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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346692/embraces-are-lateralized-in-spider-monkeys-ateles-fusciceps-rufiventris
#1
Emily R Boeving, Starlie C Belnap, Eliza L Nelson
Side biases observed in behavior are thought to reflect underlying asymmetric brain function or hemispheric specialization. Previous work in multiple species identified left side biases (associated with the right hemisphere) for processing social behavior. In highly social species such as primates, many behaviors may be categorized as social, yet differences between such behaviors have not been examined as a test of asymmetric brain function. Using Colombian spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris), we observed lateral positioning during two types of behaviors widely categorized as social affiliative: embracing and grooming, and identified a left bias for embracing, but not grooming...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345645/influence-of-anthropogenic-climate-change-on-planetary-wave-resonance-and-extreme-weather-events
#2
Michael E Mann, Stefan Rahmstorf, Kai Kornhuber, Byron A Steinman, Sonya K Miller, Dim Coumou
Persistent episodes of extreme weather in the Northern Hemisphere summer have been shown to be associated with the presence of high-amplitude quasi-stationary atmospheric Rossby waves within a particular wavelength range (zonal wavenumber 6-8). The underlying mechanistic relationship involves the phenomenon of quasi-resonant amplification (QRA) of synoptic-scale waves with that wavenumber range becoming trapped within an effective mid-latitude atmospheric waveguide. Recent work suggests an increase in recent decades in the occurrence of QRA-favorable conditions and associated extreme weather, possibly linked to amplified Arctic warming and thus a climate change influence...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345282/neuroplasticity-of-language-in-left-hemisphere-stroke-evidence-linking-subsecond-electrophysiology-and-structural-connections
#3
Vitória Piai, Lars Meyer, Nina F Dronkers, Robert T Knight
The understanding of neuroplasticity following stroke is predominantly based on neuroimaging measures that cannot address the subsecond neurodynamics of impaired language processing. We combined behavioral and electrophysiological measures and structural-connectivity estimates to characterize neuroplasticity underlying successful compensation of language abilities after left-hemispheric stroke. We recorded the electroencephalogram from patients with stroke lesions to the left temporal lobe and from matched controls during context-driven word retrieval...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345153/the-functional-architectures-of-addition-and-subtraction-network-discovery-using-fmri-and-dcm
#4
Yang Yang, Ning Zhong, Karl Friston, Kazuyuki Imamura, Shengfu Lu, Mi Li, Haiyan Zhou, Haiyuan Wang, Kuncheng Li, Bin Hu
The neuronal mechanisms underlying arithmetic calculations are not well understood but the differences between mental addition and subtraction could be particularly revealing. Using fMRI and dynamic causal modeling (DCM), this study aimed to identify the distinct neuronal architectures engaged by the cognitive processes of simple addition and subtraction. Our results revealed significantly greater activation during subtraction in regions along the dorsal pathway, including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle portion of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (mDLPFC), and supplementary motor area (SMA), compared with addition...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345035/terrestrial-support-of-lake-food-webs-synthesis-reveals-controls-over-cross-ecosystem-resource-use
#5
Andrew J Tanentzap, Brian W Kielstra, Grace M Wilkinson, Martin Berggren, Nicola Craig, Paul A Del Giorgio, Jonathan Grey, John M Gunn, Stuart E Jones, Jan Karlsson, Christopher T Solomon, Michael L Pace
Widespread evidence that organic matter exported from terrestrial into aquatic ecosystems supports recipient food webs remains controversial. A pressing question is not only whether high terrestrial support is possible but also what the general conditions are under which it arises. We assemble the largest data set, to date, of the isotopic composition (δ(2)H, δ(13)C, and δ(15)N) of lake zooplankton and the resources at the base of their associated food webs. In total, our data set spans 559 observations across 147 lakes from the boreal to subtropics...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344485/biochemical-and-molecular-modulation-of-ccl4-induced-peripheral-and-central-damage-by-tilia-americana-var-mexicanaextracts
#6
Elvia Coballase-Urrutia, Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez, María Carolina González-García, Eithan Núñez-Ramírez, Esaú Floriano-Sánchez, María Eva González-Trujano, Berenice Fernández-Rojas, José Pedraza-Chaverrí, Hortencia Montesinos-Correa, Liliana Rivera-Espinosa, Aristides Iii Sampieri, Liliana Carmona-Aparicio
Around the world, species from the genus Tilia are commonly used because of their peripheral and central medicinal effects; they are prepared as teas and used as tranquilizing, anticonvulsant, and analgesic agents. In this study, we provide evidence of the protective effects of organic and aqueous extracts (100 mg/kg, i.p.) obtained from the leaves of Tilia americana var. mexicana on CCl4-induced liver and brain damage in the rat. Protection was observed in the liver and brain (cerebellum, cortex and cerebral hemispheres) by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) using spectrophotometric methods...
