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Acetyl L-Carnitine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869661/an-exploratory-investigation-of-endotoxin-levels-in-novice-long-distance-triathletes-and-the-effects-of-a-multi-strain-probiotic-prebiotic-antioxidant-intervention
#1
Justin D Roberts, Craig A Suckling, Georgia Y Peedle, Joseph A Murphy, Tony G Dawkins, Michael G Roberts
Gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females) were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB⁴ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day(-1) containing 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157), 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156), 9...
November 17, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786574/examining-the-protective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-cisplatin-induced-uterine-tube-toxicity
#2
Gulistan Sanem Saribas, Deniz Erdogan, Guleser Goktas, Seda Nur Akyol, Ibrahim Murat Hirfanoglu, Seren Gulsen Gurgen, Neslihan Coskun, Candan Ozogul
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cisplatin and the protective role of acetyl l-carnitine against uterine tube toxicity. Twenty-four female Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control group was injected with saline (control); group 2 was injected with acetyl l-carnitine; group 3 was injected with cisplatin; and group 4 was pre-treated with acetyl l-carnitine before cisplatin intraperitoneal injection. According to our results, a significant weight loss was observed in rats from group 3...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771504/changes-in-the-levels-of-l-carnitine-acetyl-l-carnitine-and-propionyl-l-carnitine-are-involved-in-perfluorooctanoic-acid-induced-developmental-cardiotoxicity-in-chicken-embryo
#3
Qixiao Jiang, Chunbo Wang, Chan Xue, Lingfang Xue, Meiting Wang, Changhao Li, Ziwen Deng, Qian Wang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent organic pollutant, is associated with developmental toxicity. This study investigated the mechanism of PFOA-induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo, focusing on the interactions between developmental exposure to PFOA and the levels of l-carnitine (LC), acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) in the heart. To evaluate the developmental cardiotoxicity, fertile chicken eggs were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 or 5mg/kg PFOA via air cell injection...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713999/an-lc-ms-based-untargeted-metabolomics-study-identified-novel-biomarkers-for-coronary-heart-disease
#4
Ruijun Li, Fengyu Li, Qiang Feng, Zhipeng Liu, Zhuye Jie, Bo Wen, Xun Xu, Shilong Zhong, Guanglei Li, Kunlun He
This study performed untargeted metabolomics for plasma samples from 40 coronary heart disease patients and 43 healthy controls by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry technology to find a set of effective biomarkers for CHD diagnosis and prognosis. The discriminating metabolites were extracted and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis methods. We found five metabolites (1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, methylitaconate, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 6-phosphate and l-carnitine) contributing to the separation of CHD patients from healthy controls, and a subset of two metabolites in these five were identified as potential plasma biomarkers for CHD diagnosis...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683241/sex-dependent-alterations-in-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-proteins-following-neonatal-rat-cerebral-hypoxic-ischemia
#5
T G Demarest, R A Schuh, E L Waite, J Waddell, M C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Males are more susceptible to brain mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction following neonatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI) than females. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been implicated in the cellular response to HI injury, but sex differences in biogenesis following HI have not been described. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis or the expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) proteins are differentially stimulated in the brains of 8 day old male and female rats one day following HI, and promoted by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667153/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-by-degrading-l-tryptophan-enhances-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase%C3%A2-i-activity-and-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-exerts-fatty-acid-dependent-effects-in-human-alloreactive-cd4-t-cells
#6
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Maria Sounidaki, Konstantina Tsogka, Nikolaos Antoniadis, Georgia Antoniadi, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in antigen-presenting cells and by degrading L-tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway suppresses CD4+ T-cell proliferation, induces apoptosis and promotes differentiation towards a regulatory as opposed to an effector phenotype. Recent findings revealed that the above effects may be mediated through alterations in T-cell metabolism. In this study, the effect of IDO on fatty acid β-oxidation in CD4+ T-cells was evaluated in human mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) using the IDO inhibitor, 1-DL-methyl-tryptophan...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621429/reply-to-arduini-et-al-acetyl-l-carnitine-and-the-brain-epigenetics-energetics-and-stress
#7
