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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906520/construction-of-the-human-forebrain
#1
REVIEW
Terry L Jernigan, Joan Stiles
The adult human brain is arguably the most complex of biological systems. It contains 86 billion neurons (the information processing cells of the brain) and many more support cells. The neurons, with the assistance of the support cells, form trillions of connections creating complex, interconnected neural networks that support all human thought, feeling, and action. A challenge for modern neuroscience is to provide a model that accounts for this exquisitely complex and dynamic system. One fundamental part of this model is an account of how the human brain develops...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905989/the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-sodium-butyrate-exhibits-neuroprotective-effects-for-ischemic-stroke-in-middle-aged-female-rats
#2
Min Jung Park, Farida Sohrabji
BACKGROUND: Sodium butyrate (NaB) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor exhibiting anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in a rat ischemic model of stroke as well as a myocardial ischemia model. Although clinical evidence shows that older women are at higher risk for stroke occurrence and greater stroke severity, no studies have evaluated the effectiveness of NaB either in females or in older animals. METHODS: To determine the effects of NaB on stroke in older females, acyclic middle-aged Sprague-Dawley female rats (9-11 months old, constant diestrus) were subject to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) by intracerebral injection of recombinant endothelin-1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905576/label-free-monitoring-of-tissue-biochemistry-following-traumatic-brain-injury-using-raman-spectroscopy
#3
Jakub Maciej Surmacki, Laura Ansel-Bollepalli, Francesca Pischiutta, Elisa R Zanier, Ari Ercole, Sarah Elizabeth Bohndiek
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a major cause of death and long-term disability. At present, we lack methods to non-invasively track tissue biochemistry and hence select appropriate interventions for patients. We hypothesized that detailed label-free vibrational chemical analysis of focal TBI could provide such information. We assessed the early spatial and temporal changes in tissue biochemistry that are associated with brain injury in mice. Numerous differences were observed in the spectra of the contusion core and pericontusional tissue between 2 and 7 days...
December 1, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905386/-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-poluchennym-ischemic-stroke-in-the-acute-and-early-recovery-periods-in-the-process-of-neuroprotection-low-dose-drug-cortexin
#4
L A Belova, V V Mashin, V V Abramova, A N Proshin, A N Ovsyannikova
AIM: To study the effect of repeated low-dose course of neuroprotection by drug cortexin on cognitive impairment in the acute and early recovery periods of hemispheric ischemic stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 90 patients with poluchennym ischemic stroke. Patients of the first group received cortexin 20 mg (10+10) intramuscularly on the background of basic therapy, patients of the second group (n=30) received cortexin 20 mg (10+10) two courses for 10 days each with a break in between of 10 days, the patients of the third group - only basic therapy...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904759/a-review-of-sub-acute-subdural-hematoma-sasdh-with-our-institutional-experience-and-its-management-by-double-barrel-technique-dbt-a-novel-technique
#5
Soubhagya R Tripathy, Pankaj K Swarnakar, Sanjib Mishra, Sudhanshu S Mishra, Manmath K Dhir, Sanjay K Behera, Pratap C Nath, Somnath P Jena, Itibrata Mohanta, Deepak Das, Mani C Satapathy, Sitansu K Rout, Bikash R Behera, Deepak K Parida, Tanushree S Rath
BACKGROUND: Subacute subdural hematoma (SASDH) is an entity which is yet to capture the popular imagination among the neurosurgeons. Its management is often equated clinically to that of the chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). However, their neurological deterioration is usually rapid, which seems to align them with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH). We proceed for their epidemiological evaluation. The advantages of a novel "double barrel technique (DbT)" over the conventional burrhole drainage are also presented...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904591/brain-regions-involved-in-swallowing-evidence-from-stroke-patients-in-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Shiva Ebrahimian Dehaghani, Fariba Yadegari, Ali Asgari, Ahmad Chitsaz, Mehdi Karami
BACKGROUND: Limited data available about the mechanisms of dysphagia and areas involving swallow after brain damage; accordingly it is hard to predict which cases are more likely to develop swallowing dysfunction based on the neuroimaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain lesions and dysphagia in a sample of acute conscious stroke patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 113 acute conscious stroke patients (69 male mean [standard deviation (SD)] age 64...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904488/effects-of-different-frequencies-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-the-recovery-of-upper-limb-motor-dysfunction-in-patients-with-subacute-cerebral-infarction
#7
Jiang Li, Xiang-Min Meng, Ru-Yi Li, Ru Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Yi-Feng Du
