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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798141/characterization-of-macrophage-polarization-states-using-combined-measurement-of-2-deoxyglucose-and-glutamine-accumulation-implications-for-imaging-of-atherosclerosis
#1
Sina Tavakoli, Kevin Downs, John D Short, Huynh Nga Nguyen, Yanlai Lai, Paul A Jerabek, Beth Goins, Jakub Toczek, Mehran M Sadeghi, Reto Asmis
OBJECTIVE: Despite the early promising results of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for assessment of vessel wall inflammation, its accuracy in prospective identification of vulnerable plaques has remained limited. Additionally, previous studies have indicated that (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake alone may not allow for accurate identification of specific macrophage activation states. We aimed to determine whether combined measurement of glucose and glutamine accumulation-the 2 most important bioenergetic substrates for macrophages-improves the distinction of macrophage inflammatory states and can be utilized to image atherosclerosis...
August 10, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767408/integration-of-genomic-transcriptomic-and-functional-profiles-of-aggressive-osteosarcomas-across-multiple-species
#2
Lara E Davis, Sophia Jeng, Matthew N Svalina, Elaine Huang, Janét Pittsenbarger, Emma L Cantor, Noah Berlow, Bernard Seguin, Atiya Mansoor, Shannon K McWeeney, Charles Keller
In complex, highly unstable genomes such as in osteosarcoma, targeting aberrant checkpoint processes (metabolic, cell cycle or immune) may prove more successful than targeting specific kinase or growth factor signaling pathways. Here, we establish a comparative oncology approach characterizing the most lethal osteosarcomas identified in a biorepository of tumors from three different species: human, mouse and canine. We describe the development of a genetically-engineered mouse model of osteosarcoma, establishment of primary cell cultures from fatal human tumors, and a biorepository of osteosarcoma surgical specimens from pet dogs...
July 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765576/visualization-of-synthetic-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-atherosclerotic-carotid-rat-arteries-by-f-18-fdg-pet
#3
Kisoo Pahk, Chanmin Joung, Se-Mi Jung, Hwa Young Song, Ji Yong Park, Jung Woo Byun, Yun-Sang Lee, Jin Chul Paeng, Chunsook Kim, Sungeun Kim, Won-Ki Kim
Synthetic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play important roles in atherosclerosis, in-stent restenosis, and transplant vasculopathy. We investigated the synthetic activity of VSMCs in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Atherosclerosis was induced in rats by partial ligation of the right carotid artery coupled with an atherogenic diet and vitamin D injections (2 consecutive days, 600,000 IU/day). One month later, rats were imaged by F-18 FDG PET...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740933/18f-fdg-pet-response-and-clinical-outcomes-after-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-metastatic-melanoma
#4
Ryan S Youland, Ann T Packard, Miran J Blanchard, Andrea L Arnett, Gregory A Wiseman, Lisa A Kottschade, Roxana S Dronca, Svetomir N Markovic, Kenneth R Olivier, Sean S Park
BACKGROUND: Clinical data that support stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) metastatic malignant melanoma (MM) are limited. Furthermore, functional imaging with 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) may offer a more accurate post-SBRT assessment. Therefore, we assessed the clinical outcomes and metabolic response of metastatic MM after SBRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with MM who were treated with SBRT and had pre- and post-PET scans (>1) were included in this study...
