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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107770/different-parts-different-stories-climate-sensitivity-of-growth-is-stronger-in-root-collars-versus-stems-in-tundra-shrubs
#1
Pascale Ropars, Sandra Angers-Blondin, Marianne Gagnon, Isla H Myers-Smith, Esther Lévesque, Stéphane Boudreau
Shrub densification has been widely reported across the circumpolar arctic and subarctic biomes in recent years. Long-term analyses based on dendrochronological techniques applied to shrubs have linked this phenomenon to climate change. However, the multi-stemmed structure of shrubs makes them difficult to sample and therefore leads to non-uniform sampling protocols among shrub ecologists, who will favor either root collars or stems to conduct dendrochronological analyses. Through a comparative study of the use of root collars and stems of Betula glandulosa, a common North American shrub species, we evaluated the relative sensitivity of each plant part to climate variables, and assessed if this sensitivity is consistent across three different types of environments in northwestern Québec, Canada (terrace, hilltop and snowbed)...
January 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107746/induced-differentiation-of-human-gingival-fibroblasts-into-vsmc-like-cells
#2
Xuqian Liu, Jie Wang, Fusheng Dong, Hexiang Li, Yali Hou
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are major component of the vascular wall, and they play an essential role in maintaining the basic physiological function and stable structure of the vascular wall. In the present study, human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were cultured and induced into VSMC-like cells in vitro to confirm that HGFs with properties of stem cells have the potential for differentiation. The epithelium isolated from patients was extracted from normal human gingiva consisting of epithelium and connective tissue...
January 17, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107743/high-sensitivity-four-layer-polymer-fiber-optic-evanescent-wave-sensor
#3
Xin Xin, Nianbing Zhong, Qiang Liao, Yanyan Cen, Ruohua Wu, Zhengkun Wang
We present a novel four-layer structure consisting of bottom, second, third, and surface layers in the sensing region, for a D-shaped step-index fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor. To reduce the background noise, the surface of the longitudinal section in the D-shaped region is coated with a light-absorbing film. We check the morphologies of the second and surface layers, examine the refractive indices (RIs) of the third and surface layers, and analyze the composition of the surface layer. We also investigate the effects of the thicknesses and RIs of the third and surface layers and the LA film on the light transmission and sensitivity of the FOEW sensors...
January 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107739/on-the-synthesis-of-nanostructured-akermanite-scaffolds-via-space-holder-method-the-effect-of-the-spacer-size-on-the-porosity-and-mechanical-properties
#4
Aliakbar Najafinezhad, Majid Abdellahi, Sepideh Nasiri-Harchegani, Ali Soheily, Mohammadsaleh Khezri, Hamid Ghayour
In the present study, for the first time, the space holder method was used to prepare akermanite scaffolds with high porous structures, high interconnectivity, and high compressive strength, while the role of different spacer sizes on the akermanite scaffold properties was also evaluated. The results showed that the increase in the NaCl particle size which was used as spacer leads to an increase of the pore size and interconnectivity and a decrease of compressive strength. When the size of the spacer was 420-600µm and more than 600µm, a total porosity of 82 and 83% and a compressive strength of 0...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107736/crystal-structures-binding-interactions-and-adme-evaluation-of-brain-penetrant-n-substituted-indazole-5-carboxamides-as-subnanomolar-selective-monoamine-oxidase-b-and-dual-mao-a-b-inhibitors
#5
Nikolay T Tzvetkov, Hans-Georg Stammler, Beate Neumann, Silvia Hristova, Liudmil Antonov, Marcus Gastreich
