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Shu Y Ng, Kathryn L Colborn, Lajhem Cambridge, Carla Hajj, T Jonathan Yang, Abraham J Wu, Karyn A Goodman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We examined acute toxicity profiles and outcomes among rectal cancer patients treated with pre-operative chemoradiation using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) to identify predictive clinical factors associated with increased acute toxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 301 consecutive rectal cancer patients treated with pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy (median dose 5000cGy) at our institution between 2007 and 2014...
October 14, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Song Sun, Gong Chen, Shan Zheng, Kuiran Dong, Xianmin Xiao
AIM: To retrospectively examine 12 patients with Hirschsprung disease (HD) who underwent posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) for various complications. METHODS: This study included patients with HD who underwent redo pull-through (PT) via PSARP at our institute between 2005 and 2014. The type of initial procedure, clinical presentations, indications, and functional results were analyzed. Postoperative excretory function was assessed using the Krickenbeck classification...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Tucker Harrison, Mo Som, Jeff Stroup
We describe a 60-year-old man who presented with rectal pain and bleeding of a month's duration. His presentation was highly suggestive of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctitis. Nucleic acid amplification for chlamydia and gonorrhea via rectal swab revealed evidence supportive of anorectal chlamydia. Treatment with doxycycline resulted in complete resolution of his symptoms.
October 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Gabriella Macchia, Savino Cilla, Francesco Deodato, Anna Ianiro, Francesco Legge, Martina Marucci, Silvia Cammelli, Anna Myriam Perrone, Pierandrea De Iaco, Maria Antonietta Gambacorta, Rosa Autorino, Vincenzo Valentini, Alessio G Morganti, Gabriella Ferrandina
PURPOSE: A prospective phase 1-2 clinical trial aimed at determining the recommended postoperative dose of simultaneous integrated boost volumetric modulated arc therapy (SIB-VMAT) in a large series of patients with high-risk and intermediate-risk endometrial cancer (HIR-EC) is presented. The study also evaluated the association between rate and severity of toxicity and comorbidities and the clinical outcomes. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two SIB-VMAT dose levels were investigated for boost to the vaginal vault, whereas the pelvic lymph nodes were always treated with 45 Gy...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
S Qin, X S Gao, H Z Li, C X Liu, D L Hou, W D Nian, X Y Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Joseph Weiner, David Schwartz, Manuel Martinez, Joseph Safdieh, Ayse Aytaman, David Schreiber
PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the efficacy and outcomes of argon plasma coagulation (APC) in the management of chronic radiation proctitis after conventionally fractionated, dose-escalated radiation therapy (≥7560 cGy). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts on all patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (minimum dose, 7560 cGy) for histologically confirmed prostate cancer at our institution from 2003 to 2011. Five hundred patients met these criteria; of these, 35 patients (7...
August 1, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
Gerhard G Grabenbauer, Göbel Holger
Possible toxic effects following radiation and chemotherapy of gastrointestinal tumours may cause a depletion of the mucosal barrier within the radiation volumes with severe mucositis. Diarrhoea, nausea, emesis and severe malabsorption followed by infections with dehydration and electrolyte disorders have to be encountered. For prevention and treatment of oropharyngeal mucositis an oral care protocol, oral cryotherapy together with benzydamine mouthwash may be recommended. Lower gastrointestinal diarrhoea is best treated by Octreotide (>100 μg s...
August 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Ho-Su Lee, Jaewon Choe, Seon-Ok Kim, Sun-Ho Lee, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hyungil Seo, Gwang-Un Kim, Myeongsook Seo, Eun Mi Song, Sung Wook Hwang, Sang Hyoung Park, Dong-Hoon Yang, Kyung-Jo Kim, Byong Duk Ye, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Seung-Jae Myung, Yong Sik Yoon, Chang Sik Yu, Jin-Ho Kim, Suk-Kyun Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Limited data are available regarding mortality from inflammatory bowel disease in non-Caucasian populations. Herein, we evaluated overall and cause-specific mortality in a hospital-based cohort of Korean inflammatory bowel disease patients. METHODS: We determined mortality in 2,414 Crohn's disease patients and 2,798 ulcerative colitis patients diagnosed between 1977 and 2013. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated in several demographic and phenotypic subgroups...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Nabila Ansari, Michael J Solomon, Richard J Fisher, John Mackay, Bryan Burmeister, Stephen Ackland, Alexander Heriot, David Joseph, Sue-Anne McLachlan, Bev McClure, Samuel Y Ngan
OBJECTIVE: To compare acute adverse events (AE) and postoperative complication rates in a randomized trial of short-course (SC) versus long-course (LC) preoperative radiotherapy. BACKGROUND: Evidence demonstrates that adding neoadjuvant radiotherapy to surgery offers better local control in the management of rectal cancer. With both SC and LC therapy there is a potential for acute treatment-related toxicity and increased patient morbidity. METHODS: Eligible patients had clinical-stage T3 rectal adenocarcinoma within 12 cm of the anal verge with no evidence of metastasis...
