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Acetyl L-Carnitine

Ruijun Li, Fengyu Li, Qiang Feng, Zhipeng Liu, Zhuye Jie, Bo Wen, Xun Xu, Shilong Zhong, Guanglei Li, Kunlun He
This study performed untargeted metabolomics for plasma samples from 40 coronary heart disease patients and 43 healthy controls by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry technology to find a set of effective biomarkers for CHD diagnosis and prognosis. The discriminating metabolites were extracted and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis methods. We found five metabolites (1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, methylitaconate, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 6-phosphate and l-carnitine) contributing to the separation of CHD patients from healthy controls, and a subset of two metabolites in these five were identified as potential plasma biomarkers for CHD diagnosis...
September 22, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
T G Demarest, R A Schuh, E L Waite, J Waddell, M C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Males are more susceptible to brain mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction following neonatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI) than females. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been implicated in the cellular response to HI injury, but sex differences in biogenesis following HI have not been described. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis or the expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) proteins are differentially stimulated in the brains of 8 day old male and female rats one day following HI, and promoted by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Maria Sounidaki, Konstantina Tsogka, Nikolaos Antoniadis, Georgia Antoniadi, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in antigen-presenting cells and by degrading L-tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway suppresses CD4+ T-cell proliferation, induces apoptosis and promotes differentiation towards a regulatory as opposed to an effector phenotype. Recent findings revealed that the above effects may be mediated through alterations in T-cell metabolism. In this study, the effect of IDO on fatty acid β-oxidation in CD4+ T-cells was evaluated in human mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) using the IDO inhibitor, 1-DL-methyl-tryptophan...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Benedetta Bigio, Carla Nasca, Bruce S McEwen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Davy G H A van Dam, Antoinetta J M Beijers, Gerard Vreugdenhil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Acta Oncologica
E Matthew Morris, Grace M E Meers, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Justin A Fletcher, Xiaorong Fu, Kartik Shankar, Shawn C Burgess, Jamal A Ibdah, R Scott Rector, John P Thyfault
Rats selectively bred for high capacity running (HCR) or low capacity running (LCR) display divergence for intrinsic aerobic capacity and hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity, both factors associated with susceptibility for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we tested if HCR and LCR rats display differences in susceptibility for hepatic steatosis after 16 wk of high-fat diets (HFD) with either 45% or 60% of kcals from fat. HCR rats were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas only the 60% HFD induced steatosis in LCR rats, as marked by a doubling of liver triglycerides...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yi-Ching Chen, Chia-Ju Tsai, Chia-Hsien Feng
A novel aqueous solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (AS-DLLME) method was combined with narrow-bore liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection for the determination of hydrophilic compounds. A remover (non-polar solvent) and extractant (aqueous solution) were introduced into the derivatization system (acetonitrile) to obtain a water-in-oil emulsion state that increased the mass transfer of analytes. As a proof of concept, three quaternary ammonium substances, including butyrobetaine, l-carnitine and acetyl-l-carnitine, were also used as analytes and determined in pharmaceuticals, personal care products, food and human plasma...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Matthew J Snyder, Lawrence M Gibbs, Tammy J Lindsay
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in approximately 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus who are treated in the office setting and significantly affects quality of life. It typically causes burning pain, paresthesias, and numbness in a stocking-glove pattern that progresses proximally from the feet and hands. Clinicians should carefully consider the patient's goals and functional status and potential adverse effects of medication when choosing a treatment for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy...
August 1, 2016: American Family Physician
Osvaldo J M Nascimento, Bruno L Pessoa, Marco Orsini, Pedro Ribeiro, Eduardo Davidovich, Camila Pupe, Pedro Moreira Filho, Ricardo Menezes Dornas, Lucas Masiero, Juliana Bittencourt, Victor Hugo Bastos
Neuropathic pain (NP) is the result of a series of conditions caused by diseases or lesions to the somatosensory system. Due to the better understanding of NP pathophysiology previously unexplored therapies have been used with encouraging results. In this group, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic-acid, cannabinoids, clonidine, EMA401, botulinum toxin type A and new voltage-gated sodium channel blockers, can be included. Besides, changing paradigms may occur with the advent of optogenetics and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation...
June 15, 2016: Neurology International
Rajiv Sainath, Andrea Ketschek, Leah Grandi, Gianluca Gallo
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit the formation of axon collateral branches. The regulation of the axonal cytoskeleton and mitochondria are important components of the mechanism of branching. Actin-dependent axonal plasticity, reflected in the dynamics of axonal actin patches and filopodia, is greatest along segments of the axon populated by mitochondria. We report that CSPGs partially depolarize the membrane potential of axonal mitochondria, which impairs the dynamics of the axonal actin cytoskeleton and decreases the formation and duration of axonal filopodia, the first steps in the mechanism of branching...
