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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229931/modulation-of-the-sensorimotor-system-by-sustained-manual-pressure-stimulation
#1
Pavel Hok, Jaroslav Opavský, Miroslav Kutín, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kaňovský, Petr Hluštík
In Vojta physiotherapy, also known as reflex locomotion therapy, prolonged peripheral pressure stimulation induces complex generalized involuntary motor responses and modifies subsequent behavior, but its neurobiological basis remains unknown. We hypothesized that the stimulation would induce sensorimotor activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sequential finger opposition. Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2) underwent two randomized fMRI sessions involving manual pressure stimulation applied either at the right lateral heel according to Vojta, or at the right lateral ankle (control site)...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229041/hemispheric-asymmetry-in-myelin-after-stroke-is-related-to-motor-impairment-and-function
#2
Bimal Lakhani, Kathryn S Hayward, Lara A Boyd
The relationships between impairment, function, arm use and underlying brain structure following stroke remain unclear. Although diffusion weighted imaging is useful in broadly assessing white matter structure, it has limited utility in identifying specific underlying neurobiological components, such as myelin. The purpose of the present study was to explore relationships between myelination and impairment, function and activity in individuals with chronic stroke. Assessments of paretic upper-extremity impairment and function were administered, and 72-hour accelerometer based activity monitoring was conducted on 19 individuals with chronic stroke...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228722/transcranial-doppler-sonography-reveals-reductions-in-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-healthy-older-adults-during-vigilance
#3
Amanda E Harwood, Pamela M Greenwood, Tyler H Shaw
Given that older adults are remaining longer in the workforce, their ability to perform demanding cognitive tasks such as vigilance assignments needs to be thoroughly examined, especially since many vigilance assignments affect public safety (e.g., aviation, medicine and long distance driving). Previous research exploring the relation between aging and vigilance is conflicted, with some studies finding decreased vigilance performance in older adults but others finding no effect of age. We sought a better understanding of effects of age on vigilance by assessing neurophysiological change over the course of a vigil in young (aged 18-24) and healthy older (aged 66-77) adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227902/impairment-of-muscle-force-transmission-in-spastic-paretic-muscles-of-stroke-survivors
#4
Xiaogang Hu, Babak Afsharipour, William Zev Rymer, Nina L Suresh, Xiaogang Hu, Babak Afsharipour, William Zev Rymer, Nina L Suresh, Xiaogang Hu, Babak Afsharipour, William Zev Rymer, Nina L Suresh
Hemispheric stroke survivors tend to have persistent motor impairments, with muscle weakness and muscle spasticity observed concurrently in the affected muscles. The objective of this preliminary study was to identify whether impairment of muscle force transmission could contribute to weakness in spastic-paretic muscles of chronic stroke survivors. To characterize the efficiency of the transmission of muscle forces to the tendon, we activated biceps brachii muscle electrically by stimulating the musculocutaneous nerve with maximum current...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227766/short-association-bundle-atlas-based-on-inter-subject-clustering-from-hardi-data
#5
C Roman, M Guevara, D Duclap, A Lebois, C Poupon, J-F Mangin, P Guevara, C Roman, M Guevara, D Duclap, A Lebois, C Poupon, J-F Mangin, P Guevara, J-F Mangin, C Roman, D Duclap, C Poupon, A Lebois, P Guevara, M Guevara
This paper is focused on the study of short brain association fibers. We present an automatic method to identify short bundles of the superficial white matter based on inter-subject hierarchical clustering. Our method finds clusters of similar fibers, belonging to the different subjects, according to a distance measure between fibers. First, the algorithm obtains representative bundles and subsequently we perform an automatic labeling based on the anatomy, of the most stable connections. The analysis was applied to two independent groups of 37 subjects...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227756/synchronization-of-brain-activity-during-induction-of-propofol-anesthesia-comparison-of-methods
#6
Tarmo Lipping, Jaanika Saareleht, Elzbieta Olejarczyk, Eila Sonkajarvi, Tuomo Ylinen, Ville Jantti, Tarmo Lipping, Jaanika Saareleht, Elzbieta Olejarczyk, Eila Sonkajarvi, Tuomo Ylinen, Ville Jantti, Jaanika Saareleht, Ville Jantti, Eila Sonkajarvi, Tuomo Ylinen, Elzbieta Olejarczyk, Tarmo Lipping
