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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788954/pathogenesis-imaging-and-clinical-characteristics-of-cf-and-non-cf-bronchiectasis
#1
REVIEW
Jürgen Schäfer, Matthias Griese, Ravishankar Chandrasekaran, Sanjay H Chotirmall, Dominik Hartl
Bronchiectasis is a common feature of severe inherited and acquired pulmonary disease conditions. Among inherited diseases, cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major disorder associated with bronchiectasis, while acquired conditions frequently featuring bronchiectasis include post-infective bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mechanistically, bronchiectasis is driven by a complex interplay of inflammation and infection with neutrophilic inflammation playing a predominant role. The clinical characterization and management of bronchiectasis should involve a precise diagnostic workup, tailored therapeutic strategies and pulmonary imaging that has become an essential tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of bronchiectasis...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787304/deterioration-of-regional-lung-strain-and-inflammation-during-early-lung-injury
#2
Gabriel C Motta-Ribeiro, Soshi Hashimoto, Tilo Winkler, Rebecca M Baron, Kira Grogg, Luís F S C Paula, Arnoldo Santos, Congli Zeng, Kathryn Hibbert, Robert S Harris, Ednan Bajwa, Marcos F Vidal Melo
RATIONALE: The contribution of aeration heterogeneity to lung injury during early mechanical ventilation of uninjured lungs is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Test the hypotheses that a strategy consistent with clinical practice does not protect from worsening in lung strains during the first 24h of ventilation of initially normal lungs exposed to mild systemic endotoxemia in supine versus prone position, and that local neutrophilic inflammation is associated with local strain and blood volume at global strains below a proposed injurious threshold...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786814/predictive-value-of-preoperative-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-while-detecting-bowel-resection-in-hernia-with-intestinal-incarceration
#3
Hande Köksal, Derviş Ateş, Emet Ebru Nazik, İlknur Küçükosmanoğlu, Serap Melek Doğan, Osman Doğru
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preoperative hematological inflammatory markers of the patients who underwent a surgery for incarcerated hernia and intestinal resection requirement. METHODS: The data of 102 patients who underwent a surgery for incarcerated hernia were retrospectively evaluated. Whole blood cell counts were preoperatively measured, and operation types and pathology results were recorded. The patients with intestinal resections were compared with those without any resection in terms of leukocyte number, neutrophil rate, red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet distribution width, neutrophil-to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and mean platelet volume (MPV)...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785209/acute-suppurative-thyroiditis-caused-by-thyroid-papillary-carcinoma-in-the-right-thyroid-lobe-of-a-healthy-woman
#4
Hazuki Otani, Masakazu Notsu, Sayo Koike, Miwa Morita, Masahiro Yamamoto, Mika Yamauchi, Takahumi Fuchiwaki, Ichiro Morikura, Noriaki Aoi, Hideyuki Kawauchi, Teruaki Iwabashi, Asuka Araki, Noriyoshi Ishikawa, Riruke Maruyama, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Background: The thyroid gland is resistant to microbial infection, because of its organ characteristics such as encapsulation, iodine content, and rich blood supply. Therefore, acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST), as a bacterial infection of the thyroid gland, is rarely seen. AST typically takes places on the left side the neck region in children, because of the coincidence of the left piriform sinus fistula, as a most common route of infection. AST is also usually seen in immunocompromised hosts...
2018: Thyroid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769642/high-resolution-imaging-of-myeloperoxidase-activity-sensors-in-human-cerebrovascular-disease
#5
Youssef Z Wadghiri, Dung Minh Hoang, Anita Leporati, Matthew J Gounis, Aurora Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mary L Mazzanti, John P Weaver, Ajay K Wakhloo, Peter Caravan, Alexei A Bogdanov
Progress in clinical development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substrate-sensors of enzymatic activity has been slow partly due to the lack of human efficacy data. We report here a strategy that may serve as a shortcut from bench to bedside. We tested ultra high-resolution 7T MRI (µMRI) of human surgical histology sections in a 3-year IRB approved, HIPAA compliant study of surgically clipped brain aneurysms. µMRI was used for assessing the efficacy of MRI substrate-sensors that detect myeloperoxidase activity in inflammation...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768163/tissue-damage-signaling-is-a-prerequisite-for-protective-neutrophil-recruitment-to-microbial-infection-in-zebrafish
#6
Cong Huang, Philipp Niethammer
Tissue damage and infection are deemed likewise triggers of innate immune responses. But whereas neutrophil responses to microbes are generally protective, neutrophil recruitment into damaged tissues without infection is deleterious. Why neutrophils respond to tissue damage and not just to microbes is unknown. Is it a flaw of the innate immune system that persists because evolution did not select against it, or does it provide a selective advantage? Here we dissect the contribution of tissue damage signaling to antimicrobial immune responses in a live vertebrate...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763780/polymorphonuclear-neutrophil-integrity-and-functionality-are-preserved-when-exposed-to-saliva
#7
Patrick Rijkschroeff, Sabrina T G Gunput, Antoon J M Ligtenberg, Enno C I Veerman, Bruno G Loos, Elena A Nicu
OBJECTIVE: Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the most abundant innate immune cells and are also important effectors in the maintenance of oral health. However, little is known about the effects of saliva on the PMN. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of saliva on the PMNs' morphology and functioning. DESIGN: Effect of saliva on the membrane integrity of PMNs isolated from blood was evaluated with FACS using Annexin V (apoptosis marker) and propidum iodide (membrane integrity marker)...