April 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704562/cerebral-18f-fdg-pet-in-macrophagic-myofasciitis-an-individual-svm-based-approach
#5
Paul Blanc-Durand, Axel Van Der Gucht, Eric Guedj, Mukedaisi Abulizi, Mehdi Aoun-Sebaiti, Lionel Lerman, Antoine Verger, François-Jérôme Authier, Emmanuel Itti
INTRODUCTION: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with highly specific myopathological alterations. A peculiar spatial pattern of a cerebral glucose hypometabolism involving occipito-temporal cortex and cerebellum have been reported in patients with MMF; however, the full pattern is not systematically present in routine interpretation of scans, and with varying degrees of severity depending on the cognitive profile of patients. Aim was to generate and evaluate a support vector machine (SVM) procedure to classify patients between healthy or MMF 18F-FDG brain profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701948/microglial-activation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
REVIEW
Cornelius K Donat, Gregory Scott, Steve M Gentleman, Magdalena Sastre
Microglia have a variety of functions in the brain, including synaptic pruning, CNS repair and mediating the immune response against peripheral infection. Microglia rapidly become activated in response to CNS damage. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, microglia can take a number of activation states, which correspond to altered microglia morphology, gene expression and function. It has been reported that early microglia activation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may contribute to the restoration of homeostasis in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700897/a-systematic-comparison-of-clinically-viable-nanomedicines-targeting-hmg-coa-reductase-in-inflammatory-atherosclerosis
#7
Amr Alaarg, Max L Senders, Aida Varela-Moreira, Carlos Pérez-Medina, Yiming Zhao, Jun Tang, Francois Fay, Thomas Reiner, Zahi A Fayad, Wim E Hennink, Josbert M Metselaar, Willem J M Mulder, Gert Storm
Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality whose management could benefit from novel targeted therapeutics. Nanoparticles are emerging as targeted drug delivery systems in chronic inflammatory disorders. To optimally exploit nanomedicines, understanding their biological behavior is crucial for further development of clinically relevant and efficacious nanotherapeutics intended to reduce plaque inflammation. Here, three clinically relevant nanomedicines, i.e., high-density lipoprotein ([S]-HDL), polymeric micelles ([S]-PM), and liposomes ([S]-LIP), that are loaded with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin [S], were evaluated in the apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mouse model of atherosclerosis...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687406/comparative-efficacy-and-toxicity-of-two-vaccine-candidates-against-sporothrix-schenckii-using-either-montanide%C3%A2-pet-gel-a-or-aluminum-hydroxide-adjuvants-in-mice
#8
Deivys Leandro Portuondo, Alexander Batista-Duharte, Lucas Souza Ferreira, Cleverton Roberto de Andrade, Camila Quinello, Damiana Téllez-Martínez, Maria Luiza de Aguiar Loesch, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
Sporotrichosis is an important zoonosis in Brazil and the most frequent subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America, caused by different Sporothrix species. Currently, there is no effective vaccine available to prevent this disease. In this study, the efficacy and toxicity of the adjuvant Montanide™ Pet Gel A (PGA) formulated with S. schenckii cell wall proteins (ssCWP) was evaluated and compared with that of aluminum hydroxide (AH). Balb/c mice received two subcutaneous doses (1st and 14th days) of either the unadjuvanted or adjuvanted vaccine candidates...
July 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649578/anti-high-mobility-group-box-1-antibody-ameliorates-albuminuria-in-mrl-lpr-lupus-prone-mice
#9
Haruki Watanabe, Katsue S Watanabe, Keyue Liu, Sumie Hiramatsu, Sonia Zeggar, Eri Katsuyama, Noriko Tatebe, Akiya Akahoshi, Fumiaki Takenaka, Takahisa Hanada, Masaru Akehi, Takanori Sasaki, Ken-Ei Sada, Eiji Matsuura, Masahiro Nishibori, Jun Wada
We evaluated the efficacy of a neutralizing anti-high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) monoclonal antibody in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. The anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (5 mg/kg weight) or class-matched control immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) was administered intravenously twice a week for 4-15 weeks. Urine albumin was monitored, and histological evaluation of the kidneys was conducted at 16 weeks. Lymphadenopathies were evaluated by 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine ([(18)F]FAC) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) at 12 weeks...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592427/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-macaques-with-tuberculosis-identifies-temporal-changes-in-granuloma-glucose-metabolism-and-integrin-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-1-expressing-immune-cells
#10
Joshua T Mattila, Wissam Beaino, Pauline Maiello, M Teresa Coleman, Alexander G White, Charles A Scanga, JoAnne L Flynn, Carolyn J Anderson
Positron emission tomography and computed tomography imaging (PET/CT) is an increasingly valuable tool for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). The glucose analog [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose ([(18)F]-FDG) is commonly used in PET/CT that is retained by metabolically active inflammatory cells in granulomas, but lacks specificity for particular cell types. A PET probe that could identify recruitment and differentiation of different cell populations in granulomas would be a useful research tool and could improve TB diagnosis and treatment...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584972/relation-between-thoracic-aortic-inflammation-and-features-of-plaque-vulnerability-in-the-coronary-tree-in-patients-with-non-st-segment-elevation-acute-coronary-syndrome-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-an-fdg-positron-emission-tomography-and-optical
#11
Nevio Taglieri, Cristina Nanni, Gabriele Ghetti, Rachele Bonfiglioli, Francesco Saia, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Giacomo Maria Lima, Valeria Marco, Francesco Prati, Stefano Fanti, Claudio Rapezzi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between aortic inflammation as assessed by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) and features of plaque vulnerability as assessed by frequency domain-optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). METHODS: We enrolled 30 consecutive non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. All patients underwent three-vessel OCT before intervention and (18)F-FDG-PET before discharge...
