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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777895/asymmetry-of-cerebral-peduncles-for-predicting-motor-function-restoration-in-young-patients-before-hemispherectomy
#1
Xiu-Yu Du, Si-Chang Chen, Yu-Guang Guan, Jing-Jing Gu, Meng Zhao, Tian-Fu Li, Jun-Hong Pan, Guo-Ming Luan
OBJECTIVE: Hemispherectomy has been successfully used for medically intractable epilepsy patients. However, it is difficult to predict postoperative motor function. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the preoperative asymmetry of cerebral peduncles could be used to predict motor function restoration before hemispherectomy for young patients with medically intractable epilepsy. METHODS: The clinical record and MRI data of 53 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
May 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777699/cart-peptide-activates-the-nrf2-ho-1-antioxidant-pathway-and-protects-hippocampal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Wenyu Jiao, Yongchen Wang, Linghong Kong, Tao Ou-Yang, Qing Meng, Qiang Fu, Zhenzhen Hu
The accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and oxidative stress damage in the brain are recognized as early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide may possibly play an antioxidative role in neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidant mechanism of CART peptide in a rat model of AD. We microinjected of Aβ1-42 (2μl/4μg/hemisphere) into rat hippocampus to set a rat model of AD. A pre-microinjection of CART peptide (1μl/0...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777360/crossed-aphasia-following-cerebral-infarction-in-a-right-handed-patient-with-atypical-cerebral-language-dominance
#3
Xiaoping Tan, Yang Guo, Saihong Dun, Hongzan Sun
OBJECTIVE: Crossed aphasia (CA), usually referred to as an acquired language disturbance, is caused by a lesion in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to the dominant hand, and the exact mechanism is not clear. The development of handedness is influenced by education and training and the impact of habitualization, while language is more susceptible to the impact of speech habits, and it is not absolutely accurate to judge cerebral language dominance by the degree of hand preference. METHODS: We describe a case of CA after right hemispheric stroke in a right-handed patient with atypical language dominance and attempt to analyze the mechanism of CA based on functional imaging methods, including arterial spin labeling (ASL) and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777183/harmless-sea-snail-parasite-causes-mass-mortalities-in-numerous-commercial-scallop-populations-in-the-northern-hemisphere
#4
Árni Kristmundsson, Mark Andrew Freeman
Apicomplexans comprise a group of unicellular, often highly pathogenic, obligate parasites exploiting either one or two hosts to complete a full reproductive cycle. For decades, various scallop populations have suffered cyclical mass mortality events, several of which shown to be caused by apicomplexan infections. We report the first dual mollusc life cycle for an apicomplexan: a species highly pathogenic in various pectinid bivalve species, but apathogenic when infecting the common whelk as Merocystis kathae...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775858/when-is-the-right-hemisphere-holistic-and-when-is-it-not-the-case-of-chinese-character-recognition
#5
Harry K S Chung, Jacklyn C Y Leung, Vienne M Y Wong, Janet H Hsiao
Holistic processing (HP) has long been considered a characteristic of right hemisphere (RH) processing. Indeed, holistic face processing is typically associated with left visual field (LVF)/RH processing advantages. Nevertheless, expert Chinese character recognition involves reduced HP and increased RH lateralization, presenting a counterexample. Recent modeling research suggests that RH processing may be associated with an increase or decrease in HP, depending on whether spacing or component information was used respectively...
May 15, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775401/electroencephalographic-signals-during-anesthesia-recorded-from-surface-and-depth-electrodes
#6
Ville Jäntti, Tuomo Ylinen, Narayan Puthanmadam Subramaniyam, Kotoe Kamata, Arvi Yli-Hankala, Pasi Kauppinen, Eila Sonkajärvi
Purpose - Anesthesiologists have increasingly started to use EEG based indexes to estimate the level and type of unconsciousness. However, the physiology and biophysics are poorly understood in anesthesiological literature. Methods - EEG was recorded from electrodes on the surface of head, including scalp, as well as DBS (deep brain stimulation) electrodes implanted deep in the brain. Mathematical modeling with a realistic head model was performed to create illustrative images of the sensitivity of electrode montages...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775133/preservation-of-electrophysiological-functional-connectivity-after-partial-corpus-callosotomy-case-report
#7
Kaitlyn Casimo, Fabio Grassia, Sandra L Poliachik, Edward Novotny, Andrew Poliakov, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Prior studies of functional connectivity following callosotomy have disagreed in the observed effects on interhemispheric functional connectivity. These connectivity studies, in multiple electrophysiological methods and functional MRI, have found conflicting reductions in connectivity or patterns resembling typical individuals. The authors examined a case of partial anterior corpus callosum connection, where pairs of bilateral electrocorticographic electrodes had been placed over homologous regions in the left and right hemispheres...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774142/comparison-of-mri-and-123-i-fp-cit-spect-for-the-evaluation-of-msa-p-clinical-severity
#8
Miki Nishimori, Yoriko Murata, Hitomi Iwasa, Kana Miyatake, Michiko Tadokoro, Shino Kohsaki, Munenobu Nogami, Norihiko Hamada, Hitoshi Ninomiya, Yasushi Osaki, Hirokazu Furuya, Takuji Yamagami
The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 123 I-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)nortropane single photon emission computed tomography (123 I-FP-CIT SPECT) for determining the clinical severity of patients with multiple system atrophy with Parkinsonism (MSA-P). MRI and 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT images from 17 patients with MSA-P as diagnosed using the Unified MSA Rating Scale part IV (UMSARS IV) score were compared. Brain MRI scans were available for all 17 patients and 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT images were available for 12 patients...
