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Seungmin Yu, Jong Hun Choi, Hun Jung Kim, Soo Hyun Park, Gwang-Woong Go, Wooki Kim
Dietary approaches using structured lipids, including medium-chain fatty acids and diacylglycerols, have been adopted for the prevention of obesity-induced chronic inflammation. In an extension to previous studies, medium-chain fatty acid-diacylglycerol enriched dietary oil (MCDG) was prepared by interesterification of canola oil and medium-chain fatty acid-triacylglycerols. The consequent MCDG product was applied to RAW264.7 macrophages followed by the assessment of multiple inflammatory responses. Compared to conventionally used canola and olive oil controls, MCDG suppressed macrophage phagocytosis as assessed by the uptake of microsphere beads...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Diego Cecchin, Alessandro Palombit, Marco Castellaro, Erica Silvestri, Franco Bui, Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri, Maurizio Corbetta, Alessandra Bertoldo
INTRODUCTION: In the last 20 years growing attention has been devoted to multimodal imaging. The recent literature is rich of clinical and research studies that have been performed using different imaging modalities on both separate and integrated Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) scanners. However, today, hybrid PET/MR systems measure signals related to brain structure, metabolism, neurochemistry, perfusion, and neuronal activity simultaneously, i.e. in the same physiological conditions...
July 27, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Youhei Nomura, Shuji Fukahori, Haruhisa Fukada, Taku Fujiwara
Removal efficiencies of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) and its degradation intermediates formed by treatment with zeolite/TiO2 composites through adsorption and photocatalysis were investigated in fresh aquaculture wastewater (FAWW). Coexistent substances in the FAWW showed no inhibitory effects against SMM adsorption. Although coexistent substances in the FAWW inhibited the photocatalytic decomposition of SMM, the composites mitigated the inhibition, possibly because of concentration of SMM on their surface by adsorption...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Russell W Chan, Maarten A Immink, Kurt Lushington
Cognitive control processes influence how motor sequence information is utilised and represented. Since cognitive control processes are shared amongst goal-oriented tasks, motor sequence learning and performance might be influenced by preceding cognitive tasks such as focused-attention meditation (FAM). Prior to a serial reaction time task (SRTT), participants completed either a single-session of FAM, a single-session of FAM followed by delay (FAM+) or no meditation (CONTROL). Relative to CONTROL, FAM benefitted performance in early, random-ordered blocks...
July 24, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Yubo Wei, Qiang Zeng, Qiong Hu, Min Wang, Jia Tao, Lishi Wang
Herein, the self-cleaned electrochemical protein imprinting biosensor basing on a thermo-responsive memory hydrogel was constructed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a free radical polymerization method. Combining the advantages of thermo-responsive molecular imprinted polymers and electrochemistry, the resulted biosensor presents a novel self-cleaned ability for bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous media. As a temperature controlled gate, the hydrogel film undergoes the adsorption and desorption of BSA basing on a reversible structure change with the external temperature stimuli...
July 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Shringkhala Bajimaya, Tünde Frankl, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Toru Takimoto
Cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains in the plasma membrane are considered to play a major role in the enveloped virus lifecycle. However, the functional role of cholesterol in assembly, infectivity and stability of respiratory RNA viruses is not fully understood. We previously reported that depletion of cellular cholesterol by cholesterol-reducing agents decreased production of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) particles by inhibiting virus assembly. In this study, we analyzed the role of cholesterol on influenza A virus (IAV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) production...
July 24, 2017: Virology
Suriyasri Subramanian, Lindsey J Organtini, Alec Grossman, Phillip P Domeier, Javier O Cifuente, Alexander M Makhov, James F Conway, Anthony D'Abramo, Susan F Cotmore, Peter Tattersall, Susan Hafenstein
In minute virus of mice (MVM) capsids, icosahedral five-fold channels serve as portals mediating genome packaging, genome release, and the phased extrusion of viral peptides. Previous studies suggest that residues L172 and V40 are essential for channel function. The structures of MVMi wildtype, and mutant L172T and V40A virus-like particles (VLPs) were solved from cryo-EM data. Two constriction points, termed the mid-gate and inner-gate, were observed in the channels of wildtype particles, involving residues L172 and V40 respectively...