Benedetta Bigio, Carla Nasca, Bruce S McEwen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606940/acetyl-l-carnitine-undervalued-in-the-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#8
Davy G H A van Dam, Antoinetta J M Beijers, Gerard Vreugdenhil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600823/aerobic-capacity-and-hepatic-mitochondrial-lipid-oxidation-alters-susceptibility-for-chronic-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis
#9
E Matthew Morris, Grace M E Meers, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Justin A Fletcher, Xiaorong Fu, Kartik Shankar, Shawn C Burgess, Jamal A Ibdah, R Scott Rector, John P Thyfault
Rats selectively bred for high capacity running (HCR) or low capacity running (LCR) display divergence for intrinsic aerobic capacity and hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity, both factors associated with susceptibility for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we tested if HCR and LCR rats display differences in susceptibility for hepatic steatosis after 16 wk of high-fat diets (HFD) with either 45% or 60% of kcals from fat. HCR rats were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas only the 60% HFD induced steatosis in LCR rats, as marked by a doubling of liver triglycerides...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562416/fluorescent-derivatization-combined-with-aqueous-solvent-based-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-determination-of-butyrobetaine-l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-in-human-plasma
#10
Yi-Ching Chen, Chia-Ju Tsai, Chia-Hsien Feng
A novel aqueous solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (AS-DLLME) method was combined with narrow-bore liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection for the determination of hydrophilic compounds. A remover (non-polar solvent) and extractant (aqueous solution) were introduced into the derivatization system (acetonitrile) to obtain a water-in-oil emulsion state that increased the mass transfer of analytes. As a proof of concept, three quaternary ammonium substances, including butyrobetaine, l-carnitine and acetyl-l-carnitine, were also used as analytes and determined in pharmaceuticals, personal care products, food and human plasma...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479625/treating-painful-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-an-update
#11
Matthew J Snyder, Lawrence M Gibbs, Tammy J Lindsay
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in approximately 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus who are treated in the office setting and significantly affects quality of life. It typically causes burning pain, paresthesias, and numbness in a stocking-glove pattern that progresses proximally from the feet and hands. Clinicians should carefully consider the patient's goals and functional status and potential adverse effects of medication when choosing a treatment for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy...
August 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441065/neuropathic-pain-treatment-still-a-challenge
#12
Osvaldo J M Nascimento, Bruno L Pessoa, Marco Orsini, Pedro Ribeiro, Eduardo Davidovich, Camila Pupe, Pedro Moreira Filho, Ricardo Menezes Dornas, Lucas Masiero, Juliana Bittencourt, Victor Hugo Bastos
Neuropathic pain (NP) is the result of a series of conditions caused by diseases or lesions to the somatosensory system. Due to the better understanding of NP pathophysiology previously unexplored therapies have been used with encouraging results. In this group, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic-acid, cannabinoids, clonidine, EMA401, botulinum toxin type A and new voltage-gated sodium channel blockers, can be included. Besides, changing paradigms may occur with the advent of optogenetics and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation...
June 15, 2016: Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429169/cspgs-inhibit-axon-branching-by-impairing-mitochondria-dependent-regulation-of-actin-dynamics-and-axonal-translation
#13
Rajiv Sainath, Andrea Ketschek, Leah Grandi, Gianluca Gallo
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit the formation of axon collateral branches. The regulation of the axonal cytoskeleton and mitochondria are important components of the mechanism of branching. Actin-dependent axonal plasticity, reflected in the dynamics of axonal actin patches and filopodia, is greatest along segments of the axon populated by mitochondria. We report that CSPGs partially depolarize the membrane potential of axonal mitochondria, which impairs the dynamics of the axonal actin cytoskeleton and decreases the formation and duration of axonal filopodia, the first steps in the mechanism of branching...
July 18, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406927/mania-associated-with-self-prescribed-acetyl-l-carnitine-in-a-man-with-bipolar-i-disorder
#14
Geraldine Goodison, Kathie Overeem, Veronica de Monte, Dan Siskind
OBJECTIVE: Complementary medicines are readily available and becoming increasingly popular. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is widely recognised as a safe dietary supplement to aid weight loss. We present the case of a patient who had a relapse of mania in the context of ALC use for weight loss over a two week period, on the background of bipolar I disorder previously in remission. The patient's symptoms resolved a few days after ALC was ceased. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high rates of obesity among people with mental illness, it is possible ALC may be utilised in the hope of aiding weight loss...
