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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224085/aphasia-and-cognitive-impairment-decrease-the-reliability-of-rntms-language-mapping
#1
Vera Schwarzer, Ina Bährend, Tizian Rosenstock, Felix R Dreyer, Peter Vajkoczy, Thomas Picht
BACKGROUND: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a non-invasive mapping tool to locate functional areas of the brain. While gaining importance in the preoperative planning process in motor eloquent regions, its usefulness for reliably identifying language areas is still being discussed. The aim of this study was to identify biometric factors which might influence and therefore bias the results of repetitive nTMS (rnTMS) over cortex areas relevant for language. METHOD: We included data of 101 patients with language eloquent brain lesions who underwent preoperative rnTMS examination bihemispherically...
December 9, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224040/treatment-of-auditory-hallucinations-with-bilateral-theta-burst-stimulation-ctbs-protocol-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicenter-trial
#2
Christian Plewnia, Bettina Brendel, Tobias Schwippel, Peter Martus, Joachim Cordes, Alkomiet Hasan, Andreas J Fallgatter
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AH) are core symptoms of schizophrenia. They are often severely distressing and refractory to therapy. Their perception is associated with increased activity in temporoparietal areas of the brain. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can reduce focal brain hyperactivity and has been shown to ameliorate AH. However, controlled multicenter clinical trials are still missing, effect sizes are moderate, and the treatment with rTMS is time consuming. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) is a quicker and potentially more effective technique to reduce cortical hyperactivity...
December 9, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223819/global-occurrence-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-and-their-hydroxylated-and-methoxylated-structural-analogues-in-an-important-animal-feed-fishmeal
#3
Xiaomin Li, Shujun Dong, Wei Zhang, Xia Fan, Yang Li, Ruiguo Wang, Xiaoou Su
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated (OH) and methoxylated (MeO) structural analogues have been found widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems, and may exhibit potential adverse effects to humans due to their bioaccumulative behavior through food chain. Fishmeal is an important animal feed applied around the world and is generally of marine origin. However, the levels and sources of PBDEs in fishmeal have not been thoroughly evaluated and their structural analogues have not been reported to date...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223768/verbal-learning-and-hippocampal-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Mathilde Antoniades, Tabea Schoelera, Joaquim Radua, Isabel Valli, Paul Allen, Matthew J Kempton, Philip McGuire
This meta-analysis summarizes research examining whether deficits in verbal learning are related to bilateral hippocampal volume reductions in patients with or at risk for schizophrenia and in healthy controls. 17 studies with 755 patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), 232 Genetic High Risk (GHR) subjects and 914 healthy controls (HC) were included. Pooled correlation coefficients were calculated between hemisphere (left, right or total) and type of recall (immediate or delayed) for each diagnostic group individually (SCZ, GHR and HC)...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223681/language-processing-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-associated-with-unique-functional-connectivity-signatures-in-the-right-hemisphere
#5
Jie Zhuang, David J Madden, Xuan Duong-Fernandez, Nan-Kuei Chen, Scott W Cousins, Guy G Potter, Michele T Diaz, Heather E Whitson
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal disease associated with significant vision loss among older adults. Previous large-scale behavioral studies indicate that people with AMD are at increased risk of cognitive deficits in language processing, particularly in verbal fluency tasks. The neural underpinnings of any relationship between AMD and higher cognitive functions, such as language processing, remain unclear. This study aims to address this issue using independent component analysis of spontaneous brain activity at rest...
November 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223028/accident-rates-and-the-impact-of-daylight-saving-time-transitions
#6
David Robb, Thomas Barnes
One-third of nations have adopted some form of Daylight Saving Time (DST). Associated costs and benefits include impacts on accident rates. Using data from 12.6 million accident claims in New Zealand during 2005-2016, we model accident rates as a function of various date-based predictors including days before/after the start and end of DST, holidays, day of week, and month of year. This is the first study to consider multiple accident categories (Road, Work, Falls and Home & Community), and the first in the southern hemisphere...