September 14, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Junzhong Lin, Jianhong Peng, Aiham Qdaisat, Liren Li, Gong Chen, Zhenhai Lu, Xiaojun Wu, Yuanhong Gao, Zhifan Zeng, Peirong Ding, Zhizhong Pan
PURPOSE: In addition to tumor factors, poor nutritional status before and during anti-tumor treatment might compromise prognosis in several types of cancer. This study was done to determine the impact of weight loss during preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on the survival outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). METHODS: The retrospective study examined consecutive patients with LARC who underwent preoperative CRT followed by radical resection in a single institute, between 2003 and 2013...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Joseph Paul Weiner, Andrew Thomas Wong, David Schwartz, Manuel Martinez, Ayse Aytaman, David Schreiber
Pelvic radiation is a commonly utilized treatment for malignancy of the genitourinary and lower gastrointestinal tract. Radiation proctitis and the resultant clinical picture varies from asymptomatic to potentially life threatening. Similarly, treatment options also vary greatly, from medical therapy to surgical intervention. Commonly utilized medical therapy includes sucralfate enemas, antibiotics, 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives, probiotics, antioxidants, short-chain fatty acids, formalin instillation and fractionated hyperbaric oxygen...
August 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Qiyuan Qin, Tenghui Ma, Yanhong Deng, Jian Zheng, Zhiyang Zhou, Hui Wang, Lei Wang, Jianping Wang
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the effect of preoperative radiotherapy on anastomotic integrity remains conflicting in rectal cancer surgery. Prospective comparisons with appropriate controls are needed. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the impact of preoperative radiotherapy on anastomotic leakage and stenosis after rectal cancer resection. DESIGN: This was a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial (NCT01211210). SETTINGS: Data were retrieved from the leading center of the trial, which is a tertiary hospital...
October 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
S L Siow, H A Mahendran, C J Seo
PURPOSE: The management of haemorrhagic radiation proctitis is challenging because of the necessity for repeated intervention. The efficacy of argon plasma coagulation has been described before but the optimum treatment strategy remains debatable. This is a review of our experience over a decade treating patients with haemorrhagic radiation proctitis and their follow-up. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent argon plasma coagulation for haemorrhagic radiation proctitis between January 2003 and December 2013...
August 15, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Nupur Bansal, Abhishek Soni, Paramjeet Kaur, Ashok Kumar Chauhan, Vivek Kaushal
INTRODUCTION: Radiation proctitis is radiation induced rectal mucositis, occurring as a consequence to radiation therapy of the pelvic organs for various pelvic region malignancies. The management of radiation proctitis is extremely challenging as no recommended guidelines are available and limited number of studies are there in the literature involving the various treatment options. AIM: The aim of the study is the in-depth review of published literature to see the role of various treatment modalities in the management of radiation proctitis...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Abhineetha Hosthota, Swapna Bondade, Divya Monnappa, Vinay Basavaraja
Case 1 A 35-year-old married man presented with diffuse burning of the scrotum for 6 months' duration that was aggravated by sitting and wearing tight-fitting undergarments. He reported a history of sexual exposure 6 months prior, after which the complaint started. Clinical examination of the scrotal skin, testis, epididymis, penis, and perianal area did not reveal any abnormality. Rectal examination was performed to rule out chronic proctitis. Investigations were performed to exclude sexually transmitted infections...
2016: Skinmed
Ima Paydar, Robyn A Cyr, Thomas M Yung, Siyuan Lei, Brian Timothy Collins, Leonard N Chen, Simeng Suy, Anatoly Dritschilo, John H Lynch, Sean P Collins
BACKGROUND: Proctitis following prostate cancer radiation therapy is a primary determinant of quality of life (QOL). While previous studies have assessed acute rectal morbidity at 1 month after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), little data exist on the prevalence and severity of rectal morbidity within the first week following treatment. This study reports the acute bowel morbidity 1 week following prostate SBRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May 2013 and August 2014, 103 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 35-36...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
A Hochart, C Gower-Rousseau, H Sarter, M Fumery, D Ley, C Spyckerelle, L Peyrin-Biroulet, J-E Laberenne, F Vasseur, G Savoye, D Turck
OBJECTIVE: Natural history of paediatric-onset ulcerative proctitis (UP) is poorly described. Our aim was to describe the phenotype and disease course of incident UP in a population-based study of paediatric-onset UC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with UC diagnosed <17 years from 1988 to 2004, and followed during >2 years have been extracted from a population-based registry. UC location was defined according to the Paris classification. Cumulative risks for use of immunosuppressants (IS), anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) therapy, colonic extension and colectomy were described using Kaplan-Meier method...
August 3, 2016: Gut
Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala Ramakrishnaiah, Srinivasan Krishnamachari
Chronic haemorrhagic radiation proctitis (CHRP) is a difficult problem faced by the patients following radiation for pelvic malignancy. There is no standard treatment for this condition, but many methods of treatment are available. The aim of this study was to review the literature to see whether there is an improvement in the available evidence in comparison with previously published systematic reviews in treating patients with CHRP. The PubMed/Medline database and Google Scholar search was selectively searched...
July 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Mingming Sun, Wei Wu, Zhanju Liu, Yingzi Cong
Gut microbiota has been well recognized in regulation of intestinal homeostasis and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. Further, the components of the microbiota which are critically responsible for such effects are also largely unknown. Accumulating evidence suggests that, in addition to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, nutrition and bacterial metabolites might greatly impact the immune response in the gut and beyond. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are metabolized by gut bacteria from otherwise indigestible fiber-rich diets, have been shown to ameliorate diseases in animal models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and allergic asthma...
July 23, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
James M Richter, Nabeela K Arshi, Gerry Oster
Background. Ulcerative proctitis (UP) is typically treated initially with oral 5-aminosalicylate ("5-ASA"), mesalamine suppository, or mesalamine enema ("UP Rx"). Little is known about their effectiveness in practice. Methods. Using a US health insurance database, we identified new-onset UP patients between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2007, based on the following: (1) initiation of UP Rx; (2) endoscopy in prior 30 days resulting in diagnosis of UP; and (3) no prior encounters for ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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