March 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344107/molecular-phylogenetics-and-historical-biogeography-of-sorbus-sensu-stricto-rosaceae
#7
Meng Li, Ohi-Toma Tetsuo, Yun-Dong Gao, Bo Xu, Zhang-Ming Zhu, Wen-Bin Ju, Xin-Fen Gao
Explaining how plants from eastern Asia migrated to other Northern Hemisphere regions is still challenging. The genus Sorbus sensu stricto (including c. 88 species) is considered as a good example to illuminate this scenario, due to the wide distribution in the temperate zone and high diversity in the Himalayas and Hengduan Mountains. Based on four nuclear markers (LEAFY-2, GBSSI-1, SBEI and WD) and one chloroplast marker (rps16-trnK), we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationship of Sorbus using 54 taxa (60% of the genus representing all subgenera, sections, or series and geographical areas in the previous classifications), and estimated divergence time and historical biogeography of the genus...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344068/interlimb-differences-in-coordination-of-unsupported-reaching-movements
#8
Jacob E Schaffer, Robert L Sainburg
Previous research suggests that interlimb differences in coordination associated with handedness might result from specialized control mechanisms that are subserved by different cerebral hemispheres. Based largely on the results of horizontal plane reaching studies, we have proposed that the hemisphere contralateral to the dominant arm is specialized for predictive control of limb dynamics, while the non-dominant hemisphere is specialized for controlling limb impedance. The current study explores interlimb differences in control of 3-D unsupported reaching movements...
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343987/age-related-reduction-of-hemispheric-lateralization-for-spatial-attention-an-eeg-study
#9
Gemma Learmonth, Christopher S Y Benwell, Gregor Thut, Monika Harvey
A group-level visuospatial attention bias towards the left side of space (pseudoneglect) is consistently observed in young adults, which is likely to be a consequence of right parieto-occipital dominance for spatial attention. Conversely, healthy older adults demonstrate a rightward shift of this behavioural bias, hinting that an age-related reduction of lateralised neural activity may occur within visuospatial attention networks. We compared young (aged 18-25) and older (aged 60-80) adults on a computerised line bisection (landmark) task whilst recording event-related potentials (ERPs)...
March 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343082/lateralizing-language-function-with-pre-operative-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-early-proficient-bilingual-patients
#10
Monika M Połczyńska, Kevin Japardi, Susan Y Bookheimer
Research on bilinguals with brain lesions is complicated by high patient variability, making it difficult to find well-matched controls. We benefitted from a database of over 700 patients and conducted an analysis of pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess language dominance in 25 early, highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals, and 25 carefully matched monolingual controls. Our results showed that early bilingualism is associated with greater bilateral hemispheric involvement, and monolingualism is associated with stronger left hemisphere lateralization (p=0...
March 23, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342654/the-role-of-the-signal-intensity-ratio-on-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-in-stroke-patients-achieving-successful-recanalization-with-endovascular-treatment
#11
Taehoon Kim, Jong-Won Chung, Myung Suk Jang, Mi Hwa Yang, Sang-Hwa Lee, Beom Joon Kim, Moon-Ku Han, Jae Hyoung Kim, Cheolkyu Jung, Jae-Sung Lim, Hee-Joon Bae
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging hyperintensity can be used as a surrogate marker for the severity of ischemic insult and predict lesion growth. METHODS: Based on a prospective stroke registry database, we identified patients with ischemic stroke who were treated with endovascular treatment (EVT) within 8 hours of onset and achieved successful recanalization (modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction ≥2B)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342616/performance-of-leading-artifact-removal-algorithms-assessed-across-microwave-breast-imaging-prototype-scan-configurations
#12
M A Elahi, C Curtis, B R Lavoie, M Glavin, E Jones, E Fear, M O'Halloran
Microwave imaging is a promising imaging modality for the detection of early-stage breast cancer. One of the most important signal processing components of microwave radar-based breast imaging is early-stage artifact removal. Several artifact removal algorithms have been reported in the literature. However, the neighbourhood-based skin subtraction and hybrid artifact removal algorithms have shown particularly promising results in different realistic 3D breast phantoms. For the first time in this paper, both algorithms have been evaluated and compared using the scan approaches of the most common microwave breast imaging prototype systems...
March 2, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342054/tube-task-hand-preference-in-captive-hylobatids
#13
Luca Morino, Makiko Uchikoshi, Fred Bercovitch, William D Hopkins, Tetsuro Matsuzawa
The link between laterality in humans and other primates is still hotly debated. Hylobatids have been rather neglected in this research area, yet they can provide important insights because: (1) they share with humans a complex vocal repertoire, which in humans is thought to be associated with brain hemispheric specialization and lateralized behaviors; (2) their adaptation to arboreality has produced unique postural constraints; (3) the little that is known about laterality in gibbons is contradictory (captive studies have provided conflicting results, while a field study on siamangs reported a population-level left-hand preference)...
