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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741357/dopamine-and-noradrenaline-but-not-serotonin-in-the-human-claustrum-are-greatly-reduced-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-possible-functional-implications
#1
Harald H Sitte, Christian Pifl, Ali H Rajput, Heide Hörtnagl, Junchao Tong, George K Lloyd, Stephen J Kish, Oleh Hornykiewicz
In the human brain, the claustrum is a small subcortical telencephalic nucleus, situated between the insular cortex and the putamen. A plethora of neuroanatomical studies have shown the existence of dense, widespread, bidirectional and bilateral monosynaptic interconnections between the claustrum and most cortical areas. A rapidly growing body of experimental evidence points to the integrative role of claustrum in complex brain functions, from motor to cognitive. Here, we examined for the first time, the behaviour of the classical monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in the claustrum of the normal autopsied human brain and of patients who died with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD)...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616337/activation-and-blockade-of-serotonin6-receptors-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-enhance-t-maze-and-hole-board-performance-in-a-unilateral-6-hydroxydopamine-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Kun Cheng Liu, Jun Yi Li, Wen Xie, Li Bo Li, Jin Zhang, Cheng Xue Du, Yu Ming Zhang, Hui Hui Tan, Hui Sheng Wang, Li Zhang
The role of dorsal hippocampus (DH) serotonin6 (5-HT6) receptors in memory is unknown, particularly in memory impairment of Parkinson's disease. We tested here effects of activation and blockade of DH 5-HT6 receptors on working and hippocampus-dependent memories in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced working and hippocampus-dependent memory impairments as measured by the T-maze rewarded alternation and hole-board tests, and decreased dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), DH and amygdala...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591662/electrochemical-sensors-and-biosensors-for-determination-of-catecholamine-neurotransmitters-a-review
#3
REVIEW
José A Ribeiro, Paula M V Fernandes, Carlos M Pereira, F Silva
This work describes the state of the art of electrochemical devices for the detection of an important class of neurotransmitters: the catecholamines. This class of biogenic amines includes dopamine, noradrenaline (also called norepinephrine) and adrenaline (also called epinephrine). Researchers have focused on the role of catecholamine molecules within the human body because they are involved in many important biological functions and are commonly associated with several diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491309/tyrosine-hydroxylase-th-its-cofactor-tetrahydrobiopterin-bh4-other-catecholamine-related-enzymes-and-their-human-genes-in-relation-to-the-drug-and-gene-therapies-of-parkinson-s-disease-pd-historical-overview-and-future-prospects
#4
Toshiharu Nagatsu, Ikuko Nagatsu
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which was discovered at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1964, is a tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-requiring monooxygenase that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamines (CAs), such as dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. Since deficiencies of dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain stem, caused by neurodegeneration of dopamine and noradrenaline neurons, are mainly related to non-motor and motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), we have studied human CA-synthesizing enzymes [TH; BH4-related enzymes, especially GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GCH1); aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC); dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH); and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT)] and their genes in relation to PD in postmortem brains from PD patients, patients with CA-related genetic diseases, mice with genetically engineered CA neurons, and animal models of PD...
November 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424103/activation-and-blockade-of-prelimbic-5-ht6-receptors-produce-different-effects-on-depressive-like-behaviors-in-unilateral-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-parkinson-s-rats
#5
Yu-Ming Zhang, Li Zhang, Yong Wang, Yi-Na Sun, Yuan Guo, Cheng-Xue Du, Jin Zhang, Lu Yao, Shu-Qi Yu, Jian Liu
The role of prelimbic (PrL) 5-HT6 receptors in depression is poorly understood, particularly in Parkinson's disease-related depression. Here we reported that 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in rats decreased sucrose preference and increased immobility time as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats, indicating the induction of depressive-like behaviors. Intra-PrL injection of 5-HT6 receptor agonist WAY208466 induced depressive-like responses in sham-operated rats, and produced antidepressant-like effects in the lesioned rats...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365173/imipramine-and-amitriptyline-ameliorate-the-rotenone-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-rats
#6
Esraa A Kandil, Noha F Abdelkader, Bahia M El-Sayeh, Samira Saleh
Amitriptyline (AMI), a commonly prescribed tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) to parkinsonian patients, specifically showed a significant delay in dopaminergic therapy initiation and improvement in motor disability in parkinsonian patients. Moreover, it was recently shown that AMI has neuroprotective properties; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not fully understood. The current study aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective mechanisms afforded by AMI in the rotenone model of PD and to assess whether another TCA member, imipramine (IMI), shows a corresponding effect...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343257/atomoxetine-restores-the-response-inhibition-network-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Charlotte L Rae, Cristina Nombela, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Zheng Ye, Laura E Hughes, P Simon Jones, Timothy Ham, Timothy Rittman, Ian Coyle-Gilchrist, Ralf Regenthal, Barbara J Sahakian, Roger A Barker, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Parkinson's disease impairs the inhibition of responses, and whilst impulsivity is mild for some patients, severe impulse control disorders affect ∼10% of cases. Based on preclinical models we proposed that noradrenergic denervation contributes to the impairment of response inhibition, via changes in the prefrontal cortex and its subcortical connections. Previous work in Parkinson's disease found that the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine could improve response inhibition, gambling decisions and reflection impulsivity...