December 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222483/atlantic-deep-water-provenance-decoupled-from-atmospheric-co2-concentration-during-the-lukewarm-interglacials
#7
Jacob N W Howe, Alexander M Piotrowski
Ice core records show that atmospheric CO2 concentrations and Antarctic temperature were lower during the 'lukewarm interglacials' from 800 to 430 ka than the subsequent five interglacials. These different interglacial 'strengths' have been hypothesised to be controlled by Antarctic overturning circulation. How these variations in Antarctic overturning relate to Northern Atlantic overturning circulation, a major driver of Northern Hemisphere climate, is uncertain. Here we present a high-resolution record of authigenic neodymium isotopes-a water mass tracer that is independent of biological processes-and use it to reconstruct Atlantic overturning circulation during the last 800 kyr...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222279/follicular-lymphoma-are-we-ready-for-a-risk-adapted-approach
#8
REVIEW
Brad S Kahl
Follicular lymphoma is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Western hemisphere. The natural history of FL appears to have been favorably impacted by the introduction of rituximab after randomized clinical trials demonstrated that the addition of rituximab to standard chemotherapy induction has improved the overall survival. Yet, the disease is biologically and clinically heterogeneous with wide variations in outcomes for individual patients. The ability to accurately risk-stratify patients and then tailor therapy to the individual is an area of ongoing research...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220356/color-doppler-ultrasonography-as-an-alternative-tool-for-postoperative-evaluation-of-collaterals-after-indirect-revascularization-surgery-in-moyamoya-disease
#9
Shin-Joe Yeh, Sung-Chun Tang, Li-Kai Tsai, Chung-Wei Lee, Ya-Fang Chen, Hon-Man Liu, Shih-Hung Yang, Meng-Fai Kuo, Jiann-Shing Jeng
The cerebral hypoperfusion caused by chronic progressive stenosis or occlusion of intracranial arteries in moyamoya disease can be treated by direct bypass or indirect revascularization procedures. The extent of collaterals from the external carotid artery (ECA) after indirect revascularization surgery is the key point of angiographic follow-up, and the invasiveness of angiography impelled us to investigate the role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of collaterals. We hypothesized that the collaterals shown on angiography might produce corresponding hemodynamic changes in color Doppler ultrasonography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220186/detection-of-co2%C3%A2-in-the-electrochemical-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide-in-dmf-by-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy
#10
Tianhan Kai, Min Zhou, Zhiyao Duan, Graeme A Henkelman, Allen J Bard
The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 has been studied extensively and produces a number of products. The initial reaction in the CO2 reduction is often taken to be the 1e formation of the radical anion, CO2·. However, the electrochemical detection and characterization of CO2· is challenging because of the short lifetime of CO2·, which can dimerize and react with proton donors and even mild oxidants. Here, we report the generation and quantitative determination of CO2· in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) with the tip generation/substrate collection (TG/SC) mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218547/expression-of-class-i%C3%A2-histone-deacetylases-in-ipsilateral-and-contralateral-hemispheres-after-the-focal-photothrombotic-infarction-in-the-mouse-brain
#11
Svetlana Demyanenko, Maria Neginskaya, Elena Berezhnaya
Histone acetylation and deacetylation are among the most important epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression. Nonselective inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) can protect brain cells during ischemia and stroke. However, which HDAC isoform is involved in this effect is unknown. Some isoforms of histone deacetylases (HDACs) protect brain cells after ischemia, whereas others can promote their death. Most studies consider early periods (1-24 h) after stroke, whereas little is known on the involvement of HDACs during recovery after stroke...
December 7, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218504/temporal-spatial-profiling-of-pedunculopontine-galanin-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-lactacystin-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Joanna L Elson, Rafael Kochaj, Richard Reynolds, Ilse S Pienaar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is conventionally seen as resulting from single-system neurodegeneration affecting nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, accumulating evidence indicates multi-system degeneration and neurotransmitter deficiencies, including cholinergic neurons which degenerate in a brainstem nucleus, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), resulting in motor and cognitive impairments. The neuropeptide galanin can inhibit cholinergic transmission, while being upregulated in degenerating brain regions associated with cognitive decline...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218415/timing-of-cortical-activation-during-spontaneous-swallowing
#13
Erin Kamarunas, Rachel Mulheren, Katie Palmore, Christy Ludlow
Saliva accumulation in the oropharynx generates an automatic pattern of swallowing in the brainstem in animals. Previous fMRI studies have found that spontaneous saliva and water swallows in humans evoked activation following swallow onset in both precentral motor and postcentral somatosensory cortical regions. Using event-related averaging of continuous functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we examined cortical hemodynamic responses (HDR) from 5 s before to 35 s after spontaneous reflexive saliva swallow onset in the lateral postcentral somatosensory and precentral motor regions in both hemispheres in healthy volunteers...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217996/switching-between-multiple-codes-of-snarc-like-associations-two-conceptual-replication-attempts-with-anodal-tdcs-in-sham-controlled-cross-over-design