The pharmacological and physicochemical analysis of structurally optimized N-alkyl-substituted indazole-5-carboxamides, developed as potential drug and radioligand candidates for the treatment and diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurological disorders, is reported. Recent efforts have been focused on the development of subnanomolar potent, selective MAO-B (N1-alkyl-substituted compounds 12a-14a and 15) and dual active MAO-A/B (N2-methylated compounds 12b-14b) inhibitors with nanomolar potency towards MAO-B and moderately active against MAO-A enzyme, respectively...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107728/a-three-dimensional-core-shell-nanostructured-composite-of-polypyrrole-wrapped-mno2-reduced-graphene-oxide-carbon-nanotube-for-high-performance-lithium-ion-batteries
#6
Yong Li, Daixin Ye, Wen Liu, Bin Shi, Rui Guo, Haijuan Pei, Jingying Xie
Manganese oxides are promising anode materials for their high-energy density. However, they suffer from poor rate capability and fast capacity fading. Herein, we construct a three-dimensional (3D) core-shell structured polypyrrole (PPy)/MnO2-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite via a facile two-step method. In the structure, the CNTs can facilitate fast electron conduction and keep structural integrity. The flexible and conductive rGO nanosheets work as both a reactive material and a carrier for MnO2 in-situ growth...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107722/microalgae-biorefinery-high-value-products-perspectives
#7
Kit Wayne Chew, Jing Ying Yap, Pau Loke Show, Ng Hui Suan, Joon Ching Juan, Tau Chuan Ling, Duu-Jong Lee, Jo-Shu Chang
Microalgae have received much interest as a biofuel feedstock in response to the uprising energy crisis, climate change and depletion of natural sources. Development of microalgal biofuels from microalgae does not satisfy the economic feasibility of overwhelming capital investments and operations. Hence, high-value co-products have been produced through the extraction of a fraction of algae to improve the economics of a microalgae biorefinery. Examples of these high-value products are pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and anti-oxidants, with applications in cosmetics, nutritional and pharmaceuticals industries...
January 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107711/the-influence-of-dissolved-si-on-ni-precipitate-formation-at-the-kaolinite-water-interface-kinetics-drs-and-exafs-analysis
#8
Xiaoli Tan, Ge Liu, Huiyang Mei, Ming Fang, Xuemei Ren, Changlun Chen
Unraveling the formation process of Ni precipitates at molecular scale is important for understanding the fate and mobility of Ni species in the real environment. Dissolved Si presents in the natural environment ubiquitously, which can alter Ni sorption as well as incorporation into neoformed precipitates. Batch experiments show that the dissolved Si leads to a rapid increase in the Ni sorption rate and interferes with the formation of Ni precipitates. The results of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy analyses suggest that the nucleation of a (Ni,Al) phyllosilicate phase involves a kaolinite-like local structure...
January 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107695/antibacterial-activity-computational-analysis-and-host-toxicity-study-of-thymol-sulfonamide-conjugates
#9
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) are notorious pathogenic multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in both hospital and community sectors, and today the first antibacterial drug sulfamethoxazole is ineffective. The monoterpene phenol, thymol was conjugated with seven sulfa drug derivatives individually, adopting the dye-azo synthesis protocol, and conjugates were characterized using spectral analysis techniques such as, UV, FTIR, MS, HPLC, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and SEM...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107688/sequencing-and-de-novo-assembly-of-visceral-mass-transcriptome-of-the-critically-endangered-land-snail-satsuma-myomphala-annotation-and-ssr-discovery
#10
Se Won Kang, Bharat Bhusan Patnaik, Hee-Ju Hwang, So Young Park, Jong Min Chung, Dae Kwon Song, Hongray Howrelia Patnaik, Jae Bong Lee, Changmu Kim, Soonok Kim, Young-Su Park, Hong Seog Park, Seung-Hwan Park, Yeon Soo Han, Jun Sang Lee, Yong Seok Lee
Satsuma myomphala is critically endangered through loss of natural habitats, predation by natural enemies, and indiscriminate collection. It is a protected species in Korea but lacks genomic resources for an understanding of varied functional processes attributable to evolutionary success under natural habitats. For assessing the genetic information of S. myomphala, we performed for the first time, de novo transcriptome sequencing and functional annotation of expressed sequences using Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform and bioinformatics analysis...
