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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734143/cortical-thickness-changes-in-adult-moyamoya-disease-assessed-by-structural-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Peng-Gang Qiao, Zhi-Wei Zuo, Cong Han, Juan Zhou, Hong-Tao Zhang, Lian Duan, Tianyi Qian, Gong-Jie Li
PURPOSE: To characterize the changes in cortical thickness of adult patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). METHODS: 60 patients with MMD and 60 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Structural images were acquired by MRI. Freesurfer was used to measure cortical thickness in patients and controls, and this was compared with MRA scores and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) scores. RESULTS: Compared with controls, the average cortical thickness of both cerebral hemispheres was lower in patients than in controls and symmetrical differences were seen in the regional cortex: bilateral precentral gyri were thinner, bilateral postcentral gyri and posterior cingulate gyri were thicker, and thinning and thickening were both found in the insula...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734139/%C3%AE-nfluenza-a-h3n2-genetic-variants-in-vaccinated-patients-in-northern-greece
#2
A Melidou, G Gioula, M Exindari, E Ioannou, K Gkolfinopoulou, T Georgakopoulou, S Tsiodras, A Papa
BACKGROUND: Influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominated during the influenza 2016/2017 season and showed extensive genetic diversification. A high vaccination failure rate was noticed during the 2016/17 season in Greece, especially among the elderly. OBJECTIVES: The scope of the study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of A(H3N2) circulating viruses and viruses detected in vaccinated patients. STUDY DESIGN: Virus samples originated from vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, obtained at the National Influenza Centre for northern Greece...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732352/cerebral-blood-flow-changes-in-remitted-early-and-late-onset-depression-patients
#3
Wenxiang Liao, Ze Wang, Xiangrong Zhang, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Zhijun Zhang
Abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reportedly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). We have investigated CBF changes in early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD), and their impact on cognitive function. Thirty-two remitted EOD patients, 32 remitted LOD patients, and 43 age-matched healthy controls were recruited, and the pulsed arterial spin labeling data were scanned under 3.0T MRI and processed through voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis. Compared to healthy controls, LOD patients had decreased normalized CBF in the bilateral precuneus, cuneus, right fronto-cingulate-striatal areas, and right temporal, occipital and parietal lobes, but increased normalized CBF in the left frontal and temporal cortices and the cingulate gyrus...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732269/gyral-net-a-new-representation-of-cortical-folding-organization
#4
Hanbo Chen, Yujie Li, Fangfei Ge, Gang Li, Dinggang Shen, Tianming Liu
One distinct feature of the cerebral cortex is its convex (gyri) and concave (sulci) folding patterns. Due to the remarkable complexity and variability of gyral/sulcal shapes, it has been challenging to quantitatively model their organization patterns. Inspired by the observation that the lines of gyral crests can form a connected graph on each brain hemisphere, we propose a new representation of cortical gyri/sulci organization pattern - gyral net, which models cortical architecture from a graph perspective, starting with nodes and edges obtained from the reconstructed cortical surfaces...
July 15, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731396/contralateral-posterior-interhemispheric-approach-to-deep-medial-parietooccipital-vascular-malformations-surgical-technique-and-results
#5
Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Ethan A Winkler, Michael T Lawton
OBJECTIVE Deep medial parietooccipital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are traditionally resected through an ipsilateral posterior interhemispheric approach (IPIA), which creates a deep, perpendicular perspective with limited access to the lateral margins of the lesion. The contralateral posterior interhemispheric approach (CPIA) flips the positioning, with the midline positioned horizontally for retraction due to gravity, but with the AVM on the upper side and the approach from the contralateral, lower side...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730720/microstructural-white-matter-brain-abnormalities-in-patients-with-idiopathic-fecal-incontinence
#6
J Muthulingam, S Haas, T M Hansen, S Laurberg, L Lundby, H S Jørgensen, A M Drewes, K Krogh, J B Frøkjaer
BACKGROUND: Abnormal central nervous system processing of visceral sensation may be a part of the pathogenesis behind idiopathic fecal incontinence (IFI). Our aim was to characterize brain differences in patients with IFI and healthy controls by means of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: In 21 female patients with IFI and 15 female healthy controls, whole-brain structural differences in gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, and white matter tracts fractional anisotropy (FA) were quantified...