March 24, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341991/altered-interhemispheric-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-anisometropic-and-strabismic-amblyopia-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#14
Minglong Liang, Bing Xie, Hong Yang, Xuntao Yin, Hao Wang, Longhua Yu, Sheng He, Jian Wang
PURPOSE: Altered brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients with amblyopia by recent neuroimaging studies. However, relatively little is known about the alterations in interhemispheric functional connectivity in amblyopia. The present study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity patterns between homotopic regions across hemispheres in patients with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia under resting state. METHODS: Nineteen monocular anisometropic amblyopia (AA), 18 strabismic amblyopia (SA), and 20 normal-sight controls (NC) were enrolled in this study...
March 24, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341900/tumor-induced-osteomalacia-experience-from-a-south-american-academic-center
#15
G González, R Baudrand, M F Sepúlveda, N Vucetich, F J Guarda, P Villanueva, O Contreras, A Villa, F Salech, L Toro, L Michea, P Florenzano
The majority of tumor-induced osteomalacia cases have been reported in the Northern Hemisphere and Asia. In this first series of South American patients, we show that the clinical presentation and sensitivity of plasmatic fibroblast growth factor 23 and somatostatin analog-based imaging are similar to those described in other populations. INTRODUCTION: Describe the experience of clinical presentation, diagnostic study, and treatment of patients with tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) in a South American academic center in comparison to literature...
March 25, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341824/posterior-cingulate-cross-hemispheric-functional-connectivity-predicts-the-level-of-consciousness-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Haosu Zhang, Rui Dai, Pengmin Qin, Weijun Tang, Jin Hu, Xuchu Weng, Xing Wu, Ying Mao, Xuehai Wu, Georg Northoff
Previous studies have demonstrated that altered states of consciousness are related to changes in resting state activity in the default-mode network (DMN). Anatomically, the DMN can be divided into anterior and posterior regions. The anterior DMN includes the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and other medial prefrontal cortical regions, whereas the posterior DMN includes regions such as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the temporal parietal junction (TPJ). Although differential roles have been attributed to the anterior and posterior DMN regions, their exact contributions to consciousness levels remain unclear...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341559/-moyamoya-disease-associated-with-kidney-angiodysplasia-in-a-child
#17
A Dibi, Z Maana, F Jabourik, A Bentahila
INTRODUCTION: Moyamoya disease is a progressive, chronic occlusive vascular disease of the circle of Willis arteries leading to the development of collateral circulation to compensate the occlusion. CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old girl presented an abrupt loss of consciousness and a right-sided motor deficit. Clinical examination found hypertension with 220/120mmHg arterial blood pressure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a large left hemispheric ischemic lesion...
March 21, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340449/right-hemisphere-pitch-mismatch-negativity-reduction-in-patients-with-major-depression-an-meg-study
#18
Noriaki Hirakawa, Yoji Hirano, Itta Nakamura, Shogo Hirano, Jinya Sato, Naoya Oribe, Takefumi Ueno, Shigenobu Kanba, Toshiaki Onitsuka
BACKGROUND: The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potential and its magnetic counterpart, the MMNm, are generated by a mismatch between the physical features of a deviant stimulus and a neuronal sensory-memory trace produced by repetitive standard stimuli. Deficits in the MMN/MMNm have been reported in patients with major depression; however, the results are inconsistent. The present study investigated the pitch-MMNm in patients with major depression using whole-head 306-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340443/quantitative-eeg-abnormalities-in-major-depressive-disorder-with-basal-ganglia-stroke-with-lesions-in-different-hemispheres
#19
Chunfang Wang, Yuanyuan Chen, Ying Zhang, Jin Chen, Xiaojing Ding, Dong Ming, Jingang Du
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the aberrant EEG oscillation in major depressive subjects with basal ganglia stroke with lesions in different hemispheres. METHODS: Resting EEG of 16 electrodes in 58 stroke subjects, 26 of whom had poststroke depression (13 with left-hemisphere lesion and 13 with right) and 32 of whom did not (18 with left lesion and 14 with right), was recorded to obtain spectral power analysis for several frequency bands. Multiple analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify differences between poststroke depression (PSD) and poststroke non-depression (PSND), treating the different lesion hemispheres separately...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340432/reorganization-of-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampal-networks-associated-with-memory-performance-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Hong Li, Caihong Ji, Lujia Zhu, Peiyu Huang, Biao Jiang, Xiaojun Xu, Jianzhong Sun, Zhong Chen, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Shuang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of functional demarcation of hippocampal network and its relationship with memory performance in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. METHODS: Resting state fMRI data were acquired from fifteen left mTLE patients, fourteen right mTLE patients and twenty healthy subjects. We explore the hippocampal-cortical alterations and corresponding inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC) across anterior and posterior hippocampal networks...
March 4, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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