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Chronic Kidney Disease and Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis Dysfunction

Sofia B Ahmed, Wendy S Vitek, Jean L Holley
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function, leading to menstrual abnormalities, sexual dysfunction, functional menopause, and loss of fertility. Pregnancy in a patient with CKD is associated with a higher risk of complications to both the mother and the fetus, highlighting the importance of contraceptive counseling at all stages of CKD. There has been limited research on the safety and efficacy of different contraceptive methods in the CKD population, and it is important to tailor the choice of contraception to the patient's lifestyle and comorbidity status...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
C Yzydorczyk, J B Armengaud, A C Peyter, H Chehade, F Cachat, C Juvet, B Siddeek, S Simoncini, F Sabatier, F Dignat-George, D Mitanchez, U Simeoni
Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have an increased risk of perinatal morbidity/mortality, and those who survive face long-term consequences such as cardiovascular-related diseases, including systemic hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease. In addition to the demonstrated long-term effects of decreased nephron endowment and hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, individuals born after IUGR also exhibit early alterations in vascular structure and function, which have been identified as key factors of the development of cardiovascular-related diseases...
August 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Matthew M Edey
Male sexual dysfunction is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in end-stage renal disease. Historically, this cause of considerable morbidity has been under-reported and under-recognized. The ideal approach to diagnosis and management remains unclear due to a paucity of good quality data, but an understanding of the pathophysiology is necessary in order to address the burden of this important complication of CKD. This paper will review the endocrine dysfunction that occurs in renal disease, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, discuss the causes of erectile dysfunction, infertility, and altered body image and libido in these patients and suggest appropriate treatment interventions...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Sexual dysfunction is a common finding in both men and women with chronic kidney failure. Common disturbances include erectile dysfunction in men, menstrual abnormalities in women, and decreased libido and fertility in both sexes. These abnormalities are primarily organic in nature and are related to uremia as well as the other comorbid conditions that frequently occur in the chronic kidney failure patient. Fatigue and psycho social factors related to the presence of a chronic disease are also contributory factors...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Ulla T Schultheiss, Natalie Daya, Morgan E Grams, Jochen Seufert, Michael Steffes, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin, Anna Köttgen
Background: Reduced kidney function is a common public health problem that increases risk for a wide variety of adverse outcomes, making the identification of potentially modifiable factors associated with the development of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) important. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis have been linked to reduced kidney function, but the association of thyroid function with the development of incident CKD is largely uncharacterized. Methods: Concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were quantified in 12 785 black and white participants of the ongoing community-based prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study...
November 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
A-S Delesalle, G Robin, F Provôt, D Dewailly, M Leroy-Billiard, M Peigné
Chronic renal failure leads to many metabolic disorders affecting reproductive function. For men, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, spermatic alterations, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction are described. Kidney transplantation improves sperm parameters and hormonal function within 2 years. But sperm alterations may persist with the use of immunosuppressive drugs. In women, hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis dysfunction due to chronic renal failure results in menstrual irregularities, anovulation and infertility...
January 2015: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Grazia Tamma, Nandu Goswami, Johannes Reichmuth, Natale G De Santo, Giovanna Valenti
Functioning of the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal-vasopressin axis is altered in aging, and the pathway may represent a plausible target to slow the process of aging. Arginine vasopressin, a nine-amino acid peptide that is secreted from the posterior pituitary in response to high plasma osmolality and hypotension, is central in this pathway. Vasopressin has important roles in circulatory and water homoeostasis mediated by vasopressin receptor subtypes V1a (vascular), V1b (pituitary), and V2 (vascular, renal)...
March 2015: Endocrinology
Christiaan Lucas Meuwese, Juan Jesús Carrero
Hormonal derangements at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are often seen with the worsening of kidney function. This may not be surprising given the role of the kidney in synthesis, metabolism and elimination of many of these hormones. Traditionally, these derangements have been understood as a consequence of kidney failure. Conversely, recent evidence points towards the implication of such hormonal disorders in the genesis of CKD. In this review we present arguments supporting both the role of hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction as a consequence of uremic complications and a culprit in disease incidence and progression...
November 2013: Archives of Medical Research
Errol M Thomson, Djordje Vladisavljevic, Susantha Mohottalage, Prem Kumarathasan, Renaud Vincent
Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between air pollution and adverse effects that extend beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including low birth weight, appendicitis, stroke, and neurological/neurobehavioural outcomes (e.g., neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, depression, and suicide). To gain insight into mechanisms underlying such effects, we mapped gene profiles in the lungs, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, cerebral hemisphere, and pituitary of male Fischer-344 rats immediately and 24h after a 4-h exposure by inhalation to particulate matter (0, 5, and 50mg/m(3) EHC-93 urban particles) and ozone (0, 0...
September 2013: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Melissa M Hudson, Kirsten K Ness, James G Gurney, Daniel A Mulrooney, Wassim Chemaitilly, Kevin R Krull, Daniel M Green, Gregory T Armstrong, Kerri A Nottage, Kendra E Jones, Charles A Sklar, Deo Kumar Srivastava, Leslie L Robison
IMPORTANCE: Adult survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for treatment-related adverse health outcomes. A large population of survivors has not been evaluated using a comprehensive systematic clinical assessment to determine the prevalence of chronic health conditions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adverse health outcomes and the proportion associated with treatment-related exposures in a large cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer...