#14
Philipp A Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
In societies with left-to-right reading direction, left-side vs. right-side behavioral decisions are faster for relatively small vs. large number magnitudes, and vice versa, a phenomenon termed Spatial-Numerical Associations of Response Codes (SNARC) effect. But also for non-numerical sequential items, SNARC-like effects were observed, suggesting a common neurocognitive mechanism based on the ordinal structures of both numbers and sequences. Modulation of prefrontal networks that are involved in providing spatial associations during cognitive behavior can contribute to elaborate their neuropsychological theoretical foundations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217832/inter-and-intra-hemispheric-structural-imaging-markers-predict-depression-relapse-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-multisite-study
#15
Benjamin S C Wade, Jing Sui, Gerhard Hellemann, Amber M Leaver, Randall T Espinoza, Roger P Woods, Christopher C Abbott, Shantanu H Joshi, Katherine L Narr
Relapse of depression following treatment is high. Biomarkers predictive of an individual's relapse risk could provide earlier opportunities for prevention. Since electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) elicits robust and rapidly acting antidepressant effects, but has a >50% relapse rate, ECT presents a valuable model for determining predictors of relapse-risk. Although previous studies have associated ECT-induced changes in brain morphometry with clinical response, longer-term outcomes have not been addressed. Using structural imaging data from 42 ECT-responsive patients obtained prior to and directly following an ECT treatment index series at two independent sites (UCLA: n = 17, age = 45...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216818/neuroprotective-effects-of-amiodarone-in-a-mouse-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#16
Masakazu Kotoda, Tadahiko Ishiyama, Kazuha Mitsui, Sohei Hishiyama, Takashi Matsukawa
BACKGROUND: Ion channels play a crucial role in the development of ischemic brain injury. Recent studies have reported that the blockade of various types of ion channels improves outcomes in experimental stroke models. Amiodarone, one of the most effective drugs for life-threatening arrhythmia, works as a multiple channel blocker and its characteristics cover all four Vaughan-Williams classes. Although it is known that amiodarone indirectly contributes to preventing ischemic stroke by maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation, the direct neuroprotective effect of amiodarone has not been clarified...
December 8, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216810/effects-of-valence-on-hemispheric-specialization-for-emotion-word-processing
#17
Jennifer M Martin, Jeanette Altarriba
The use of emotion in language is a key element of human interactions and a rich area for cognitive research. The present study examined reactions to words of five types: positive emotion (e.g., happiness), negative emotion (e.g., hatred), positive emotion-laden (e.g., blessing), negative emotion-laden (e.g., prison), and neutral (e.g., chance). Words and nonwords were intermixed in a lexical decision task using hemifield presentation. Results revealed a general left hemisphere advantage. Overall, reaction times for positive words were faster than for negative or neutral words and this effect varied by hemifield of presentation...
December 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216477/human-laterality-for-manipulation-and-gestural-communication-related-to-60-everyday-activities-impact-of-multiple-individual-related-factors
#18
Jacques Prieur, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin
Literature on laterality emphasises the importance of implementing a comprehensive investigation of humans' and non-humans' laterality for both non-communication and communication functions. Adopting a global approach should enhance our understanding of the mechanistic drivers of human brain functional lateralisation and help to explore further the nature of the left-hemispheric systems for both functions. This study investigated human laterality for both functions by taking, for the first time, numerous behaviours and multiple potential influential factors into consideration...
November 11, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216381/de-novo-gene-evolution-of-antifreeze-glycoproteins-in-codfishes-revealed-by-whole-genome-sequence-data
#19
Helle Tessand Baalsrud, Ole Kristian Tørresen, Monica Hongrø Solbakken, Walter Salzburger, Reinhold Hanel, Kjetill S Jakobsen, Sissel Jentoft
New genes can arise through duplication of a pre-existing gene or de novo from non-coding DNA, providing raw material for evolution of new functions in response to a changing environment. A prime example is the independent evolution of antifreeze glycoprotein genes (afgps) in the Arctic codfishes and Antarctic notothenioids to prevent freezing. However, the highly repetitive nature of these genes complicates studies of their organization. In notothenioids, afgps evolved from an extant gene, yet the evolutionary origin of afgps in codfishes is unknown...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216106/full-four-dimensional-and-reciprocal-mueller-matrix-bidirectional-reflectance-distribution-function-of-sintered-polytetrafluoroethylene
#20
Thomas A Germer
We measured the Mueller matrix bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a sintered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sample over the scattering hemisphere for six incident angles (0°-75° in 15° steps) and for four wavelengths (351 nm, 532 nm, 633 nm, and 1064 nm). The data for each wavelength were fit to a phenomenological description for the Mueller matrix BRDF, which is an extension of the bidirectional surface scattering modes developed by Koenderink and van Doorn [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.15, 2903 (1998)JOAOD60740-323210...
November 20, 2017: Applied Optics
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