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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656343/lateralisation-in-parkinson-disease
#1
REVIEW
P Riederer, K A Jellinger, P Kolber, G Hipp, J Sian-Hülsmann, R Krüger
Asymmetry of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and subsequent lateralisation of motor symptoms are distinctive features of Parkinson's disease compared to other forms of neurodegenerative or symptomatic parkinsonism. Even 200 years after the first description of the disease, the underlying causes for this striking clinicopathological feature are not yet fully understood. There is increasing evidence that lateralisation of disease is due to a complex interplay of hereditary and environmental factors that are reflected not only in the concept of dominant hemispheres and handedness but also in specific susceptibilities of neuronal subpopulations within the substantia nigra...
April 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655937/the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-a-neural-crossroads-between-abstract-and-concrete-knowledge
#2
Pasquale Anthony Della Rosa, Eleonora Catricalà, Matteo Canini, Gabriella Vigliocco, Stefano F Cappa
Evidence from both neuropsychology and neuroimaging suggests that different types of information are necessary for representing and processing concrete and abstract word meanings. Both abstract and concrete concepts, however, conjointly rely on perceptual, verbal and contextual knowledge, with abstract concepts characterized by low values of imageability (IMG) (low sensory-motor grounding) and low context availability (CA) (more difficult to contextualize). Imaging studies supporting differences between abstract and concrete concepts show a greater recruitment of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) for abstract concepts, which has been attributed either to the representation of abstract-specific semantic knowledge or to the request for more executive control than in the case of concrete concepts...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655586/non-motor-outcomes-of-subthalamic-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-depend-on-location-of-active-contacts
#3
Haidar Salimi Dafsari, Jan Niklas Petry-Schmelzer, K Ray-Chaudhuri, Keyoumars Ashkan, Luca Weis, Till A Dembek, Michael Samuel, Alexandra Rizos, Monty Silverdale, Michael T Barbe, Gereon R Fink, Julian Evans, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Angelo Antonini, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Lars Timmermann
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies have investigated the influence of the location of neurostimulation on NMS. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of active contact location on NMS in STN-DBS in PD. METHODS: In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 50 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we collected NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (anxiety/depression, HADS-A/-D), PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, motor complications, activities of daily living (ADL), and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) preoperatively and at 6 months follow-up...
March 16, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651518/updating-impairments-and-the-failure-to-explore-new-hypotheses-following-right-brain-damage
#4
Elisabeth Stöttinger, Carolyn Louise Guay, James Danckert, Britt Anderson
We have shown recently that damage to the right hemisphere impairs the ability to update mental models when evidence suggests an old model is no longer appropriate. We argue that this deficit is generic in the sense that it crosses multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. Here, we examined the nature of this updating impairment to determine more precisely the underlying mechanisms. We had right (RBD, N = 12) and left brain damaged (LBD, N = 10) patients perform versions of our picture-morphing task in which pictures gradually morph from one object (e...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651240/cognitive-neuroscience-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-its-clinical-translation
#5
REVIEW
Katya Rubia
This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650957/two-dimensional-materials-in-functional-three-dimensional-architectures-with-applications-in-photodetection-and-imaging
#6
Wonho Lee, Yuan Liu, Yongjun Lee, Bhupendra K Sharma, Sachin M Shinde, Seong Dae Kim, Kewang Nan, Zheng Yan, Mengdi Han, Yonggang Huang, Yihui Zhang, Jong-Hyun Ahn, John A Rogers
Efficient and highly functional three-dimensional systems that are ubiquitous in biology suggest that similar design architectures could be useful in electronic and optoelectronic technologies, extending their levels of functionality beyond those achievable with traditional, planar two-dimensional platforms. Complex three-dimensional structures inspired by origami, kirigami have promise as routes for two-dimensional to three-dimensional transformation, but current examples lack the necessary combination of functional materials, mechanics designs, system-level architectures, and integration capabilities for practical devices with unique operational features...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650781/anatomic-and-angiographic-analyses-of-ophthalmic-artery-collaterals-in-moyamoya-disease
#7
T Robert, G Cicciò, P Sylvestre, A Chiappini, A G Weil, S Smajda, C Chaalala, R Blanc, M Reinert, M Piotin, M W Bojanowski
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Moyamoya disease is a progressive neurovascular pathology defined by steno-occlusive disease of the distal internal carotid artery and associated with the development of compensatory vascular collaterals. The etiology and exact anatomy of vascular collaterals have not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy of collaterals developed between the ophthalmic artery and the anterior cerebral artery in a Moyamoya population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients treated for Moyamoya disease from 2004 to 2016 in 4 neurosurgical centers with available cerebral digital subtraction angiography were included...