August 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292410/nuclear-organization-of-the-substantia-nigra-ventral-tegmental-area-and-retrorubral-field-of-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus-a-cytoarchitectonic-and-th-immunohistochemistry-study
#8
José R L P Cavalcanti, André L B Pontes, Felipe P Fiuza, Kayo D A Silva, Fausto P Guzen, Eudes E S Lucena, Expedito S Nascimento-Júnior, Judney C Cavalcante, Miriam S M O Costa, Rovena C G J Engelberth, Jeferson S Cavalcante
It is widely known that the catecholamine group is formed by dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline. Its synthesis is regulated by the enzyme called tyrosine hydroxylase. 3-hydroxytyramine/dopamine (DA) is a precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline synthesis and acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The three main nuclei, being the retrorubral field (A8 group), the substantia nigra pars compacta (A9 group) and the ventral tegmental area (A10 group), are arranged in the die-mesencephalic portion and are involved in three complex circuitries - the mesostriatal, mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190169/dopamine-reuptake-inhibitors-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-review-of-nonhuman-primate-studies-and-clinical-trials
#9
Philippe Huot, Susan H Fox, Jonathan M Brotchie
Striatal dopamine deficiency is the core feature of the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD), and dopamine replacement with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) is the mainstay of PD treatment. Unfortunately, chronic l-DOPA administration is marred by the emergence of dyskinesia and wearing-off. Alternatives to l-DOPA for alleviation of parkinsonism are of interest, although none can match the efficacy of l-DOPA to date. Catechol-O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase inhibitors are currently used to alleviate wearing-off, but they do not increase "on-time" without exacerbating dyskinesia...
June 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27178363/serotonin7-receptors-in-the-lateral-habenular-nucleus-regulate-depressive-like-behaviors-in-the-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#10
Ling Na Han, Li Zhang, Yi Na Sun, Cheng Xue Du, Yu Ming Zhang, Tao Wang, Jin Zhang, Jian Liu
Preclinical studies indicate that serotonin7 (5-HT7) receptors may regulate depressive-like behaviors. Depression is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its pathophysiology is unclear. Here we examined whether 5-HT7 receptors in the lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) involve in the regulation of PD-related depression. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta in rats induced depressive-like responses as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats...
August 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27091624/orthostatic-hypotension-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-causation-or-association
#11
REVIEW
Claire McDonald, Julia L Newton, David J Burn
Orthostatic hypotension and cognitive impairment are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and significantly impair quality of life. Orthostatic hypotension and cognitive impairment appear to be interrelated. Whether the relationship is causative or associative remains unclear. The vascular hypothesis proposes that recurrent episodic hypotension results in cerebral hypoperfusion, in turn causing anoxic damage to vulnerable areas of the brain and impaired cognitive function. Support for this hypothesis has come from brain MRI studies showing an association between white matter hyperintensities and a postural drop in blood pressure among PD patients...
July 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006858/freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-6-18-f-fluoro-l-m-tyrosine-uptake-in-the-locus-coeruleus
#12
Sayaka Asari Ono, Toshihiko Sato, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common disorder in Parkinson's disease (PD) and could be attributed to a reduction in brain noradrenaline. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity in the locus coeruleus (LC) and FOG in PD using high-resolution positron emission tomography with an AADC tracer, 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (FMT). We assessed 40 patients with PD and 11 age-matched healthy individuals. PD was diagnosed based on the UK Brain Bank criteria by two movement disorder experts...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26999074/stimulation-of-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-in-the-lumbosacral-defaecation-centre-causes-propulsive-colorectal-contractions-in-rats
#13
Kiyotada Naitou, Hiroyuki Nakamori, Takahiko Shiina, Azusa Ikeda, Yuuta Nozue, Yuuki Sano, Takuya Yokoyama, Yoshio Yamamoto, Akihiro Yamada, Nozomi Akimoto, Hidemasa Furue, Yasutake Shimizu
KEY POINTS: The pathophysiological roles of the CNS in bowel dysfunction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and Parkinson's disease remain obscure. In the present study, we demonstrate that dopamine in the lumbosacral defaecation centre causes strong propulsive motility of the colorectum. The effect of dopamine is a result of activation of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons via D2-like dopamine receptors. Considering that dopamine is a neurotransmitter of descending pain inhibitory pathways, our results highlight the novel concept that descending pain inhibitory pathways control not only pain, but also the defaecation reflex...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968403/causes-consequences-and-cures-for-neuroinflammation-mediated-via-the-locus-coeruleus-noradrenergic-signaling-system
#14
Douglas L Feinstein, Sergey Kalinin, David Braun
Aside from its roles in as a classical neurotransmitter involved in regulation of behavior, noradrenaline (NA) has other functions in the CNS. This includes restricting the development of neuroinflammatory activation, providing neurotrophic support to neurons, and providing neuroprotection against oxidative stress. In recent years, it has become evident that disruption of physiological NA levels or signaling is a contributing factor to a variety of neurological diseases and conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Multiple Sclerosis...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26837463/atomoxetine-enhances-connectivity-of-prefrontal-networks-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Robin J Borchert, Timothy Rittman, Luca Passamonti, Zheng Ye, Saber Sami, Simon P Jones, Cristina Nombela, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Deniz Vatansever, Charlotte L Rae, Laura E Hughes, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but often not improved by dopaminergic treatment. New treatment strategies targeting other neurotransmitter deficits are therefore of growing interest. Imaging the brain at rest ('task-free') provides the opportunity to examine the impact of a candidate drug on many of the brain networks that underpin cognition, while minimizing task-related performance confounds. We test this approach using atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that modulates the prefrontal cortical activity and can facilitate some executive functions and response inhibition...
