persistently on the rise in the United States, hepatitis as a complication of early syphilis is relatively uncommon. We present a case of a 51-year-old homosexual, HIV-positive male who presented with acute cholestatic hepatitis with a predominantly elevated alkaline phosphatase. After lab studies and imaging were unrevealing, a liver biopsy was performed that showed expanded portal tracts with a predominantly lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and prominent bile ductular proliferation with periductal neutrophils...
March 2, 2018: Human Pathology
Meraj A Khan, Lijy M Philip, Guillaume Cheung, Shawn Vadakepeedika, Hartmut Grasemann, Neil Sweezey, Nades Palaniyar
Neutrophils migrating from the blood (pH 7.35-7.45) into the surrounding tissues encounter changes in extracellular pH (pHe ) conditions. Upon activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox), neutrophils generate large amounts of H+ ions reducing the intracellular pH (pHi ). Nevertheless, how extracellular pH regulates neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation (NETosis) is not clearly established. We hypothesized that increasing pH increases Nox-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutrophil protease activity, stimulating NETosis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Esma A Akin, Murat Osman, Amy L Ellenbogen
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of non-Langerhans histiocytosis with deposition of lipid-laden macrophages in numerous organs. A 74-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia presented with nonspecific symptoms including back pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and left leg pain. A neutrophil-predominant elevated WBC count and a bone biopsy revealing histiocytic proliferation positive for CD68 and CD163 and negative for S100 was noted. FDG PET/CT, MRA, and CTA images were obtained...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Kyle W Mahoney, Meghan Romba, Philippe Gailloud, Izlem Izbudak, Deanna Saylor
As the opioid epidemic continues, understanding manifestations of abuse, including heroin-associated myelopathy remains essential. Here we describe a young man with a past medical history significant for polysubstance abuse who developed acute-onset, rapidly progressive myelopathy after resumption of intravenous heroin use. He had significant spinal cord involvement with findings suggestive of heroin-associated myelopathy. The salient features of this case include diffusion imaging of the spine and spinal angiography supporting a possible vasculopathy as the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying heroin-associated myelopathy...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Mark C Anderson, Thibault Chaze, Yves-Marie Coïc, Louise Injarabian, Friederike Jonsson, Naelle Lombion, Dorothée Selimoglu-Buet, Judith Souphron, Caroline Ridley, Pascale Vonaesch, Bruno Baron, Ellen T Arena, Jean-Yves Tinevez, Giulia Nigro, Katharina Nothelfer, Eric Solary, Valérie Lapierre, Thierry Lazure, Mariette Matondo, David Thornton, Philippe J Sansonetti, Françoise Baleux, Benoit S Marteyn
Neutrophils represent the most abundant immune cells recruited to inflamed tissues. A lack of dedicated tools has hampered their detection and study. We show that a synthesized peptide, MUB40 , binds to lactoferrin, the most abundant protein stored in neutrophil-specific and tertiary granules. Lactoferrin is specifically produced by neutrophils among other leukocytes, making MUB40 a specific neutrophil marker. Naive mammalian neutrophils (human, guinea pig, mouse, rabbit) were labeled by fluorescent MUB40 conjugates (-Cy5, Dylight405)...
February 13, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Jackson LiangYao Li, Chi Ching Goh, Lai Guan Ng
The skin is one of the most physiologically important organs where the organism comes into contact with the external environment and is often a site where pathogen entry first occurs. Thus, a better understanding of the specialized cellular behavior of the immune system in the skin may be important for the improved treatment of diseases. Here, we describe in detail a procedure to image the dorsal mouse ear skin, using a customized ear stage and its associated coverslip holder, with an upright multiphoton microscope...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mehrdad Pourfathi, Maurizio Cereda, Shampa Chatterjee, Yi Xin, Stephen Kadlecek, Ian Duncan, Hooman Hamedani, Sarmad Siddiqui, Harrilla Profka, Jason Ehrich, Kai Ruppert, Rahim R Rizi
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Patients are currently managed by protective ventilation and alveolar recruitment using positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, the PEEP's effect on both pulmonary metabolism and regional inflammation is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the effect of PEEP on pulmonary anaerobic metabolism in mechanically ventilated injured rats, using hyperpolarized carbon-13 imaging. Pulmonary lactate-to-pyruvate ratio was measured in 21 rats; 14 rats received intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric-acid, while 7 rats received sham saline...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yu-Ju Chen, Chao-Liang Chou, Kuan-Ju Lai, Ya-Ju Lin Lin
PURPOSE: Invasive mycosis caused by the Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Mucor can be fetal, especially in the immunocompromised patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Here we present a case of CNS Fusarium infection, and this is the first reported case of Fusarium brain abscess in Taiwan. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old woman presented with fever and conscious disturbance for 3 days. Neurological examination showed stupor consciousness, neck stiffness, multiple cranial nerves palsy, and bilateral Babinski signs...
September 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
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