May 1, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722740/rheumatoid-meningitis-a-case-review
#8
Angela M Parsons, Leslie A Zuniga, Joseph M Hoxworth, Mark Lyons, Fawad Aslam, Brent P Goodman
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid meningitis (RM) is a rare complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and has a high mortality rate. It can present as a first diagnosis of RA, in long-standing disease, or in active or well-controlled disease. Neurological manifestations vary widely. CASE REPORT: A patient with a 30-year history of RA, well controlled with methotrexate therapy, presented with new-onset seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging showed leptomeningeal and pachymeningeal enhancement...
May 2018: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720578/targeting-inflammatory-monocytes-in-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy-and-long-term-cognitive-impairment
#9
Graciela Andonegui, Erin L Zelinski, Courtney L Schubert, Derrice Knight, Laura A Craig, Brent W Winston, Simon C Spanswick, Björn Petri, Craig N Jenne, Janice C Sutherland, Rita Nguyen, Natalie Jayawardena, Margaret M Kelly, Christopher J Doig, Robert J Sutherland, Paul Kubes
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy manifesting as delirium is a common problem in critical care medicine. In this study, patients that had delirium due to sepsis had significant cognitive impairments at 12-18 months after hospital discharge when compared with controls and Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery-standardized scores in spatial recognition memory, pattern recognition memory, and delayed-matching-to-sample tests but not other cognitive functions. A mouse model of S. pneumoniae pneumonia-induced sepsis, which modeled numerous aspects of the human sepsis-associated multiorgan dysfunction, including encephalopathy, also revealed similar deficits in spatial memory but not new task learning...
May 3, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719843/diagnosis-of-appendicitis-in-patients-with-a-normal-white-blood-cell-count-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Sadettin Er, Bülent Çomçalı, Ahmet Soykurt, Bülent Cavit Yüksel, Mesut Tez
Objective: To investigate the clinical, imaging and laboratory findings for diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) in patients with a normal white blood cell count (WBCC). Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, during a 1-year period. To determine diagnostic factors in AA in patients with normal WBCC, medical records of eligible patients were reviewed for demographic and clinical variables, as well as patient outcome...
April 2018: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717788/assessment-of-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice-using-hepatic-t-2-mapping-comparison-with-histopathology
#11
Katja Hueper, Hannah Lang, Björn Hartleben, Marcel Gutberlet, Thorsten Derlin, Tobias Getzin, Rongjun Chen, Hassan Abou-Rebyeh, Frank Lehner, Martin Meier, Hermann Haller, Frank Wacker, Song Rong, Faikah Gueler
BACKGROUND: Liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs during liver surgery or transplantation resulting in an inflammatory response, tissue damage, and functional impairment of the organ. PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of T2 mapping for noninvasive quantification of liver edema after partial liver IRI in mice. STUDY TYPE: Prospective, experimental study. ANIMAL MODEL: Partial liver IRI was induced in C57BL/6-mice by transient clamping of the left lateral and median liver lobes for 35 (n = 8), 45 (n = 6), 60 (n = 17), or 90 minutes (n = 5)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713303/association-between-peripheral-inflammation-and-datscan-data-of-the-striatal-nuclei-in-different-motor-subtypes-of-parkinson-disease
#12
Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Mahtab Mojtahed Zadeh, Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
The interplay between peripheral and central inflammation has a significant role in dopaminergic neural death in nigrostriatal pathway, although no direct assessment of inflammation has been performed in relation to dopaminergic neuronal loss in striatal nuclei. In this study, the correlation of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a marker of peripheral inflammation to striatal binding ratios (SBRs) of DAT SPECT images in bilateral caudate and putamen nuclei was calculated in 388 drug-naïve early PD patients [288 tremor dominant (TD), 73 postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD), and 27 indeterminate] and 148 controls...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709301/primary-isolated-intracranial-rosai-dorfman-disease-report-of-a-rare-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Shaolin Zhang, Jinsheng Huang, Yanling Chen
BACKGROUND: Intracranial involvement is an uncommon manifestation of Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) and had been rarely reported. In this study, we explore clinical characteristics, imageology manifestations and pathological features of primary intracranial RDD so as to improve the understanding for this disease. METHODS: One case (16-years-old boy) with primary intracranial RDD was analyzed and studied retrospectively by MRI features, histopathological observation and immunohistochemical staining, and the related literatures were reviewed...