June 6, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583280/clinical-value-of-fdg-pet-ct-for-the-evaluation-of-rheumatic-diseases-rheumatoid-arthritis-polymyalgia-rheumatica-and-relapsing-polychondritis
#12
REVIEW
Kazuo Kubota, Hiroyuki Yamashita, Akio Mimori
FDG is a tracer for visualizing glucose metabolism. PET/CT using FDG is widely used for the diagnosis of cancer, because glycolysis is elevated in cancer cells. Similarly, active inflammatory tissue also exhibits elevated glucose metabolism because of glycolysis in activated macrophages and proliferating fibroblasts. Elevated FDG uptake by active inflammatory tissues, such as those affected by arthritis, vasculitis, lymphadenitis, and chondritis, has enabled the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases using FDG-PET/CT...
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569209/in-vivo-monitoring-of-anti-folate-therapy-in-arthritic-rats-using-18-f-fluoro-peg-folate-and-positron-emission-tomography
#13
Durga M S H Chandrupatla, Gerrit Jansen, Ricardo Vos, Mariska Verlaan, Qingshou Chen, Philip S Low, Albert D Windhorst, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Conny J van der Laken, Carla F M Molthoff
BACKGROUND: Folate receptor β (FRβ) is involved in facilitating cellular uptake of folates and anti-folates (such as methotrexate (MTX)). In rheumatoid arthritis, FRβ is expressed on synovial macrophages and recently has been explored as a biomarker for imaging in arthritic rats using the folate-based positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [(18)F]fluoro-PEG-folate. The purpose of this study was to examine whether this folate tracer can also be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy of MTX in arthritic rats...
May 31, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562539/false-positive-18fdg-pet-ct-results-due-to-exogenous-lipoid-pneumonia-secondary-to-oily-drug-inhalation-a-case-report
#14
David Chardin, Guillaume Nivaggioni, Philippe Viau, Caherine Butori, Bernard Padovani, Caroline Grangeaon, Micheline Razzouk-Cadet
RATIONALE: Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare condition due to abnormal presence of oily substances in the lungs. It is a rarely known cause for false positive FDG PET-CT results and can sometimes lead to invasive investigations. Searching and finding the source of the oily substance is one of the keys to the diagnosis. Inhalation of oily drugs during snorting has rarely been described. PATIENT CONCERNS: A patient with well controlled HIV infection was referred for an FDG PET-CT to assess extension of Kaposi's disease, recently removed from his right foot...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559417/the-ftd-like-syndrome-causing-trem2-t66m-mutation-impairs-microglia-function-brain-perfusion-and-glucose-metabolism
#15
Gernot Kleinberger, Matthias Brendel, Eva Mracsko, Benedikt Wefers, Linda Groeneweg, Xianyuan Xiang, Carola Focke, Maximilian Deußing, Marc Suárez-Calvet, Fargol Mazaheri, Samira Parhizkar, Nadine Pettkus, Wolfgang Wurst, Regina Feederle, Peter Bartenstein, Thomas Mueggler, Thomas Arzberger, Irene Knuesel, Axel Rominger, Christian Haass
Genetic variants in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) increase the risk for several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Homozygous TREM2 missense mutations, such as p.T66M, lead to the FTD-like syndrome, but how they cause pathology is unknown. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we generated a knock-in mouse model for the disease-associated Trem2 p.T66M mutation. Consistent with a loss-of-function mutation, we observe an intracellular accumulation of immature mutant Trem2 and reduced generation of soluble Trem2 similar to patients with the homozygous p...