Studies have confirmed that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can decrease the activity of cortical neurons, and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can increase the excitability of cortical neurons. However, there are few studies concerning the use of different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the recovery of upper-limb motor function after cerebral infarction. We hypothesized that different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with cerebral infarction would produce different effects on the recovery of upper-limb motor function...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903193/three-dimensional-assessment-of-the-effects-of-high-density-embolization-material-on-the-absorbed-dose-in-the-target-for-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-of-arteriovenous-malformations
#8
Yoichi Watanabe, Divyajot Sandhu, Leighton Warmington, Sean Moen, Ramachandra Tummala
OBJECTIVE Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an intracranial vascular disorder. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is used in conjunction with intraarterial embolization to eradicate the nidus of AVMs. Clinical results indicate that patients with prior embolization tend to gain less benefit from GKRS. The authors hypothesized that this was partly caused by dosimetric deficiency. The actual dose delivered to the target may be smaller than the intended dose because of increased photon attenuation by high-density embolic materials...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902285/raineyella-antarctica-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-psychrotolerant-d-amino-acid-utilizing-anaerobe-isolated-from-two-geographic-locations-of-the-southern-hemisphere
#9
Elena V Pikuta, Rodolfo Javier Menes, Alisa Michelle Bruce, Zhe Lyu, Nisha Patel, Yuchen Liu, Richard Brice Hoover, Hans Jürgen Busse, Paul A Lawson, William Barney Whitman
Gram-positive bacterium, strain LZ-22T, was isolated from a rhizosphere of moss Leptobryum sp. collected at the shore of Lake Zub in Antarctica. Cells were motile, straight or pleomorphic rods with sizes of 0.6-1.0 x 3.5-10 μm. The new isolate was a facultatively anaerobic, catalase positive, psychrotolerant mesophile. Growth was observed at 3-41 oC (optimum 24-30 oC), 0-7 % NaCl, w/v (optimum, 0.25 %) and pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum 7.8). The quinone system of strain LZ-22T possessed predominately menaquinones MK-9(H4)...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901192/evaluation-of-the-complexity-and-performance-of-marine-planktonic-trophic-models
#10
Suzana G Leles, Jean L Valentin, Gisela M Figueiredo
Planktonic models represent a powerful tool for creating hypotheses and making predictions about the functioning of marine ecosystems. Their complexity varies according to the number of state variables and the choice of functional forms. We evaluated plankton models during the last 15 years (n =145) with the aims of understanding why they differ in complexity, evaluating model robustness, and describing studies of plankton modelling around the globe. We classified models into four groups: Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton (NPZ), Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD), Size-Structured (SS) and Plankton-Functional-Type (PFT)...
2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900929/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#11
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
November 30, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900646/the-potential-of-omics-technologies-in-lyme-disease-biomarker-discovery-and-early-detection
#12
REVIEW
Alaa Badawi
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infectious disease in North America and many countries of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. It is associated with local and systemic manifestations and has persistent post-treatment health complications in some individuals. Innate and acquired immunity-related inflammation is likely to play a critical role in both host defense against Borrelia burgdorferi and disease severity. Large-scale analytical approaches to quantify gene expression (transcriptomics), proteins (proteomics) and metabolites (metabolomics) in LB have recently emerged with a potential to advance the development of disease biomarkers in early, disseminated and posttreatment disease stages...
November 29, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899888/neurophysiological-characterization-of-subacute-stroke-patients-a-longitudinal-study
#13
Giuseppe Lamola, Chiara Fanciullacci, Giada Sgherri, Federica Bertolucci, Alessandro Panarese, Silvestro Micera, Bruno Rossi, Carmelo Chisari
Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP) and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test) in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899766/examining-potential-side-effects-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#14
Shannon Wowk, Kelly J Fagan, Yonglie Ma, Helen Nichol, Frederick Colbourne
Studies treating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) have shown inconsistent benefits. We hypothesized that TH's anti-inflammatory effects may be responsible as inflammatory cells are essential for removing degrading erythrocytes. Here, we subjected rats to a collagenase-induced striatal ICH followed by whole-body TH (∼33℃ for 11-72 h) or normothermia. We used X-ray fluorescence imaging to spatially quantify total and peri-hematoma iron three days post-injury. At three and seven days, we measured non-heme iron levels...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899113/collapse-of-an-iconic-conifer-long-term-changes-in-the-demography-of-widdringtonia-cedarbergensis-using-repeat-photography
#15
J D M White, S L Jack, M T Hoffman, J Puttick, D Bonora, V Visser, E C February
BACKGROUND: Conifer populations appear disproportionately threatened by global change. Most examples are, however, drawn from the northern hemisphere and long-term rates of population decline are not well documented as historical data are often lacking. We use a large and long-term (1931-2013) repeat photography dataset together with environmental data and fire records to account for the decline of the critically endangered Widdringtonia cedarbergensis. Eighty-seven historical and repeat photo-pairs were analysed to establish 20th century changes in W...