October 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107683/altering-intra-to-inter-molecular-hydrogen-bonding-by-dimethylsulfoxide-a-tddft-study-of-charge-transfer-for-coumarin-343
#11
Xiaochun Liu, Hang Yin, Hui Li, Ying Shi
DFT and TDDFT methods were carried out to investigate the influences of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding on excited state charge transfer for coumarin 343 (C343). Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is formed between carboxylic acid group and carbonyl group in C343 monomer. However, in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution, DMSO 'opens up' the intramolecular hydrogen bonding and forms solute-solvent intermolecular hydrogen bonded C343-DMSO complex. Analysis of frontier molecular orbitals reveals that intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) occurs in the first excited state both for C343 monomer and complex...
January 12, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107675/a-novel-modal-independent-ultrasonic-motor-with-dual-stator
#12
Jian Liu, Jiamei Jin, Ruinan Ji, Di Chen
In this paper, a novel modal-independent ultrasonic motor with dual stator is proposed, in order to relieve the difficulty of adjustment for coincidence of modal frequencies of a stator for multi-modal coupling type ultrasonic motor (USM). It consists of two stators (an upper stator and a lower stator) and a rotor. The stators are excited the 3rd longitudinal vibration mode, by arranging the location of rotor and two stators, the rotor can realize rotary motion by friction effect with the stators. The rotor is mounted between the maximum deformation location of the upper stator and the nodal line of the lower stator...
January 10, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107670/pharmaceutical-opioid-use-among-oral-and-intravenous-users-in-australia-a-qualitative-comparative-study
#13
George Dertadian, Jenny Iversen, Thomas C Dixon, Katrina Sotiropoulos, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: Between 1992 and 2012 dispensing episodes for pharmaceutical opioids (PO) in Australia increased from 500000 to 7500000. In the US, increases in the prescription of PO have been linked to increases in opioid-related morbidity and mortality and transitions to heroin injection. However, Australian data indicate that morbidity and mortality related to PO are relatively low, particularly when compared to heroin and other drugs. This paper explores the characteristics and patterns of non-medical pharmaceutical opioid (NMPO) use among a sample of young people in Sydney, Australia...
January 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107635/atomic-number-dependent-structural-transitions-in-ordered-lanthanide-monolayers-role-of-the-hydration-shell
#14
Mitchell Miller, Miaoqi Chu, Binhua Lin, Wei Bu, Pulak Dutta
When lanthanide ions are present in the aqueous subphase of a floating monolayer (Langmuir film), the ions attracted to the interface will in many cases form commensurate and/or incommensurate two-dimensional structures. These lattices depend not only on the molecules forming the monolayer, but also on the atomic number of the lanthanide, with a sudden change between the lattice formed by lighter ions and that formed by heavier ions under a given monolayer. Since there are few other relevant differences between the lanthanides, we attribute the Z-dependent 'transition' to the number of water molecules associated with each ion...
January 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107632/structural-changes-in-acetophenone-fluid-films-as-a-function-of-nano-scale-thickness
#15
Samantha L Nania, Scott K Shaw
We report experimental observations of a developing fluid-solid interface by examining acetophenone films of varying thicknesses, supported on solid silver substrates. A dynamic wetting technique provides experimental control of fluid film thickness as a function of rotational velocity. Ellipsometry and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy data are analyzed to provide absolute film thickness and details of the changing chemical environment for varying film thickness. This data is compared to theoretical models that predict fluid film thicknesses based on physical-chemical properties of the acetophenone/silver pair...