June 12, 2013: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Silvia Ros, Juan J Carrero
The kidney plays an important role in synthesis, metabolism and elimination of a plethora of hormones. Thus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) naturally progresses with hormonal disorders. This review will focus in emerging evidence regarding the association between CKD-associated disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and cardiovascular risk factors. Hormonal derangements discussed are prolactin retention, testosterone deficiency and the low trioodothyronine syndrome, all of which have traditionally been interpreted as innocent bystanders of uremia and received relatively scarce attention by the Nephrology community...
2013: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Nataki C Douglas, Monjri Shah, Monrji Shah, Mark V Sauer
Solid organ transplantation can prolong the life of individuals with end-stage diseases that affect the kidney, liver, lung, heart, and pancreas. The improved survival of transplant recipients has led to increased attention on quality of life issues, including controlling fertility and having children. Perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in women with chronic renal failure or severe hepatic dysfunction result in anovulation and reduced fertility. Most often, fertility is restored with successful organ transplantation and good overall health...
December 2007: Seminars in Perinatology
Priya Anantharaman, Rebecca J Schmidt
Endocrine abnormalities are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and lead to sexual dysfunction, anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and altered mineral metabolism. Common clinical problems include disturbances in menstruation in women, erectile dysfunction in men, and decreased libido and infertility in both sexes. Organic factors tend to be prominent and are related to uremia and other comorbid illnesses. Psychological factors and depression may exacerbate the primary problem. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis are seen early in CKD and tend to worsen after patients start dialysis...
April 2007: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
L Tauchmanovà, R Carrano, T Musella, F Orio, M Sabbatini, G Lombardi, G Fenzi, S Federico, A Colao
Although thyroid disorders related to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are well known, there are discordant data on the function and morphology of the thyroid gland after renal transplantation (RT). The objective of this cross-sectional, case-control study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for disorders in the thyroid function and morphology after a successful RT. Fifty consecutive patients (25 females, 25 males) with fully functioning allograft were enrolled. Their age at transplant ranged from 23 to 44 yr (median, 38) and their post-RT follow-up lasted 15-86 months (median, 23)...
July 2006: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Asterios Karagiannis, Faidon Harsoulis
Gonadal function is significantly affected in many acute and chronic systemic diseases. As the function of the testes and the ovaries is determined by the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, it is obvious that a systemic disease may affect one or more levels of the axis in such a manner that the gonadal dysfunction may have various clinical and laboratory manifestations. In this brief review, the most common disturbances seen in the main systemic diseases will be discussed.
April 2005: European Journal of Endocrinology
Biff F Palmer
Chronic kidney disease is commonly accompanied by disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Such disturbances in men give rise to hypogonadism and low circulating testosterone levels. The deficiency in testosterone can contribute to clinical outcomes such as sexual dysfunction, decreased bone mineralization, malnutrition and decreased muscle mass, and anemia. The administration of androgens to nonuremic hypogonadal men is usually effective in treating such outcomes. By contrast, the response to therapy in uremic men tends to be much less predictable...
October 2004: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Jean L Holley
Although the precise abnormalities that lead to failure of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in men and women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains undefined, evidence exists for defects in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary. The lack of appropriate cyclic release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus leads to loss of normal pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) release by the pituitary, which results in impaired ovulation in women and reduced testosterone and sperm production in men...
October 2004: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Biff F Palmer
Sexual dysfunction is a common finding in both men and women with chronic kidney failure. Common disturbances include erectile dysfunction in men, menstrual abnormalities in women, and decreased libido and fertility in both sexes. These abnormalities are primarily organic in nature and are related to uremia as well as the other comorbid conditions that frequently occur in the chronic kidney failure patient. Fatigue and psychosocial factors related to the presence of a chronic disease are also contributory factors...
January 2003: Advances in Renal Replacement Therapy
Menorrhagia--menstrual periods lasting longer than 7 days and totaling blood losses greater than 80mL--affects 9%-14% of otherwise healthy women, and it can signal cancer, an endocrinologic disorder, or gynecologic disease. Blood loss can be high enough to result in anemia, fatigue, and syncope. Most often, abnormal uterine bleeding such as menorrhagia involves a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the ovary, and/or the uterus. Other identified causes include medications (especially psychotropics) that cross the blood-brain barrier; chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and liver and kidney dysfunction; endocrine disorders, perimenopausal anovulation, polycystic ovary disease, pituitary tumors, and abnormal estrogen cycling caused by morbid obesity; and anatomic abnormalities of the uterus...
January 1997: Medscape Women's Health
J R Ferraris, J A Ramirez, V Goldberg, M A Rivarola
UNLABELLED: We studied the effects of chronic renal failure on the pituitary-cortisol axis and adrenal androgen function in 26 patients (16 male and 10 female), aged 6.5 to 22.5 years (mean 14.5). Ten patients were prepubertal, 8 pubertal, and 8 post-pubertal. All of them were on chronic hemodialysis. Pubic hair development was delayed in 56% of the patients. Serum cortisol was increased in 15 out of the 26 patients. Serum delta 4-androstenedione was high in 11 out of 15 patients in Tanner's stage I or II and in 1 out of 11 patients in Tanner's stage III, IV or V (p less than 0...
March 1991: Acta Endocrinologica
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