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He Liu, Yue Gu, Tao Dong, Liuqing Yan, Xiaoyi Yan, Tingting Zhang, Nannan Lu, Zhiqian Xu, Haixin Xu, Zhiquan Zhang, Ting Bian
The combination of nanoparticles and biomarkers yields functional nanostructured biointerface, which is playing a notable role in biotechnology development. Due to the 5-fold twined structure in the Au-Pt star-shaped decahedra not only allowed it to act as efficient scaffold for immobilization of antibody, but it also exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity toward H2 O2 reduction, the nanocrystal as the efficient signal transduction label is first employed to construct an electrochemical immunosensor. Donor-π-Acceptor (D-π-A) linking fashion generates a dipolar push-pull system and assures superior intramolecular charge transfer...
March 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Hui Wang, Bin Fang, Lin Kong, Xiangzi Li, Zhijun Feng, Yunjun Wu, Kajsa Uvdal, Zhangjun Hu
A novel donor-π-acceptor-π-donor type (D-π-A-π-D') Schiff base derivative (L) has been designed and synthesized. The structure of L is confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis as well. The photophysical properties of compound L were comprehensively investigated by using both experimental and theoretical methods. The results indicate that L exhibits large Stokes shift and moderate two-photon action (2PA) cross-section in the near infrared (NIR) region. Furthermore, the confocal microscopy imaging study demonstrates that compound L could penetrate into cells and target the cellular mitochondria compartment...
March 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Aamer Saeed, Mubeen Arif, Mauricio F Erben, Ulrich Flörke, Jim Simpson
Two closely related hybrid species containing both, thiazolyl and coumarin groups, were synthesized by using two different one-pot procedures from a common precursor. The reaction of α-bromoacetylcoumarin with thioacetamide in methanol furnished 3‑(2‑methylthiazol‑4‑yl)‑2H‑chromen‑2‑one (2), whereas refluxing α‑bromoacetylcoumarin with potassium thiocyanate in ethanol afforded 3‑(2‑ethoxythiazol‑4‑yl)‑2H‑chromen‑2‑one (3). Both derivatives were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction studies...
March 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Piotr Rożek, Magdalena Król, Włodzimierz Mozgawa
In the present work fly-ash based geopolymers with different contents of alkali-activator and water were prepared. Alkali-activation was conducted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at the SiO2 /Na2 O molar ratio of 3, 4, and 5. Water content was at the ratio of 30, 40, and 50wt% in respect to the weight of the fly ash. Structural and microstructural characterization (FT-IR spectroscopy,29 Si and27 Al MAS NMR, X-ray diffraction, SEM) of the specimens as well as compressive strength and apparent density measurements were carried out...
March 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Viviana Izzo, Bruno Charlier, Elena Bloise, Marine Pingeon, Marianna Romano, Antonietta Finelli, Alfonso Vietri, Valeria Conti, Valentina Manzo, Maria Alfieri, Amelia Filippelli, Fabrizio Dal Piaz
Exposure of healthcare workers to anticancer drugs requires the combined action of environmental and biological monitoring to assess the effective level of exposure to these chemicals, to improve awareness and to avoid adverse health effects on this category of workers. Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs show different mechanisms of action due to diverse chemical structures; consequently, they differ in hydrophobicity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Therefore, the appearance, accumulation and elimination of each of these molecules in body fluids and tissues might be extremely variable; this prompts the need for a rapid and versatile analytical protocol for the biological monitoring of possible exposure of workers involved in the manipulation, administration and disposal of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Wen-Ping Huang, Ting Tan, Zhi-Feng Li, Hui OuYang, Xu Xu, Bin Zhou, Yu-Lin Feng
The Chimonanthus nitens Oliv. leaf (CNOL). is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for treating colds and influenza. In the present study, a comprehensive strategy integrating multiple chromatographic analysis and chemometric methods was firstly proposed for structural characterization and discrimination of CNOL from different geographical origins. It consists of three steps: Firstly, the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) method was applied for comprehensive profiling of characterization constituents in CNOL by high-resolution diagnostic product ions/neutral loss filtering, and a total of 40 constituents were identified...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Wenlin Jia, Jian Zhang, Yumiao Lu, Guangchao Li, Weihua Yang, Qian Wang
Static magnetic field (SMF) with the intensity of 15 mT was applied during partial nitrification (PN) process to evaluate the impacts on nitrogen transformation and microbial characteristics. Results showed that the startup period of PN process at ambient temperature was markedly shortened by SMF, and the nitrite accumulation increased by 18% due to SMF exposure. The ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA gene copy numbers in the reactor with SMF exposure were 40% higher than that without SMF exposure, indicating the AOB abundance was enriched by SMF exposure...