July 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730570/structural-connectivity-differences-in-essential-tremor-with-and-without-resting-tremor
#7
Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Gennarina Arabia, Gaetano Barbagallo, Angela Lupo, Maurizio Morelli, Rita Nisticò, Fabiana Novellino, Andrea Quattrone, Maria Salsone, Basilio Vescio, Andrea Cherubini, Aldo Quattrone
In this work, we investigated motor network structure in patients affected by essential tremor (ET) with or without resting tremor, using probabilistic tractography of the cerebello-thalamo-basal ganglia-cortical loop. Twenty-five patients with ET, twenty-two patients with ET associated with resting tremor (rET), and twenty-five age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent whole-brain 3D T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI, and DAT-SPECT. Probabilistic tractography was performed on diffusion data in network mode, reconstructing connections between the different structures of the cerebello-thalamo-basal ganglia-cortical loop...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730379/vaccine-effectiveness-against-influenza-in-2015-16-in-hospital-and-ambulatory-medical-care-facilities-polish-results-of-the-european-i-move-multicenter-study
#8
Iwona Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Monika R Korczyńska, Katarzyna Cieślak, Dorota Kowalczyk, Karol Szymański, Lidia B Brydak
Influenza vaccination is the best measure available to prevent seasonal influenza infection. The majority of studies on vaccine effectiveness in the 2015/16 season conducted in the European I-MOVE+ Project, show that a match between the circulating influenza strains in the general public and those included in the vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere was low to moderate. As part of I-MOVE+, Poland has implemented a case control negative study design and molecular biology methods, such as real time RT-PCR, to assess the vaccine match and effectiveness...
July 21, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729848/the-functional-genetics-of-handedness-and-language-lateralization-insights-from-gene-ontology-pathway-and-disease-association-analyses
#9
Judith Schmitz, Stephanie Lor, Rena Klose, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Handedness and language lateralization are partially determined by genetic influences. It has been estimated that at least 40 (and potentially more) possibly interacting genes may influence the ontogenesis of hemispheric asymmetries. Recently, it has been suggested that analyzing the genetics of hemispheric asymmetries on the level of gene ontology sets, rather than at the level of individual genes, might be more informative for understanding the underlying functional cascades. Here, we performed gene ontology, pathway and disease association analyses on genes that have previously been associated with handedness and language lateralization...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728838/kcnq2-encephalopathy-a-case-due-to-a-de-novo-deletion
#10
Carlotta Spagnoli, Grazia Gabriella Salerno, Alessandro Iodice, Daniele Frattini, Francesco Pisani, Carlo Fusco
KCNQ2 encephalopathy is characterized by severely abnormal EEG, neonatal-onset epilepsy and developmental delay. It is caused by mutations (typically missense) in the KCNQ2 gene, encoding the voltage gated potassium channel Kv7.2 and leading to a negative-dominant effect. We present one case experiencing recurrent neonatal seizures with changing hemispheres of origin, reminiscent of epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures. At 9months of age the patient is still seizure-free on carbamazepine, although he is developing a spastic-dystonic tetraplegia with severe dysphagia...
July 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727841/river-specific-macrogenomic-diversity-in-simulium-guianense-s-l-diptera-simuliidae-a-complex-of-tropical-american-vectors-associated-with-human-onchocerciasis
#11
Peter H Adler, Neusa Hamada, Jeane Marcelle Cavalcante do Nascimento, Maria Eugenia Grillet
Simulium guianense Wise is a Latin American vector complex of black flies associated with transmission of the causal agent of human onchocerciasis (river blindness). An analysis of the chromosomal banding patterns of 607 larvae of S. guianense s. l. revealed a high level of variation involving 83 macrogenomic rearrangements across 25 populations in Brazil, French Guiana, and Venezuela. The 25 populations were assigned to 13 cytoforms (A1, A2, B1-B4, C, D, E1-E4, and F), some of which are probably valid species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727812/electrically-controlled-cloud-of-bulk-nanobubbles-in-water-solutions
#12
Alexander V Postnikov, Ilia V Uvarov, Mikhail V Lokhanin, Vitaly B Svetovoy
Using different experimental techniques we visualize a cloud of gas in water that is produced electrochemically by the alternating polarity process. Liquid enriched with gas does not contain bubbles strongly scattering visible light but its refractive index changes significantly near the electrodes. The change of the refractive index is a collective effect of bulk nanobubbles with a diameter smaller than 200 nm. Any alternative explanation fails to explain the magnitude of the effect. Spatial structure of the cloud is investigated with the optical lever method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725658/mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-interleukin-10-promote-neuroprotection-in-experimental-acute-ischemic-stroke
#13
Masataka Nakajima, Chikako Nito, Kota Sowa, Satoshi Suda, Yasuhiro Nishiyama, Aki Nakamura-Takahashi, Yuko Nitahara-Kasahara, Kiwamu Imagawa, Tohru Hirato, Masayuki Ueda, Kazumi Kimura, Takashi Okada
Interleukin (IL)-10 is a contributing factor to neuroprotection of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation after ischemic stroke. Our aim was to increase therapeutic effects by combining MSCs and ex vivo IL-10 gene transfer with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector using a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 90 min MCAO followed by intravenous administration of MSCs alone or IL-10 gene-transferred MSCs (MSC/IL-10) at 0 or 3 hr after ischemia reperfusion...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725047/warming-effects-on-the-urban-hydrology-in-cold-climate-regions