June 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774069/a-large-switchable-optical-clearing-skull-window-for-cerebrovascular-imaging
#9
Chao Zhang, Wei Feng, Yanjie Zhao, Tingting Yu, Pengcheng Li, Tonghui Xu, Qingming Luo, Dan Zhu
Rationale: Intravital optical imaging is a significant method for investigating cerebrovascular structure and function. However, its imaging contrast and depth are limited by the turbid skull. Tissue optical clearing has a great potential for solving this problem. Our goal was to develop a transparent skull window, without performing a craniotomy, for use in assessing cerebrovascular structure and function. Methods: Skull optical clearing agents were topically applied to the skulls of mice to create a transparent window within 15 min...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772361/comparative-histological-and-molecular-analysis-of-two-recurrent-lesions-showing-different-mr-imaging-responses-after-bevacizumab-treatment-report-of-a-case-of-anaplastic-astrocytoma
#10
Yoshihiro Otani, Tomotsugu Ichikawa, Atsuhito Uneda, Kazuhiko Kurozumi, Joji Ishida, Isao Date
BACKGROUND: We report the case of a patient with anaplastic astrocytoma whose two recurrent lesions showed different imaging responses from one another after bevacizumab treatment. Histological and genetic features of this patient are also described. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 31-year-old patient with left temporal anaplastic astrocytoma received surgery, local radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Recurrent lesions appeared in the cerebellar vermis and left cerebellar hemisphere, and the patient was started on biweekly bevacizumab...
May 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771545/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-categorical-facial-expression-perception
#11
D Michael Burt, Markus Hausmann
Although many sensory phenomena vary continuously, humans tend to divide them into discrete categories with facial expressions being divided into categories such as happy, sad, anger, and fear. A critical effect of category use is categorical perception: same sized physical differences are better perceived if the difference occurs between two categories rather than within the same category. Here we investigate the lateralization of categorical perception of facial expressions. Categorical perception of facial expressions may be lateralized to the right hemisphere due to the intimacy of basic, possibly universal and innate, prototypical facial expression categories and face processing which is predominantly lateralized to the right hemisphere...
May 17, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771362/rates-of-cerebral-protein-synthesis-in-primary-visual-cortex-during-sleep-dependent-memory-consolidation-a-study-in-human-subjects
#12
Dante Picchioni, Kathleen C Schmidt, Kelly K McWhirter, Inna Loutaev, Adriana J Pavletic, Andrew M Speer, Alan J Zametkin, Ning Miao, Shrinivas Bishu, Kate M Turetsky, Anne S Morrow, Jeffrey L Nadel, Brittney C Evans, Diana M Vesselinovitch, Carrie A Sheeler, Thomas J Balkin, Carolyn B Smith
If protein synthesis during sleep is required for sleep-dependent memory consolidation, we might expect rates of cerebral protein synthesis (rCPS) to increase during sleep in the local brain circuits that support performance on a particular task following training on that task. To measure circuit-specific brain protein synthesis during a daytime nap opportunity, we used the L-[1-(11)C]leucine positron emission tomography (PET) method with simultaneous polysomnography. We trained subjects on the visual texture discrimination task (TDT)...
