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Vitiligo, compromised immunity

Michael J Caterina, Zixuan Pang
Ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family mediate the influx of monovalent and/or divalent cations into cells in response to a host of chemical or physical stimuli. In the skin, TRP channels are expressed in many cell types, including keratinocytes, sensory neurons, melanocytes, and immune/inflammatory cells. Within these diverse cell types, TRP channels participate in physiological processes ranging from sensation to skin homeostasis. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence implicating abnormal TRP channel function, as a product of excessive or deficient channel activity, in pathological skin conditions such as chronic pain and itch, dermatitis, vitiligo, alopecia, wound healing, skin carcinogenesis, and skin barrier compromise...
December 14, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
Maria Lucia Dell'anna, Mauro Picardo
Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functioning epidermal melanocytes because of multifactorial and overlapping pathogenetic mechanisms. Besides the immunological approach, the study of the metabolic deregulations leading to toxic damage of the melanocytes appears to be more and more relevant. It was only last year that the first in vitro evidence supporting the link and the temporal sequence between the immune response and the cellular oxidative stress was provided, suggesting that the intrinsic damage of the melanocytes is primitive...
October 2006: Pigment Cell Research
W C Neves Forte, M C Santos de Menezes, P C Loureiro Dionigi, C L A Fanuchi E Bastos
We report four patients with ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome that presented varied neurologic evolution. Three patients initially presented neurologic alterations of slow progression, evolving to late immunocompromised conditions. The fourth patient presented, from symptom onset, immune and neurologic debilitation, that were both severe and of fast progression. The chronological sequence of the most commonly observed immunocompromised conditions were in our patients, in ascending order, IgA deficiency, IgG2 deficiency and the neutrophil phagocytosis stage and common variable immunodeficiency...
July 2005: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Victor H Engelhard, Timothy N J Bullock, Teresa A Colella, Stacey L Sheasley, David W Mullins
A large set of peptide antigens presented by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on human and murine melanomas and recognized by CD8+ T cells have been defined. These peptides represent attractive candidates for the development of therapeutic and/or prophylactic approaches to treat this cancer. However, the majority of the peptides that are presented by multiple tumors and recognized by T cells from multiple patients arise from proteins that are also expressed in normal melanocytes. It is expected that immune responses to such peptides will be compromised by self-tolerance or, alternatively, that stimulation of effective immune responses will be accompanied by autoimmune vitiligo...
October 2002: Immunological Reviews
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