March 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Melissa T Merrick, Megan Henly, Heather A Turner, Corinne David-Ferdon, Sherry Hamby, Akadia Kacha-Ochana, Thomas R Simon, David Finkelhor
Predictability in a child's environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused on residential mobility's effect on this predictability. This study augments such research by analyzing the impact of an instability index-including the lifetime destabilization factors (LDFs) of natural disasters, homelessness, child home removal, multiple moves, parental incarceration, unemployment, deployment, and multiple marriages--on childhood victimizations...
March 17, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Mahsa Mazloomi-Rezvani, Mehdi Salami-Kalajahi, Hossein Roghani-Mamaqani
Different core-shell nanoparticles with Au as core and stimuli-responsive polymers such as poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), poly(N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide)) (PMBA), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly((2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) as shells were fabricated via inverse emulsion polymerization. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to investigate particles sizes and particle size distributions and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to observe the core-shell structure of Au-polymer nanoparticles...
March 13, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Morteza Karimzadeh, Neda Manouchehri, Dariush Saberi, Khodabakhsh Niknam
All 66 conformers of guanylurea were optimized and frequency calculations were performed at M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Theses conformers were categorized into five tautomers, and the most stable conformer of each tautomer were found. Geometrical parameters indicated that these tautomers have almost planar structure. Complete stepwise tautomerism were studied through both intramolecular proton transfer routs and internal rotations. Results indicated that the proton transfer routs involving four-membered heterocyclic structures were rate-determining steps...
March 6, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Min Cheng, Guangming Zeng, Danlian Huang, Cui Lai, Yang Liu, Chen Zhang, Jia Wan, Liang Hu, Chengyun Zhou, Weiping Xiong
The presence of antibiotics in aquatic environments has attracted global concern. Fenton process is an attractive yet challenging method for antibiotics degradation, especially when such a reaction can be conducted at neutral pH values. In this study, a novel composite Fe/Co catalyst was synthesized via the modification of steel converter slag (SCS) by salicylic acid-methanol (SAM) and cobalt nitrate (Co(NO3 )2 ). The catalysts were characterized by N2 -Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)...
March 10, 2018: Water Research
Meng Tian, Yu Long, Dan Xu, Shuoyun Wei, Zhengping Dong
Nowadays, chemical catalytic methods for the treatment of organic wastes are attracting more and more research attention. In the current research, novel catalysts with palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) supported on the hollow mesoporous silica nanotubes (h-mSiO2 ) were synthesized for the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The key point for the fabrication of the catalysts is that a certain thickness of the silica shell was wrapped on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) or Pd/MWNTs through biphase stratification approach, and then the samples were calcined to remove the MWNTs...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Tímea O Kóbori, Tatsuya Uzumaki, Mihály Kis, László Kovács, Ildikó Domonkos, Shigeru Itoh, Vendula Krynická, Saravanan G Kuppusamy, Tomas Zakar, Jason Dean, László Szilák, Josef Komenda, Zoltán Gombos, Bettina Ughy
Phosphatidylglycerol is an essential phospholipid for photosynthesis and other cellular processes. We investigated the role of phosphatidylglycerol in cell division and metabolism in a phophatidylglycerol-auxotrophic strain of Synechococcus PCC7942. Here we show that phosphatidylglycerol is essential for the photosynthetic electron transfer and for the oligomerisation of the photosynthetic complexes, notably, we revealed that this lipid is important for non-linear electron transport. Furthermore, we demonstrate that phosphatidylglycerol starvation elevated the expressions of proteins of nitrogen and carbon metabolism...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Tobias M R Houlton, Caroline Wilkinson
Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ina Koch, Tim Schäfer
This review comprises theoretical approaches and recent developments to describe the super-secondary and quaternary structure topology of a protein in a mathematically unique way. Based on the advances in experimental exploration of proteins and protein complexes, new extended abstract descriptions that include, for example, ligand information have been developed. A special focus concerns protein complexes and their description at secondary structure level as well as at quaternary structure level. Here, we give and discuss their unique graph-theoretic description and visualization...