July 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26748034/dopaminergic-drugs-in-type-2-diabetes-and-glucose-homeostasis
#16
REVIEW
Felicitas Lopez Vicchi, Guillermina Maria Luque, Belen Brie, Juan Patricio Nogueira, Isabel Garcia Tornadu, Damasia Becu-Villalobos
The importance of dopamine in central nervous system function is well known, but its effects on glucose homeostasis and pancreatic β cell function are beginning to be unraveled. Mutant mice lacking dopamine type 2 receptors (D2R) are glucose intolerant and have abnormal insulin secretion. In humans, administration of neuroleptic drugs, which block dopamine receptors, may cause hyperinsulinemia, increased weight gain and glucose intolerance. Conversely, treatment with the dopamine precursor l-DOPA in patients with Parkinson's disease reduces insulin secretion upon oral glucose tolerance test, and bromocriptine improves glycemic control and glucose tolerance in obese type 2 diabetic patients as well as in non diabetic obese animals and humans...
July 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26470809/activation-and-blockade-of-serotonin7-receptors-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-regulate-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-parkinson-s-disease-rat-model
#17
Q J Zhang, C X Du, H H Tan, L Zhang, L B Li, J Zhang, X L Niu, J Liu
The role of serotonin7 (5-HT7) receptors in the regulation of depression is poorly understood, particularly in Parkinson's disease-associated depression. Here we examined whether 5-HT7 receptors in the prelimbic (PrL) sub-region of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) involve in the regulation of depressive-like behaviors in sham-operated rats and rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced depressive-like responses as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats...
December 17, 2015: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26439313/ziram-a-pesticide-associated-with-increased-risk-for-parkinson-s-disease-differentially-affects-the-presynaptic-function-of-aminergic-and-glutamatergic-nerve-terminals-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#18
Ciara A Martin, Katherine M Myers, Audrey Chen, Nathan T Martin, Angel Barajas, Felix E Schweizer, David E Krantz
Multiple populations of aminergic neurons are affected in Parkinson's disease (PD), with serotonergic and noradrenergic loci responsible for some non-motor symptoms. Environmental toxins, such as the dithiocarbamate fungicide ziram, significantly increase the risk of developing PD and the attendant spectrum of both motor and non-motor symptoms. The mechanisms by which ziram and other environmental toxins increase the risk of PD, and the potential effects of these toxins on aminergic neurons, remain unclear...
January 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26351515/effect-and-potential-mechanism-of-electroacupuncture-add-on-treatment-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Fang Wang, Li Sun, Xiao-Zhe Zhang, Jun Jia, Zhuo Liu, Xi-Yan Huang, Shu-Yang Yu, Li-Jun Zuo, Chen-Jie Cao, Xiao-Min Wang, Wei Zhang
Objectives. To explore effectiveness and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) add-on treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Methods. Fifty PD patients were randomly assigned to drug plus EA (D + EA) group and drug alone (D) group. Subjects in D + EA group received stimulation in points of bilateral fengfu, fengchi, hegu, and central dazhui. Participants were evaluated by scales for motor and nonmotor symptoms. Levels of neuroinflammatory factors and neurotransmitters in serum were detected. Results...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26342895/lesion-of-the-locus-coeruleus-aggravates-dopaminergic-neuron-degeneration-by-modulating-microglial-function-in-mouse-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Ning Yao, Yanhong Wu, Yan Zhou, Lili Ju, Yujun Liu, Rongkai Ju, Deyi Duan, Qunyuan Xu
The degeneration of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) commonly occurs in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by a selective injury of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). The pathological impact of the LC on the SN in the disease is unknown. In the present study, we used a noradrenergic toxin, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4), to deplete noradrenaline (NA) derived from the LC to explore its influence on degeneration or injury of dopaminergic neurons in the SN in mouse model produced by intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
November 2, 2015: Brain Research
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