November 30, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898028/estimating-leaf-area-index-lai-in-vineyards-using-the-pocketlai-smart-app
#16
Francesca Orlando, Ermes Movedi, Davide Coduto, Simone Parisi, Lucio Brancadoro, Valentina Pagani, Tommaso Guarneri, Roberto Confalonieri
Estimating leaf area index (LAI) of Vitis vinifera using indirect methods involves some critical issues, related to its discontinuous and non-homogeneous canopy. This study evaluates the smart app PocketLAI and hemispherical photography in vineyards against destructive LAI measurements. Data were collected during six surveys in an experimental site characterized by a high level of heterogeneity among plants, allowing us to explore a wide range of LAI values. During the last survey, the possibility to combine remote sensing data and in-situ PocketLAI estimates (smart scouting) was evaluated...
November 26, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897977/design-and-fabrication-of-micro-hemispheric-shell-resonator-with-annular-electrodes
#17
Renxin Wang, Bing Bai, Hengzhen Feng, Ziming Ren, Huiliang Cao, Chenyang Xue, Binzhen Zhang, Jun Liu
Electrostatic driving and capacitive detection is widely used in micro hemispheric shell resonators (HSR). The capacitor gap distance is a dominant factor for the initial capacitance, and affects the driving voltage and sensitivity. In order to decrease the equivalent gap distance, a micro HSR with annular electrodes fabricated by a glassblowing method was developed. Central and annular cavities are defined, and then the inside gas drives glass softening and deformation at 770 °C. While the same force is applied, the deformation of the hemispherical shell is about 200 times that of the annular electrodes, illustrating that the deformation of the electrodes will not affect the measurement accuracy...
November 25, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897669/domain-general-stroop-performance-and-hemispheric-asymmetries-a-resting-state-eeg-study
#18
Ettore Ambrosini, Antonino Vallesi
The ability to suppress irrelevant information while executing a task or interference resistance is a function of pFC that is critical for successful goal-directed human behavior. In the study of interference resistance and, more generally, executive functions, two key questions are still open: Does pFC contribute to cognitive control abilities through lateralized but domain-general mechanisms or through hemispheric specialization of domain-specific processes? And what are the underlying causes of interindividual differences in executive control performance? To shed light on these issues, here we employed an interindividual difference approach to investigate whether participants' hemispheric asymmetry in resting-state electrophysiological brain dynamics may reflect their variability in domain-general interference resistance...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897304/-the-role-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-the-pre-surgical-study-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
M A Garcia-Pallero, C V Torres, R Manzanares-Soler, E Camara, R G Sola
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to assess the integrity of the white matter in the brain. AIMS: To investigate the usefulness of DTI in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to observe its relationship with lateralisation of the epileptogenic focus in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed 11 patients diagnosed with TLE in accordance with the pre-surgical protocol of our epilepsy unit, and who were seizure-free two years after performing a temporal lobectomy plus amygdalohippocampectomy (Spencer technique)...
December 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896703/spreading-activation-in-nonverbal-memory-networks
#20
Paul S Foster, Candias Wakefield, Scott Pryjmak, Katelyn M Roosa, Kaylei K Branch, Valeria Drago, David W Harrison, Ronald Ruff
Theories of spreading activation primarily involve semantic memory networks. However, the existence of separate verbal and visuospatial memory networks suggests that spreading activation may also occur in visuospatial memory networks. The purpose of the present investigation was to explore this possibility. Specifically, this study sought to create and describe the design frequency corpus and to determine whether this measure of visuospatial spreading activation was related to right hemisphere functioning and spreading activation in verbal memory networks...
November 28, 2016: Brain Informatics
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