July 12, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404738/acetyl-l-carnitine-augmentation-of-clozapine-in-partial-responder-schizophrenia-a-12-week-open-label-uncontrolled-preliminary-study
#15
Antonio Bruno, Gianluca Pandolfo, Manuela Crucitti, Simona Lorusso, Rocco Antonio Zoccali, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello
OBJECTIVES: This was the first 12-week, open-label, uncontrolled trial aimed at exploring the efficacy of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) add-on pharmacotherapy on clinical symptoms and cognitive functioning in 15 schizophrenia patients with suboptimal clinical response despite receiving clozapine (CLZ) monotherapy at the highest tolerated dosage. METHODS: After clinical (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale [PANSS]) and neuropsychological (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Color-Word Test, Verbal Fluency Test) assessments, patients received 1 g/d of ALC for 12 weeks...
July 12, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378558/acetyl-l-carnitine-restores-synaptic-transmission-and-enhances-the-inducibility-of-stable-ltp-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#16
Kitti Kocsis, Rita Frank, József Szabó, Levente Knapp, Zsolt Kis, Tamás Farkas, László Vécsei, József Toldi
Hypoxic circumstances result in functional and structural impairments of the brain. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on hippocampal slices is a technique widely used to investigate the consequences of ischemic stroke and the potential neuroprotective effects of different drugs. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring substance in the body, and it can therefore be administered safely even in relatively high doses. In previous experiments, ALC pretreatment proved to be effective against global hypoperfusion...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354525/epigenetics-and-energetics-in-ventral-hippocampus-mediate-rapid-antidepressant-action-implications-for-treatment-resistance
#17
Benedetta Bigio, Aleksander A Mathé, Vasco C Sousa, Danielle Zelli, Per Svenningsson, Bruce S McEwen, Carla Nasca
Although regulation of energy metabolism has been linked with multiple disorders, its role in depression and responsiveness to antidepressants is less known. We found that an epigenetic and energetic agent, acetyl-l-carnitine (LAC, oral administration), rapidly rescued the depressive- and central and systemic metabolic-like phenotype of LAC-deficient Flinders Sensitive Line rats (FSL). After acute stress during LAC treatment, a subset of FSL continued to respond to LAC (rFSL), whereas the other subset did not (nrFSL)...
July 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353524/fermentable-soluble-fibres-spare-amino-acids-in-healthy-dogs-fed-a-low-protein-diet
#18
Wendy Wambacq, Galena Rybachuk, Isabelle Jeusette, Kristel Rochus, Brigitte Wuyts, Veerle Fievez, Patrick Nguyen, Myriam Hesta
BACKGROUND: Research in cats has shown that increased fermentation-derived propionic acid and its metabolites can be used as alternative substrates for gluconeogenesis, thus sparing amino acids for other purposes. This amino acid sparing effect could be of particular interest in patients with kidney or liver disease, where this could reduce the kidneys'/liver's burden of N-waste removal. Since dogs are known to have a different metabolism than the obligatory carnivorous cat, the main objective of this study was to assess the possibility of altering amino acid metabolism through intestinal fermentation in healthy dogs...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240534/stress-induced-structural-plasticity-of-medial-amygdala-stellate-neurons-and-rapid-prevention-by-a-candidate-antidepressant
#19
T Lau, B Bigio, D Zelli, B S McEwen, C Nasca
The adult brain is capable of adapting to internal and external stressors by undergoing structural plasticity, and failure to be resilient and preserve normal structure and function is likely to contribute to depression and anxiety disorders. Although the hippocampus has provided the gateway for understanding stress effects on the brain, less is known about the amygdala, a key brain area involved in the neural circuitry of fear and anxiety. Here, in mice more vulnerable to stressors, we demonstrate structural plasticity within the medial and basolateral regions of the amygdala in response to prolonged 21-day chronic restraint stress (CRS)...
May 31, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197831/sex-dependent-mitochondrial-respiratory-impairment-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-rat-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#20
Tyler G Demarest, Rosemary A Schuh, Jaylyn Waddell, Mary C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Increased male susceptibility to long-term cognitive deficits is well described in clinical and experimental studies of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. While cell death signaling pathways are known to be sexually dimorphic, a sex-dependent pathophysiological mechanism preceding the majority of secondary cell death has yet to be described. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell death following cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI). Several lines of evidence suggest that there are sex differences in the mitochondrial metabolism of adult mammals...
June 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
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