July 3, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547129/quantitative-analysis-of-dynamic-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-for-measurement-of-lung-inflammation
#16
Christopher Coello, Marie Fisk, Divya Mohan, Frederick J Wilson, Andrew P Brown, Michael I Polkey, Ian Wilkinson, Ruth Tal-Singer, Philip S Murphy, Joseph Cheriyan, Roger N Gunn
BACKGROUND: An inflammatory reaction in the airways and lung parenchyma, comprised mainly of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages, is present in some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thoracic fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has been proposed as a promising imaging biomarker to assess this inflammation. We sought to introduce a fully quantitative analysis method and compare this with previously published studies based on the Patlak approach using a dataset comprising (18)F-FDG PET scans from COPD subjects with elevated circulating inflammatory markers (fibrinogen) and matched healthy volunteers (HV)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530125/pro-inflammatory-activation-of-primary-microglia-and-macrophages-increases-18%C3%A2-kda-translocator-protein-expression-in-rodents-but-not-humans
#17
David R Owen, Nehal Narayan, Lisa Wells, Luke Healy, Erica Smyth, Eugenii A Rabiner, Dylan Galloway, John B Williams, Joshua Lehr, Harpreet Mandhair, Laura An Peferoen, Peter C Taylor, Sandra Amor, Jack P Antel, Paul M Matthews, Craig S Moore
The 18kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) is the most commonly used tissue-specific marker of inflammation in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. It is expressed in myeloid cells such as microglia and macrophages, and in rodent myeloid cells expression increases with cellular activation. We assessed the effect of myeloid cell activation on TSPO gene expression in both primary human and rodent microglia and macrophages in vitro, and also measured TSPO radioligand binding with (3)H-PBR28 in primary human macrophages...
August 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522739/imaging-macrophage-accumulation-in-a-murine-model-of-chronic-pancreatitis-with-125-i-iododpa-spect-ct
#18
Catherine A Foss, Liansheng Liu, Ronnie C Mease, Haofan Wang, Pankaj Pasricha, Martin G Pomper
Background and Aims: Pancreatitis remains a diagnostic challenge in patients with mild to moderate disease, with current imaging modalities inadequate. Given the prominent macrophage infiltrate in chronic pancreatitis, we hypothesized that (125)I-iodo-DPA-713 (iodoDPA), a small-molecule radiotracer that specifically targets macrophages, could be used with single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) to image pancreatic inflammation in a relevant experimental model. Methods: Chronic pancreatitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice with cerulein and were contrasted with vehicle-injected controls...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487317/head-to-head-comparison-of-inflammation-and-neovascularization-in-human-carotid-plaques-implications-for-the-imaging-of-vulnerable-plaques
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Fabian Demeure, Caroline Bouzin, Véronique Roelants, Anne Bol, Robert Verhelst, Parla Astarci, Bernhard L Gerber, Anne-Catherine Pouleur, Agnès Pasquet, Christophe de Meester, Jean-Louis J Vanoverschelde, David Vancraeynest
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and intraplaque neovascularization are acknowledged to be 2 features of plaque vulnerability, although their temporal expression and their respective value in predicting clinical events are poorly understood. To determine their respective temporal associations, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of inflammation and intraplaque neovascularization in the carotid plaque of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty patients with severe carotid stenosis underwent (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomographic imaging...
May 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463501/hyaluronan-nanoparticles-selectively-target-plaque-associated-macrophages-and-improve-plaque-stability-in-atherosclerosis
#20
Thijs J Beldman, Max L Senders, Amr Alaarg, Carlos Pérez-Medina, Jun Tang, Yiming Zhao, Francois Fay, Jacqueline Deichmöller, Benjamin Born, Emilie Desclos, Nicole N van der Wel, Ron A Hoebe, Fortune Kohen, Elena Kartvelishvily, Michal Neeman, Thomas Reiner, Claudia Calcagno, Zahi A Fayad, Menno P J de Winther, Esther Lutgens, Willem J M Mulder, Ewelina Kluza
Hyaluronan is a biologically active polymer, which can be formulated into nanoparticles. In our study, we aimed to probe atherosclerosis-associated inflammation by using hyaluronan nanoparticles and to determine whether they can ameliorate atherosclerosis. Hyaluronan nanoparticles (HA-NPs) were prepared by reacting amine-functionalized oligomeric hyaluronan (HA) with cholanic ester and labeled with a fluorescent or radioactive label. HA-NPs were characterized in vitro by several advanced microscopy methods...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
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