May 15, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770996/prenatal-diagnosis-of-holoprosencephaly
#13
Youssef A Kousa, Adré J du Plessis, Gilbert Vezina
Holoprosencephaly is a spectrum of congenital defects of forebrain development characterized by incomplete separation of the cerebral hemispheres. In vivo diagnosis can be established with prenatal brain imaging and disease severity correlates with extent of abnormally developed brain tissue. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over the past 25 years and their application to the fetus have enabled diagnosis of holoprosencephaly in utero. Here, we report on the prenatal diagnosis of holoprosencephaly using MRI as part of a diagnostic and management evaluation at a tertiary and quaternary referral center...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770994/syndromes-associated-with-holoprosencephaly
#14
Paul Kruszka, Maximilian Muenke
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is partial or complete failure of the forebrain to divide into hemispheres and can be an isolated finding or associated with a syndrome. Most cases of HPE are associated with a syndrome and roughly 40%-60% of fetuses with HPE have trisomy 13 which is the most common etiology of HPE. Other syndromes associated with HPE include additional aneuploidies like trisomy 18 and single gene disorders such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. There are a number of syndromes such as pseudotrisomy 13 which do not have a known molecular etiology; therefore, this review has two parts: syndromes with a molecular diagnosis and syndromes where the etiology is yet to be found...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770250/the-usefulness-of-indocyanine-green-during-surgery-for-hypervascular-posterior-fossa-tumors
#15
Takahiro Shinya, Hideki Nagamine, Ken-Ichi Sugawara, Shogo Ishiuchi
Background: Cerebral hemangioblastomas are benign tumors with abundant blood flow that occur mainly in the posterior fossa. Tumor removal en bloc is important in surgical treatment because of the risk of bleeding; however, it is actually rather difficult in practice. Therefore, we propose a surgical strategy for visualizing hypervascular tumors of the posterior fossa utilizing indocyanine green (ICG). Case Description: Case 1 involved a 48-year-old male with a history of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770122/acute-unilateral-audiovestibulopathy-due-to-embolic-labyrinthine-infarction
#16
Zhong Liqun, Kee-Hong Park, Hyo-Jung Kim, Sun-Uk Lee, Jeong-Yoon Choi, Ji-Soo Kim
Introduction: Labyrinthine infarction is a cause of acute audiovestibulopathy, but can be diagnosed only in association with other infarctions involving the brainstem or cerebellar areas supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) since current imaging techniques cannot visualize an infarction confined to the labyrinth. This case series aimed to establish embolic labyrinthine infarction as a mechanism of isolated acute audiovestibulopathy. Methods: We analyzed clinical features, imaging findings, and mechanisms of embolism in 10 patients (8 men, age range: 38-76) who had developed acute audiovestibulopathy in association with an obvious source of embolism and concurrent acute embolic infarctions in the non-anterior inferior cerebellar artery territories...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770095/zika-virus-where-to-from-here
#17
EDITORIAL
P K Muchaal
After the waves of reported cases of infection with Zika virus swept across the Americas in 2015-16, the overall transmission of the virus in the Western Hemisphere declined in 2017. Between June 8 and August 31, 2017, only 16 new cases of Zika virus infection, all travel-related, were reported in Canada. This represents an 88% reduction in the cases recorded during the same time frame in 2016. Herd immunity undoubtedly constrains the transmission of the virus in endemic regions. However, while most countries in the Americas are no longer observing continuous transmission in the form of sustained increases over time, some areas are experiencing a notable resurgence...
January 4, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769666/an-unexpected-and-persistent-increase-in-global-emissions-of-ozone-depleting-cfc-11
#18
Stephen A Montzka, Geoff S Dutton, Pengfei Yu, Eric Ray, Robert W Portmann, John S Daniel, Lambert Kuijpers, Brad D Hall, Debra Mondeel, Carolina Siso, J David Nance, Matt Rigby, Alistair J Manning, Lei Hu, Fred Moore, Ben R Miller, James W Elkins
The Montreal Protocol was designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by enabling reductions in the abundance of ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the atmosphere1-3 . The reduction in the atmospheric concentration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) has made the second-largest contribution to the decline in the total atmospheric concentration of ozone-depleting chlorine since the 1990s 1 . However, CFC-11 still contributes one-quarter of all chlorine reaching the stratosphere, and a timely recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer depends on a sustained decline in CFC-11 concentrations 1 ...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769612/hypothermia-broadens-the-therapeutic-time-window-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-for-severe-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#19
So Yoon Ahn, Yun Sil Chang, Dong Kyung Sung, Se In Sung, Won Soon Park
Recently, we have demonstrated that concurrent hypothermia and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation synergistically improved severe neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The current study was designed to determine whether hypothermia could extend the therapeutic time window of MSC transplantation for severe neonatal HIE. To induce HIE, newborn rat pups were exposed to 8% oxygen for 2 h following unilateral carotid artery ligation on postnatal day (P) 7. After approving severe HIE involving >50% of the ipsilateral hemisphere volume, hypothermia (32 °C) for 2 days was started...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769288/targeted-complement-inhibition-salvages-stressed-neurons-and-inhibits-neuroinflammation-after-stroke-in-mice
#20
Ali Alawieh, E Farris Langley, Stephen Tomlinson
Ischemic stroke results from the interruption of blood flow to the brain resulting in long-term motor and cognitive neurological deficits, and it is a leading cause of death and disability. Current interventions focus on the restoration of blood flow to limit neuronal death, but these treatments have a therapeutic window of only a few hours and do not address post-stroke cerebral inflammation. The complement system, a component of the innate immune system, is activated by natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies that recognize neoepitopes expressed in the brain after ischemic stroke...
May 16, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
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