July 24, 2017: Virology
Leen Vancoillie, Laura Hebberecht, Kenny Dauwe, Els Demecheleer, Sylvie Dinakis, Dries Vaneechoutte, Virginie Mortier, Chris Verhofstede
HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present low-level viremia (LLV) above the detection level of current viral load assays. In many cases LLV is persistent but does not result in overt treatment failure or selection of drug resistant viral variants. To elucidate whether LLV reflects active virus replication, we extensively sequenced pol and env genes of the viral populations present before and during LLV in 18 patients and searched for indications of genetic evolution. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees were inspected for temporal structure both visually and by linear regression analysis of root-to-tip and pairwise distances...
July 24, 2017: Virology
Cindy Patinote, Nour Bou Karroum, Georges Moarbess, Carine Deleuze-Masquefa, Kamel Hadj-Kaddour, Pierre Cuq, Mona Diab-Assaf, Issam Kassab, Pierre-Antoine Bonnet
The transcription nuclear factor NF-κB plays a pivotal role in chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. Among the several and diverse strategies for inhibiting NF-κB, one of the most effective approach considered by the pharmaceutical industry seems to be offered by the development of IKK inhibitors. In a former study, two potential IKK2 inhibitors have been highlighted among a series of imidazo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives. In order to enhance this activity, we present herein the synthesis of twenty-one new compounds based on the imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine, imidazo[1,5-a]quinoxaline or pyrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline structures...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Elisa Nuti, Barbara Bassani, Caterina Camodeca, Lea Rosalia, AnnaRita Cantelmo, Cristina Gallo, Denisa Baci, Antonino Bruno, Elisabetta Orlandini, Susanna Nencetti, Douglas M Noonan, Adriana Albini, Armando Rossello
Angiogenesis induction is a hallmark of cancer. Antiangiogenic properties of Xanthohumol (XN), a naturally occurring prenylated chalcone from hops, have been widely reported. Here we describe the synthesis and study the antiangiogenic activity in vitro of a series of XN derivatives, where different substituents on the B-ring of the chalcone scaffold were inserted. The new XN derivatives inhibited human umbilical-vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and their ability to form capillary-like structures in vitro at 10 μM concentration...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
W Bielas, W Niżański, J Nicpoń, J E Nicpoń, A Partyka, R Mordak, M Nowak, R Ciaputa
This study investigated the effect of exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites on the characteristics of epididymal spermatozoa, testicular and epididymal biometry and histology, and the concentration of testosterone in blood plasma in male wild boars. The study was performed during more than one year on 18 clinically healthy male wild boars with initial and final body weight, of 39 ± 4 kg and 59 ± 3 kg, respectively. The animals were divided into two experimental groups (group I and group II) and one control group (group C) comprising 6 boars per group...
July 18, 2017: Theriogenology
Jinxiang Chen, Mengye Xu, Yoji Okabe, Zhensheng Guo, Xindi Yu
To explore the characteristics of the core structure of ladybug (Harmonia axyridis) forewings, their microstructure was studied using microscopes. The results suggest that trabeculae exist in the frame of the beetle (ladybug) forewing for the first time; this study represents the first determination of the parameters N, the total number of trabeculae in each forewing, and λt, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the trabeculae to the effective area of trabecular distribution. The cross-sectional area of a single trabecula in the ladybug forewing is smaller than those in two other kinds of beetles, Allomyrina dichotoma and Prosopocoilus inclinatus...
July 19, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Ran Mei, Masaru K Nobu, Takashi Narihiro, Kyohei Kuroda, Julian Muñoz Sierra, Zhuoying Wu, Lin Ye, Patrick K H Lee, Po-Heng Lee, Jules B van Lier, Michael J McInerney, Yoichi Kamagata, Wen-Tso Liu
Anaerobic digester (AD) microbiomes harbor complex, interacting microbial populations to achieve biomass reduction and biogas production, however how they are influenced by operating conditions and feed sludge microorganisms remain unclear. These were addressed by analyzing the microbial communities of 90 full-scale digesters at 51 municipal wastewater treatment plants from five countries. Heterogeneity detected in community structures suggested that no single AD microbiome could be defined. Instead, the AD microbiomes were classified into eight clusters driven by operating conditions (e...