#14
L Järvi, C S B Grimmond, J P McFadden, A Christen, I B Strachan, M Taka, L Warsta, M Heimann
While approximately 338 million people in the Northern hemisphere live in regions that are regularly snow covered in winter, there is little hydro-climatologic knowledge in the cities impacted by snow. Using observations and modelling we have evaluated the energy and water exchanges of four cities that are exposed to wintertime snow. We show that the presence of snow critically changes the impact that city design has on the local-scale hydrology and climate. After snow melt, the cities return to being strongly controlled by the proportion of built and vegetated surfaces...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723938/gender-differences-in-cerebral-metabolism-for-color-processing-in-mice-a-pet-mri-study
#15
Philip C Njemanze, Mathias Kranz, Mario Amend, Jens Hauser, Hans Wehrl, Peter Brust
INTRODUCTION: Color processing is a central component of mammalian vision. Gender-related differences of color processing revealed by non-invasive functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound suggested right hemisphere pattern for blue/yellow chromatic opponency by men, and a left hemisphere pattern by women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study measured the accumulation of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) in mouse brain using small animal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) during light stimulation with blue and yellow filters compared to darkness condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723110/portable-sensor-for-the-detection-of-choline-and-its-derivatives-based-on-silica-isoporous-membrane-and-gellified-nanointerfaces
#16
Lisiqi Xie, Xiao Huang, Bin Su
A portable amperometric ion sensor was fabricated by integrating silica isoporous membrane (SIM) and organogel composed of polyvinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane (PVC-DCE) on a 3D-printed polymer chip. The detection of ionic species in aqueous samples could be accomplished by adding a microliter of sample droplet to the sensor and by identifying the ion-transfer potential and current magnitude at the water/organogel interface array templated by SIM. Thanks to the ultrasmall channel size (2-3 nm in diameter), high channel density (4 × 10(8) μm(-2)), and ultrathin thickness (80 nm) of SIM, the ensemble of nanoscopic water/organogel (nano-W/Gel) interface array behaved like a microinterface with two back-to-back hemispherical mass diffusion zones...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721443/a-diffusion-spectrum-imaging-based-tractographic-study-into-the-anatomical-subdivision-and-cortical-connectivity-of-the-ventral-external-capsule-uncinate-and-inferior-fronto-occipital-fascicles
#17
Sandip S Panesar, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Christopher P Deibert, David Fernandes-Cabral, Vijayakrishna Rowthu, Pinar Celtikci, Emrah Celtikci, William D Hula, Sudhir Pathak, Juan C Fernández-Miranda
PURPOSE: The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) are major fronto-capsular white matter pathways. IFOF connects frontal areas of the brain to parieto-occipital areas. UF connects ventral frontal areas to anterior temporal areas. Both fascicles are thought to subserve higher language and emotion roles. Controversy pertaining to their connectivity and subdivision persists in the literature, however. METHODS: High-definition fiber tractography (HDFT) is a non-tensor tractographic method using diffusion spectrum imaging data...
July 18, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721356/targeted-ischemic-stroke-induction-and-mesoscopic-imaging-assessment-of-blood-flow-and-ischemic-depolarization-in-awake-mice
#18
Matilde Balbi, Matthieu P Vanni, Gergely Silasi, Yuki Sekino, Luis Bolanos, Jeffrey M LeDue, Timothy H Murphy
Despite advances in experimental stroke models, confounding factors such as anesthetics used during stroke induction remain. Furthermore, imaging of blood flow during stroke is not routinely done. We take advantage of in vivo bihemispheric transcranial windows for longitudinal mesoscopic imaging of cortical function to establish a protocol for focal ischemic stroke induction in target brain regions using photothrombosis in awake head-fixed mice. Our protocol does not require any surgical steps at the time of stroke induction or anesthetics during either head fixation or photoactivation...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720981/cerebral-reorganization-in-subacute-stroke-survivors-after-virtual-reality-based-training-a-preliminary-study
#19
Xiang Xiao, Qiang Lin, Wai-Leung Lo, Yu-Rong Mao, Xin-Chong Shi, Ryan S Cates, Shu-Feng Zhou, Dong-Feng Huang, Le Li
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. METHODS: Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activity of selected brain regions when the subject performed ankle dorsiflexion...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720853/complete-chloroplast-genome-sequences-of-lilium-insights-into-evolutionary-dynamics-and-phylogenetic-analyses
#20
Yun-Peng Du, Yu Bi, Feng-Ping Yang, Ming-Fang Zhang, Xu-Qing Chen, Jing Xue, Xiu-Hai Zhang
Lilium is a large genus that includes approximately 110 species distributed throughout cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The species-level phylogeny of Lilium remains unclear; previous studies have found universal markers but insufficient phylogenetic signals. In this study, we present the use of complete chloroplast genomes to explore the phylogeny of this genus. We sequenced nine Lilium chloroplast genomes and retrieved seven published chloroplast genomes for comparative and phylogenetic analyses...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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