Synchrony patterns between the EEG measured from the subthalamic nucleus and scalp are analyzed during induction of propofol anesthesia. Various methods such as Coherence, Phase Locking Value, Partial Directed Coherence, Mutual Information, and Transfer Entropy are applied. The results indicate that, in general, the synchrony patterns seen in the depth-scalp electrode pair are similar to those seen between two scalp electrodes of opposite hemispheres. A clear change of state is revealed at about 10 minutes before burst suppression; this event is revealed by linear (Coherence) as well as nonlinear (Phase Locking Value) and information theoretic (Mutual Information and Transfer Entropy) measures...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227526/valence-dependent-changes-in-visual-arousing-elicitation-an-exploratory-study-in-eeg-gamma-oscillations
#7
Alberto Greco, Gaetano Valenza, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Alberto Greco, Gaetano Valenza, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Gaetano Valenza, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Alberto Greco
Emotion regulation involves several brain areas such as prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insular cortex. However, considering different levels of arousing elicitations, how such a brain dynamics is affected by emotional pleasant/unpleasant (valence) elicitation is not fully understood. To this aim, we propose an Electroencephalographic (EEG)-based preliminary study in which 22 healthy subjects were elicited through affective pictures gathered from the International Affective Picture System. Considering 4 arousing levels, each of which including two valence levels (pleasant and unpleasant), we investigated EEG power spectra and functional connectivity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227522/alpha-band-rhythm-suppression-during-memory-recall-reflecting-memory-performance
#8
Koichi Yokosawa, Keisuke Kimura, Ryota Chitose, Takuya Momiki, Shinya Kuriki, Koichi Yokosawa, Keisuke Kimura, Ryota Chitose, Takuya Momiki, Shinya Kuriki, Koichi Yokosawa, Keisuke Kimura, Ryota Chitose, Takuya Momiki, Shinya Kuriki
Alpha-band rhythm is thought to be involved in memory processes, similarly to other spontaneous brain rhythms. Ten right-handed healthy volunteers participated in our proposed sequential short-term memory task that provides a serial position effect in accuracy rate. We recorded alpha-band rhythms by magnetoencephalography during performance of the task and observed that the amplitude of the rhythm was suppressed dramatically in the memory recall period. The suppressed region was estimated to be in the occipital lobe, suggesting that alpha-band rhythm is suppressed by activation of the occipital attentional network...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227517/automatic-recognition-of-pleasant-content-of-odours-through-electroencephalographic-activity-analysis
#9
Antonio Lanata, Andrea Guidi, Alberto Greco, Gaetano Valenza, Fabio Di Francesco, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Antonio Lanata, Andrea Guidi, Alberto Greco, Gaetano Valenza, Fabio Di Francesco, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Antonio Lanata, Fabio Di Francesco, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Alberto Greco, Gaetano Valenza, Andrea Guidi
This study presents a machine learning approach applied to ElectroEnchephaloGraphic (EEG) response in a group of subjects when exposed to a controlled olfactory stimulation experiment. In the literature, in fact, there are controversial results on EEG response to odorants. This study proposes a robust leave-one-subject-out classification method to recognize features extracted from EEG signals belonging to pleasant or unpleasant olfactory stimulation classes. An accuracy of 75% has been achieved in a group of 32 subjects...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227394/principal-component-analysis-of-the-shape-deformations-of-the-hippocampus-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Xiaoying Tang, Jiong Wu, Xiaoying Tang, Jiong Wu, Xiaoying Tang, Jiong Wu
In this paper, we present the principal component analysis (PCA) of shape deformations of bilateral hippocampi in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as derived in the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping setting. We investigated the PCA patterns (the scores and loadings) of the bilateral hippocampi for 51 subjects, 28 of which had AD while 23 were normal aging. Student's t-tests were used to select the components displaying significant group difference for a more purposed analysis. Our findings revealed that the head part of the hippocampus in each hemisphere, to be specific the CA1 and subiculum subregions, contributed the most to the significant group differences...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227104/source-and-sink-nodes-in-absence-seizures