March 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Khushboo Patel, Basant Roondhe, Shweta D Dabhi, Prafulla K Jha
Recently predicted and grown new single element two dimensional (2D) material borophene gathered tremendous research interest due to its structural, electronic and other properties. Using first principles based dispersion corrected density functional calculations, we have studied interaction of two toxic gases phosgene (COCl2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) with borophene to understand the role of borophene as biosensor and carriers in drug delivery. The sensing behaviour of borophene towards COCl2 and CO has been studied by calculating the binding energy and electronic density of states (DOS)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Tatiana Robledo-Mahón, Elisabet Aranda, Chiara Pesciaroli, Alfonso Rodríguez-Calvo, Gloria Andrea Silva-Castro, Jesús González-López, Concepción Calvo
Sewage sludge composting is a profitable process economically viable and environmentally friendly. In despite of there are several kind of composting types, the use of combined system of semipermeable cover film and aeration air-floor is widely developed at industrial scale. However, the knowledge of the linkages between microbial communities structure, enzyme activities and physico-chemical factors under these conditions it has been poorly explored. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial dynamic and community structure using next generation sequencing coupled to analyses of microbial enzymatic activity and culturable dependent techniques in a full-scale real composting plant...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Shahid Khan, Jonathan M Scholey
Cells from all three domains of life on Earth utilize motile macromolecular devices that protrude from the cell surface to generate forces that allow them to swim through fluid media. Research carried out on archaea during the past decade or so has led to the recognition that, despite their common function, the motility devices of the three domains display fundamental differences in their properties and ancestry, reflecting a striking example of convergent evolution. Thus, the flagella of bacteria and the archaella of archaea employ rotary filaments that assemble from distinct subunits that do not share a common ancestor and generate torque using energy derived from distinct fuel sources, namely chemiosmotic ion gradients and FlaI motor-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, respectively...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Chih-Fu Wei, Mei-Huei Chen, Ching-Chun Lin, Yueliang Leon Guo, Shio-Jean Lin, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Pau-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Air pollution from biomass burning were associated with neurodevelopmental deceleration, but limited studies concerned about the effect of indoor biomass burning. Incense burning is a common household ritual practice in Taiwan, while past studies mainly focused on birth weight and allergic disease. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to find the association between incense burning exposure and children's neurodevelopment. METHODS: In Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS), a nationwide representative birth cohort study, children were assessed upon home interview with structured questionnaires upon six and eighteen months old...
March 17, 2018: Environment International
Andrea Knöller, Stefan Kilper, Achim Diem, Marc Widenmeyer, Tomce Runcevski, Robert E Dinnebier, Joachim Bill, Zaklina Burghard
The demand to outperform current technologies pushes scientists to develop novel strategies to enable fabricating materials with exceptional properties. Along this line, lightweight structural materials are of great interest due to their versatile applicability as sensors, catalysts, battery electrodes and acoustic or mechanical dampers. Here we report a strategy to design ultralight (ρ = 3 mg/cm3) and hierarchically structured ceramic scaffolds of macroscopic size. Such scaffolds exhibit mechanical reversibility comparable to that of microscopic metamaterials, leading to a macroscopically remarkable dynamic mechanical performance...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
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