April 12, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649509/cybersickness-related-changes-in-brain-hemodynamics-a-pilot-study-comparing-transcranial-doppler-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-assessments-during-a-virtual-ride-on-a-roller-coaster
#8
Alireza Mazloumi Gavgani, Rachel H X Wong, Peter R C Howe, Deborah M Hodgson, Frederick R Walker, Eugene Nalivaiko
Our aim was to assess cerebral blood flow changes during cybersickness. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used separately in two independent experiments. In both studies, a 15-min virtual roller coaster ride was used as a provocative visual stimulus. Subjective nausea ratings were obtained at 1 min intervals. The TCD study was performed in 14 healthy subjects (8 males and 6 females); in this study we also measured heart rate and arterial pressure. In a separate study a 52-channel NIRS device (Hitachi ETG-4000) was used to monitor activated brain regions by measuring oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) concentration in 9 healthy subjects (4 male, 5 females)...
April 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649335/molecular-characterization-of-the-lipophorin-receptor-in-the-crustacean-ectoparasite-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#9
Muhammad Tanveer Khan, Sussie Dalvin, Qaiser Waheed, Frank Nilsen, Rune Male
The Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a marine ectoparasite of salmonid fish in the Northern Hemisphere and considered as a major challenge in aquaculture and a threat to wild populations of salmonids. Adult female lice produce a large number of lipid-rich eggs, however, the mechanism of maternal lipid transport into developing eggs during salmon louse reproduction has not been described. In the present study, a full-length L. salmonis lipophorin receptor (LsLpR) consisting of 16 exons was obtained by RACE and RT-PCR...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648981/glibenclamide-produces-region-dependent-effects-on-cerebral-edema-in-a-combined-injury-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-in-mice
#10
Ruchira Jha, Bradley J Molyneaux, Travis C Jackson, Jessica Wallisch, Seo-Young Park, Samuel M Poloyac, Vincent A Vagni, Keri L Janesko-Feldman, Keito Hoshitsuki, Margaret Beth Minnigh, Patrick M Kochanek
Cerebral edema is critical to morbidity/mortality in TBI and is worsened by hypotension. Glibenclamide may reduce cerebral edema by inhibiting sulfonylurea receptor-1 (Sur1); its effect on diffuse cerebral edema exacerbated by hypotension/resuscitation is unknown. We aimed to determine if glibenclamide improves pericontusional and/or diffuse edema in controlled cortical impact (CCI, 5m/s, 1 mm-depth)+hemorrhagic shock (HS, 35 minutes), and compare its effects in CCI alone. C57/BL6 mice were divided into 5 groups (n=10/group): naïve, CCI+vehicle, CCI+glibenclamide, CCI+HS+vehicle, and CCI+HS+glibenclamide...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644624/the-demographic-history-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-across-its-distribution-range-reconstructed-from-approximate-bayesian-computations
#11
Quentin Rougemont, Louis Bernatchez
Understanding the dual roles of demographic and selective processes in the buildup of population divergence is one of the most challenging tasks in evolutionary biology. Here, we investigated the demographic history of Atlantic Salmon across the entire species range using 2035 anadromous individuals from North America and Eurasia. By combining results from admixture graphs, geo-genetic maps and an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework, we validated previous hypotheses pertaining to secondary contact between European and Northern American populations, but also identified secondary contacts in European populations from different glacial refugia...
April 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644521/functional-connectivity-change-between-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-ventral-attention-network-relates-to-the-impairment-of-orientation-for-time-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#12
Ken-Ichiro Yamashita, Taira Uehara, Pukovisa Prawiroharjo, Koji Yamashita, Osamu Togao, Akio Hiwatashi, Yoshihide Taniwaki, Hidetsuna Utsunomiya, Takuya Matsushita, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun-Ichi Kira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients exhibit various cognitive dysfunctions, including impairment of orientation for time (OT). The brain regions underlying OT impairment remain to be elucidated. A previous single-photon emission computed tomography study has indicated hypoperfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in relation to deterioration of OT. In this study, we investigated whole brain functional connectivity changes of PCC using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based functional connectivity with PCC was analyzed in OT-poor or OT-good AD patients, classified according to the mean OT scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination subscale...