#11
Abner C Rodrigues, Birajara S Machado, Luis Otavio S F Caboclo, Andre Fujita, Luiz A Baccaia, Koichi Sameshima, Abner C Rodrigues, Birajara S Machado, Luis Otavio S F Caboclo, Andre Fujita, Luiz A Baccala, Koichi Sameshima, Luiz A Baccala, Biraiara S Machado, Luis Otavio S F Caboclo
As opposed to focal epilepsy, absence seizures do not exhibit a clear seizure onset zone or focus since its ictal activity rapidly engages both brain hemispheres. Yet recent graph theoretical analysis applied to absence seizures EEG suggests the cortical focal presence, an unexpected feature for this type of epilepsy. In this study, we explore the characteristics of absence seizure by classifying the nodes as to their source/sink natures via weighted directed graph analysis based on connectivity direction and strength estimation using information partial directed coherence (iPDC)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227022/seasonal-weight-variation-patterns-in-seven-countries-located-in-northern-and-southern-hemispheres
#12
Saeed Mehrang, Elina Helander, Angela Chieh, Ilkka Korhonen, Saeed Mehrang, Elina Helander, Angela Chieh, Ilkka Korhonen, Ilkka Korhonen, Saeed Mehrang, Elina Helander, Angela Chieh
The digital revolution of information and technology in late 20th century has led to emergence of devices that help people monitor their weight in a long-term manner. Investigation of population-level variations of body mass using smart connected weight scales enabled the health coaches acquire deeper insights about the models of people's behavior as a function of time. Typically, body mass varies when the seasons change. That is, during the warmer seasons people's body mass tend to decrease while in colder seasons it usually moves up...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226869/the-long-range-temporal-correlations-of-broadband-eeg-oscillations-in-poststroke-depression-subjects-with-basal-ganglia-infarction
#13
Chunfang Wang, Jingang Du, Ying Zhang, Peng Zhou, Dong Ming, Chunfang Wang, Jingang Du, Ying Zhang, Peng Zhou, Dong Ming, Jingang Du, Peng Zhou, Chunfang Wang, Ying Zhang, Dong Ming
Recent studies have found long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) of neuronal oscillation under different physiological and pathological state. In this paper we aimed to explore the temporal correlations of broadband neuronal oscillation in poststroke depression. Resting state EEGs of 16 electrodes in 16 poststroke depression (PSD), 18 poststroke non-depression (PSND) and 18 healthy control (HC) subjects were analyzed by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), a quantitative measurement of LRTC. The results indicated that LRTC of broadband oscillation in PSD subjects was still preserved and had similar spatial distribution to non-depression subjects, but attenuated especially in left hemisphere and frontal and posterior temporal regions of right hemisphere...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226826/long-latency-components-of-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-during-passive-tactile-perception-of-gratings
#14
C Genna, F Artoni, C Fanciullacci, C Chisari, C M Oddo, S Micera, C Genna, F Artoni, C Fanciullacci, C Chisari, C M Oddo, S Micera, C M Oddo, F Artoni, S Micera, C Genna, C Fanciullacci, C Chisari
Perception of tactile stimuli elicits Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs) that can be recorded via non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG). However, it is not yet clear how SEPs localization, shape and latency are modulated by different stimuli during mechanical tactile stimulation of fingertips. The aim of this work is thus to characterize SEPs generated by the tactile perception of gratings during dynamic passive stimulation of the dominant fingertip by means of a mechatronic platform. Results show that a random sequence of stimuli elicited SEPs with two long-latency components: (i) a negative deflection around 140 ms located in the frontal-central-parietal side in the contralateral hemisphere; (ii) a positive deflection around 250 ms located in the frontal-central midline...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226801/electrocorticographic-signals-comparison-in-sensorimotor-cortex-between-contralateral-and-ipsilateral-hand-movements
#15
Yile Jin, Mingwei Lu, Xiaotian Wang, Shaomin Zhang, Junming Zhu, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Yile Jin, Mingwei Lu, Xiaotian Wang, Shaomin Zhang, Junming Zhu, Xiaoxiang Zheng
Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have emerged as a technology to restore lost functionality in motor impaired patients. Most BMI systems employed neural signals from contralateral hemisphere. But many studies have also demonstrated the possibility to control hand movement using signals from ipsilateral one. However, the relationship of neural signals in sensorimotor cortex between contralateral and ipsilateral hand movement control is still unclear. In this study, the electrocorticographic signals (ECoG) of sensorimotor cortex were analyzed in two epilepsy participants when they performed a visual guided rock-scissors-paper task by using contralateral and ipsilateral hand respectively...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226695/creation-of-a-whole-brain-short-association-bundle-atlas-using-a-hybrid-approach
#16
M Guevara, C Roman, J Houenou, D Duclap, C Poupon, J-F Mangin, P Guevara, M Guevara, C Roman, J Houenou, D Duclap, C Poupon, J-F Mangin, P Guevara, J-F Mangin, C Roman, D Duclap, C Poupon, J Houenou, P Guevara, M Guevara
The Human brain connection map is far from being complete. In particular the study of the superficial white matter (SWM) is an unachieved task. Its description is essential for the understanding of human brain function and the study of pathogenesis triggered by abnormal connectivity. In this work we expanded a previously developed method for the automatic creation of a whole brain SWM bundle atlas. The method is based on a hybrid approach. First a cortical parcellation is used to extract fibers connecting two regions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226435/resting-state-eeg-network-change-in-alpha-and-beta-bands-after-upper-limb-amputation
#17
Yuanyuan Lyu, Xiaoli Guo, Zhuo Wang, Shanbao Tong, Yuanyuan Lyu, Xiaoli Guo, Zhuo Wang, Shanbao Tong, Yuanyuan Lyu, Xiaoli Guo, Zhuo Wang, Shanbao Tong
To investigate the reorganization of functional brain network following amputation, twenty-two right-hand amputees and twenty-four age- and education-matched controls participated in a resting-state EEG study. EEG networks in alpha and beta bands were constructed using phase synchronization. Both global and local network parameters were compared between amputees and healthy controls. In the aspect of global connectivity, amputees showed increased clustering coefficient (C), decreased characteristic path length (L) and increased small worldness (S) in alpha band, and an increase of L in beta band...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226317/neuroprotective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-brain-injury-in-rats
#18
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Xin Lu, Rao P Gullapalli, Mary C McKenna, Jaylyn Waddell
Perinatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) is a significant cause of brain injury in surviving infants. Although hypothermia improves outcomes in some infants, additional therapies are needed since about 40% of infants still have a poor outcome. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), an acetylated derivative of L-carnitine, protected against early changes in brain metabolites and mitochondrial function after HI on postnatal day (PND) 7 in a rat pup model of near-term HI injury. However, its efficacy in long-term structural and functional outcomes remains unexplored...
February 23, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225156/presurgical-language-localization-with-visual-naming-associated-ecog-high-gamma-modulation-in-pediatric-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#19
Ravindra Arya, J Adam Wilson, Hisako Fujiwara, Leonid Rozhkov, James L Leach, Anna W Byars, Hansel M Greiner, Jennifer Vannest, Jason Buroker, Griffin Milsap, Brian Ervin, Ali Minai, Paul S Horn, Katherine D Holland, Francesco T Mangano, Nathan E Crone, Douglas F Rose
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study compared presurgical language localization with visual naming-associated high-γ modulation (HGM) and conventional electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) in children with intracranial electrodes. METHODS: Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial monitoring were included if able to name pictures. Electrocorticography (ECoG) signals were recorded during picture naming (overt and covert) and quiet baseline...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224241/stem-cell-mechanical-behaviour-modelling-substrate-s-curvature-influence-during-adhesion
#20
M Vassaux, J L Milan
Recent experiments hint that adherent cells are sensitive to their substrate curvature. It is already well known that cells behaviour can be regulated by the mechanical properties of their environment. However, no mechanisms have been established regarding the influence of cell-scale curvature of the substrate. Using a numerical cell model, based on tensegrity structures theory and the non-smooth contact dynamics method, we propose to investigate the mechanical state of adherent cells on concave and convex hemispheres...
February 21, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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