January 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107629/discovery-of-1-2-3-triazole-derivatives-for-multimodality-pet-ct-cryoimaging-of-myelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
Chunying Wu, Brendan Eck, Sheng Zhang, Junqing Zhu, Anand Dev Tiwari, Yifan Zhang, Yunjie Zhu, Jinming Zhang, Bin Wang, Xizhen Wang, Xu Wang, Jingqiang You, Jian Wang, Yihui Guan, Xingdang Liu, Xin Yu, Bruce D Trapp, Robert Miller, Jerry Silver, David Wilson, Yanming Wang
Myelin pathology is present in many neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). To facilitate development of novel therapies aimed at myelin repair, we set out to develop imaging agents that permit direct quantification of myelination in vivo. In this work, we designed and synthesized a series of fluorescent fluorinated myelin imaging agents that can be used for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging combined with subsequent post-mortem fluorescent cryoimaging...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107628/constructing-fast-carrier-tracks-into-flexible-perovskite-photodetectors-to-greatly-improve-responsivity
#17
Xiaoming Li, Dejian Yu, Jun Chen, Yue Wang, Fei Cao, Yi Wei, Ye Wu, Lin Wang, Ying Zhu, Zhiguo Sun, Jianping Ji, Yalong Shen, Handong Sun, Haibo Zeng
Intrinsically high mobility and large absorption coefficient endow inorganic halide perovskites (IHPs) with great promise for high-performance photodetectors (PDs), which, however, are being hindered by the low carrier extraction and transport efficiency of the solution assembled films. Here, we report on a general strategy to enhance the film conductivity of perovskites that conductive nanonets were constructed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to provide fast carriers tracks. As a result, the CsPbBr3 nanosheet/CNT composite films exhibit high conductivity and the advantages are demonstrated by the high performances of corresponding planar PDs...
January 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107626/polymeric-nanofibers-with-ultrahigh-piezoelectricity-via-self-orientation-of-nanocrystals
#18
Xia Liu, Jing Ma, Xiaoming Wu, Liwei Lin, Xiaohong Wang
Piezoelectricity in macromolecule polymers has been gaining immense attention, particularly for applications in biocompatible, implantable, and flexible electronic devices. This paper introduces core-shell-structured piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers chemically wrapped by graphene oxide (GO) lamellae (PVDF/GO nanofibers), in which the polar β-phase nanocrystals are formed and uniaxially self-oriented by the synergistic effect of mechanical stretching, high-voltage alignment, and chemical interactions...
January 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107616/superhydrophilic-antireflective-periodic-mesoporous-organosilica-coating-on-flexible-polyimide-substrate-with-strong-abrasion-resistance
#19
Jing Wang, Cong Zhang, Chunming Yang, Ce Zhang, Mengchao Wang, Jing Zhang, Yao Xu
Superhydrophilic antireflective periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) coating was prepared on flexible polyimide substrate via solvent-evaporation-induced self-assembly (SEISA) method, in which tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and a special bridged silsesquioxane were used as reactants. The bridged silsesquioxane, EG-BSQ, was synthesized through the stoichiometric reaction between 3-glycidoxyporpyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and ethylene diamine (EDA) at 60 (○)C with no catalyst. Under the influence of surfactant, TEOS and EG-BSQ co-condensed and enclosed the ordered mesporous in the coating...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107609/carbon-nanodot-solar-cells-from-renewable-precursors
#20
Maria-Magdalena Titirici, Adam Marinovic, Steve Dunn, Lim Swee Kiat, Joe Briscoe
It has recently been shown that waste biomass can be converted into a wide range of functional materials, including those with desirable optical and electronic properties, offering the opportunity to find new uses for these renewable resources. Photovoltaics is one area where finding the combination of abundant, low-cost and non-toxic materials with the necessary functionality can be challenging. In this paper we compare the performance of carbon nanodots derived from a wide range of biomaterials obtained from different biomass sources as sensitizers for TiO2-based nanostructured solar cells; polysaccharides (chitosan and chitin), monosaccharide (D-glucose), amino acids (L-arginine and L-cysteine) and raw lobster shells are all used to produce carbon nanodots via hydrothermal carbonisation...
January 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
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