July 20, 2017: Water Research
Victoria G Snider, Erik R Farquhar, Mark Allen, Ayah Abu-Spetani, Anusree Mukherjee
Superoxide plays a key role in cell signaling, but can be cytotoxic within cells unless well regulated by enzymes known as superoxide dismutases (SOD). Nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) catalyzes the disproportion of the harmful superoxide radical into hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen. NiSOD has a unique active site structure that plays an important role in tuning the potential of the nickel center to function as an effective catalyst for superoxide dismutation with diffusion controlled rates. The synthesis of structural and functional analogues of NiSOD provides a route to better understand the role of the nickel active site in superoxide dismutation...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Madhumita Bhaumik, Arjun Maity, Vinod Kumar Gupta
In the present study, nanocomposites (NCs) of zero valent iron nanoparticles (Fe(0) NPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Fe(0)/TiO2 NCs) were prepared by coating Fe(0) NPs onto the surface of TiO2 NPs through borohydride reduction of Fe(II) salt for the ultrasound assisted removal/ degradation of reactive black 5 (RB5) dye from aqueous solutions. Morphological and structural characterizations of the Fe(0)/TiO2 NCs were performed by FE-SEM, HR-TEM, XRD, XPS and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The Fe(0)/TiO2 NCs exhibited highly efficient ultrasonic degradation/decolourization of RB5, compared to TiO2 NPs counterpart...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jae-Min Jeong, MinHo Yang, Dong Seok Kim, Tae Jae Lee, Bong Gill Choi, Do Hyun Kim
Two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets have been extensively explored as electrode materials for the development of high-performance electrochemical biosensors due to their unique structural characteristics. Nevertheless, 2D nanosheets suffer from sheet aggregation issues limiting the electrical conductivity of layered metal sulfides or hydroxides. Here, we report high-performance glucose biosensors based on a three-dimensional (3D) aerogel composed of interconnected 2D MoS2 and graphene sheet. 3D MoS2/graphene aerogel (MGA) provides a large surface area for the effective immobilization of enzymes, and continuous framework of electrically conductive graphene sheets...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Xia Zhang, Jintuo Yin, Caijuan Liang, Yupeng Sun, Lantong Zhang
Sophoricoside (SOPH) is an isoflavone glycoside isolated from Fructus Sophorae, and it has the effects on reproductive system. Currently, a strategy was firstly developed to identify the metabolites of SOPH in vitro and in vivo using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Based on the proposed method, 60 metabolites were structurally characterized in vivo including 22 phase I and 38 phase II metabolites, and 4 metabolites in vitro were detected containing 2 phase I and 2 phase II metabolites...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Yong Lin, Jia-Jia Huang, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Jing-Jing Zhen, Xue-Ping Ying
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common pollutants in the environment and it is known to cause a range of tissue damages and apoptosis in invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the effect of Cd on the hepatopancreas of the crab Eriocheir sinensis, a commercially and ecologically important species of crustacean. The crabs were first exposed to water containing different concentrations of Cd(2+) (0, 0.63, 1.26, 2.52, 5.04 and 10.07mg/L) for 6days. Typical morphological characteristics and physiological changes of apoptosis were then observed using various methods, including AO/EB double fluorescence staining, transmission electron microscopy and DNA fragmentation analysis...
July 18, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Ghada S Hassan, Shahenda M El-Messery, Ahmad Abbas
A novel series of nitrogenous heterocycles starting from chalcones including thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidines (20-67), were synthesized. Structure elucidation of the synthesized compounds was attained by the use of (1)H NMR, (13)CC NMR, and Mass spectrometry. The obtained compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 cell lines panel assay. Three cell lines, non-small cell lung cancer Hop-92, ovarian cancer IGROV1, and melanoma SK-MEL-2, exhibited some sensitivity against most of the tested compounds...
July 18, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
Muhammad Taha, Fazal Rahim, Syahrul Imran, Nor Hadiani Ismail, Hayat Ullah, Manikandan Selvaraj, Muhammad Tariq Javid, Uzma Salar, Muhammad Ali, Khalid Mohammed Khan
Discovery of α-glucosidase inhibitors has been actively pursued with the aim to develop therapeutics for the treatment of type-II diabetes mellitus and the other carbohydrate mediated disease. In continuation of our drug discovery research on potential antidiabetic agents, we synthesized novel tris-indole-oxadiazole hybrid analogs (1-21), structurally characterized by various spectroscopic techniques such as (1)H NMR, EI-MS, and (13)C NMR. Elemental analysis was found in agreement with the calculated values...
July 18, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
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