April 12, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643831/altered-intracortical-inhibition-in-chronic-traumatic-diffuse-axonal-injury
#13
Cintya Yukie Hayashi, Iuri Santana Neville, Priscila Aparecida Rodrigues, Ricardo Galhardoni, André Russowsky Brunoni, Ana Luiza Zaninotto, Vinicius Monteiro de Paula Guirado, Ana Sofia Cueva, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
Background: Overactivation of NMDA-mediated excitatory processes and excess of GABA-mediated inhibition are attributed to the acute and subacute phases, respectively, after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there are few studies regarding the circuitry during the chronic phase of brain injury. Objective: To evaluate the cortical excitability (CE) during the chronic phase of TBI in victims diagnosed with diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Methods: The 22 adult subjects were evaluated after a minimum of 1 year from the onset of moderate or severe TBI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643828/lateralization-of-sucrose-responsiveness-and-non-associative-learning-in-honeybees
#14
David Baracchi, Elisa Rigosi, Gabriela de Brito Sanchez, Martin Giurfa
Lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain that affects perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes. It is now acknowledged that left-right laterality is widespread across vertebrates and even some invertebrates such as fruit flies and bees. Honeybees, which learn to associate an odorant (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution (the unconditioned stimulus, US), recall this association better when trained using their right antenna than they do when using their left antenna. Correspondingly, olfactory sensilla are more abundant on the right antenna and odor encoding by projection neurons of the right antennal lobe results in better odor differentiation than those of the left one...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643825/factors-influencing-right-hemisphere-engagement-during-metaphor-comprehension
#15
REVIEW
Michele T Diaz, Anna Eppes
Although the left hemisphere is critical for language, clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging research suggest that the right hemisphere also contributes to language comprehension. In particular, research has suggested that figurative language may be one type of language that preferentially engages right hemisphere regions. However, there is disagreement about whether these regions within the right hemisphere are sensitive to figurative language per se or to other factors that co-vary with figurativeness. In this article, we will review the neuroimaging literature on figurative language processing, focusing on metaphors, within the context of several theoretical perspectives that have been proposed about hemispheric function in language...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643805/deviation-of-spatial-representation-and-asymmetric-saccadic-reaction-time-in-hemi-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Dongfang Shen, Min Li, Ying Zhou, Lixin Liang, Lu Zhang, Wangzikang Zhang, Mingsha Zhang, Yujun Pan
Background : Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly show spatially asymmetric behaviors, such as veering while attempting to walk in a straight line. While there is general agreement that the lateral motor dysfunction contributes to asymmetric behaviors in PD, it is dispute regarding whether the spatial perception is also biased. In addition, it is not clear whether PD impairs the speed of spatial information process, i.e., the efficiency of information process. Objectives : To assess the visuospatial representation and efficiency of spatial information processing in hemi-PD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643438/trends-in-the-timing-and-magnitude-of-ice-jam-floods-in-canada
#17
Prabin Rokaya, Sujata Budhathoki, Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt
Ice-jam floods (IJFs) are important hydrological and hydraulic events in the northern hemisphere that are of major concern for citizens, authorities, insurance companies and government agencies. In recent years, there have been advances in assessing and quantifying climate change impacts on river ice processes, however, an understanding of climate change and regulation impacts on the timing and magnitude of IJFs remains limited. This study presents a global overview of IJF case studies and discusses IJF risks in North America, one of the most IJF prone regions according to literature...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643331/electroencephalographic-delta-alpha-frequency-activity-differentiates-psychotic-disorders-a-study-of-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-methamphetamine-induced-psychotic-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Fleur M Howells, Hendrik S Temmingh, Jennifer H Hsieh, Andrea V van Dijen, David S Baldwin, Dan J Stein
Electroencephalography (EEG) has been proposed as a neurophysiological biomarker to delineate psychotic disorders. It is known that increased delta and decreased alpha, which are apparent in psychosis, are indicative of inappropriate arousal state, which leads to reduced ability to attend to relevant information. On this premise, we investigated delta/alpha frequency activity, as this ratio of frequency activity may serve as an effective neurophysiological biomarker. The current study investigated differences in delta/alpha frequency activity, in schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar I disorder with psychotic features and methamphetamine-induced psychosis...
April 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643206/land-uplift-creates-important-meadow-habitat-and-a-potential-original-niche-for-grassland-species
#19
Alistair G Auffret, Sara A O Cousins
Semi-natural grasslands have been severely affected by agricultural land-use change. However, the isostatic land adjustment following deglaciation in the Northern Hemisphere means that new land is continually being created in coastal areas. We modelled isostatic adjustment during the last 4000 years in a region of the Baltic coast to estimate the emergence of potential grassland habitat. We also compared the α and β diversity of existing managed and abandoned coastal meadows, and assessed their contribution to biodiversity at landscape scales...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643021/keeping-track-of-sound-objects-in-space-the-contribution-of-early-stage-auditory-areas
#20
Sandra Da Costa, Stephanie Clarke, Sonia Crottaz-Herbette
The influential dual-stream model of auditory processing stipulates that information pertaining to the meaning and to the position of a given sound object is processed in parallel along two distinct pathways, the ventral and dorsal auditory streams. Functional independence of the two processing pathways is well documented by conscious experience of patients with focal hemispheric lesions. On the other hand there is growing evidence that the meaning and the position of a sound are combined early in the processing pathway, possibly already at the level of early-stage auditory areas...
April 1, 2018: Hearing Research
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