December 27, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700216/-in-vivo-imaging-of-hepatic-neutrophil-migration-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-with-111-in-radiolabelled-leucocytes
#14
Jonathan R Potts, Neda Farahi, Mark R Howard, Mark R Taylor, Sarah Heard, Arun N Shankar, Graeme J Alexander, Edwin R Chilvers, Sumita Verma, A Michael Peters
The study aim was to image severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) using 111 In-labelled leucocytes with two objectives in mind: firstly for non-invasive diagnosis and secondly to provide a platform for experimental therapies aiming to inhibit intrahepatic neutrophil migration. 111 In-leucocyte scintigraphy was performed 30 min and 24 h post-injection in 19 patients with SAH, 14 abstinent patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis and 11 normal controls. Eleven with SAH and 7 with cirrhosis also had 99m Tc-nanocolloid scintigraphy...
April 26, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682731/neutrophils-as-effectors-of-vascular-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Diego Gómez-Moreno, José María Adrover, Andrés Hidalgo
Vascular inflammation underlies most forms of cardiovascular disease, which remains a prevalent cause of death among the global population. Advances in the biology of neutrophils, as well as insights into their dynamics in tissues, have revealed that these cells are prominent drivers of vascular inflammation though derailed activation within blood vessels. The development of powerful imaging techniques, as well as identification of cells and molecules that regulate their activation within vessels, including platelets and catecholamines, have been instrumental to better understand the mechanisms through which neutrophils protect or damage the organism...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670375/role-of-presurgical-targeted-molecular-therapy-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-an-inferior-vena-cava-tumor-thrombus
#16
Cheng Peng, Liangyou Gu, Lei Wang, Qingbo Huang, Baojun Wang, Gang Guo, Yang Fan, Yu Gao, Xin Ma, Xu Zhang
Purpose: The clinical benefit of targeted molecular therapy (TMT) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with an inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombus remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of presurgical TMT on the heights and levels of IVC thrombi, and to assess its impact on surgical strategy. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 18 patients with RCC involving IVC tumor thrombi who were treated at our hospital with presurgical TMT followed by an IVC thrombectomy...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660258/pleural-tuberculosis-a-concise-clinical-review
#17
Jane A Shaw, Elvis M Irusen, Andreas H Diacon, Coenraad Fn Koegelenberg
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, and the commonest cause of death in people living with HIV. Globally, pleural TB remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural exudates, particularly in TB-endemic areas and in the HIV positive population. Most TB pleural effusions are exudates with high adenosine deaminase (ADA), lymphocyte-rich, straw-coloured and free flowing, with a low yield on mycobacterial culture. TB pleurisy can also present as loculated neutrophil-predominant effusions which mimic parapneumonic effusions...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656215/inter-observer-variance-and-the-need-for-standardization-in-the-morphological-classification-of-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#18
Keiko Sasada, Noriko Yamamoto, Hiroki Masuda, Yoko Tanaka, Ayako Ishihara, Yasushi Takamatsu, Yutaka Yatomi, Waichiro Katsuda, Issei Sato, Hirotaka Matsui
In this era of genome medicine, the sub-classification of myeloid neoplasms, including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), is now supported by genetic testing in selected cases. However, as the initial suspicion and primary diagnosis of the disease still largely relies on morphological features and numbers of hematopoietic cells, the establishment of a uniform diagnostic basis, especially for cell morphology, is essential. In this study, we collected nearly 100,000 hematopoietic cell images from 499 peripheral blood smear specimens from patients with MDS and used these to evaluate the standardization of morphological classification by medical technologists...
April 9, 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648480/sex-differences-impact-the-lung-bone-inflammatory-response-to-repetitive-inhalant-lipopolysaccharide-exposures-in-mice
#19
Amy J Nelson, Shyamal K Roy, Kristi Warren, Katherine Janike, Geoffrey M Thiele, Ted R Mikuls, Debra J Romberger, Dong Wang, Benjamin Swanson, Jill A Poole
Skeletal health consequences associated with inflammatory diseases of the airways significantly contribute to morbidity. Sex differences have been described independently for lung and bone diseases. Repetitive inhalant exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces bone loss and deterioration in male mice, but comparison effects in females are unknown. Using an intranasal inhalation exposure model, 8-week-old C57BL/6 male and female mice were treated daily with LPS (100 ng) or saline for 3 weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, lung tissues, tibias, bone marrow cells, and blood were collected...
December 2018: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643651/pilot-study-of-an-open-source-image-analysis-software-for-automated-screening-of-conventional-cervical-smears
#20
Parikshit Sanyal, Prosenjit Ganguli, Sanghita Barui, Prabal Deb
Introduction: The Pap stained cervical smear is a screening tool for cervical cancer. Commercial systems are used for automated screening of liquid based cervical smears. However, there is no image analysis software used for conventional cervical smears. The aim of this study was to develop and test the diagnostic accuracy of a software for analysis of conventional smears. Materials and Methods: The software was developed using Python programming language and open source libraries...
April 2018: Journal of Cytology
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