July 18, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Geraldine Goodison, Kathie Overeem, Veronica de Monte, Dan Siskind
OBJECTIVE: Complementary medicines are readily available and becoming increasingly popular. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is widely recognised as a safe dietary supplement to aid weight loss. We present the case of a patient who had a relapse of mania in the context of ALC use for weight loss over a two week period, on the background of bipolar I disorder previously in remission. The patient's symptoms resolved a few days after ALC was ceased. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high rates of obesity among people with mental illness, it is possible ALC may be utilised in the hope of aiding weight loss...
July 12, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Antonio Bruno, Gianluca Pandolfo, Manuela Crucitti, Simona Lorusso, Rocco Antonio Zoccali, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello
OBJECTIVES: This was the first 12-week, open-label, uncontrolled trial aimed at exploring the efficacy of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) add-on pharmacotherapy on clinical symptoms and cognitive functioning in 15 schizophrenia patients with suboptimal clinical response despite receiving clozapine (CLZ) monotherapy at the highest tolerated dosage. METHODS: After clinical (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale [PANSS]) and neuropsychological (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Color-Word Test, Verbal Fluency Test) assessments, patients received 1 g/d of ALC for 12 weeks...
July 12, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Kitti Kocsis, Rita Frank, József Szabó, Levente Knapp, Zsolt Kis, Tamás Farkas, László Vécsei, József Toldi
Hypoxic circumstances result in functional and structural impairments of the brain. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on hippocampal slices is a technique widely used to investigate the consequences of ischemic stroke and the potential neuroprotective effects of different drugs. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring substance in the body, and it can therefore be administered safely even in relatively high doses. In previous experiments, ALC pretreatment proved to be effective against global hypoperfusion...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
Benedetta Bigio, Aleksander A Mathé, Vasco C Sousa, Danielle Zelli, Per Svenningsson, Bruce S McEwen, Carla Nasca
Although regulation of energy metabolism has been linked with multiple disorders, its role in depression and responsiveness to antidepressants is less known. We found that an epigenetic and energetic agent, acetyl-l-carnitine (LAC, oral administration), rapidly rescued the depressive- and central and systemic metabolic-like phenotype of LAC-deficient Flinders Sensitive Line rats (FSL). After acute stress during LAC treatment, a subset of FSL continued to respond to LAC (rFSL), whereas the other subset did not (nrFSL)...
July 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wendy Wambacq, Galena Rybachuk, Isabelle Jeusette, Kristel Rochus, Brigitte Wuyts, Veerle Fievez, Patrick Nguyen, Myriam Hesta
BACKGROUND: Research in cats has shown that increased fermentation-derived propionic acid and its metabolites can be used as alternative substrates for gluconeogenesis, thus sparing amino acids for other purposes. This amino acid sparing effect could be of particular interest in patients with kidney or liver disease, where this could reduce the kidneys'/liver's burden of N-waste removal. Since dogs are known to have a different metabolism than the obligatory carnivorous cat, the main objective of this study was to assess the possibility of altering amino acid metabolism through intestinal fermentation in healthy dogs...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
T Lau, B Bigio, D Zelli, B S McEwen, C Nasca
The adult brain is capable of adapting to internal and external stressors by undergoing structural plasticity, and failure to be resilient and preserve normal structure and function is likely to contribute to depression and anxiety disorders. Although the hippocampus has provided the gateway for understanding stress effects on the brain, less is known about the amygdala, a key brain area involved in the neural circuitry of fear and anxiety. Here, in mice more vulnerable to stressors, we demonstrate structural plasticity within the medial and basolateral regions of the amygdala in response to prolonged 21-day chronic restraint stress (CRS)...
May 31, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Tyler G Demarest, Rosemary A Schuh, Jaylyn Waddell, Mary C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Increased male susceptibility to long-term cognitive deficits is well described in clinical and experimental studies of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. While cell death signaling pathways are known to be sexually dimorphic, a sex-dependent pathophysiological mechanism preceding the majority of secondary cell death has yet to be described. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell death following cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI). Several lines of evidence suggest that there are sex differences in the mitochondrial metabolism of adult mammals...
June 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Adriana Cristofano, Nadia Sapere, Giancarlo La Marca, Antonella Angiolillo, Michela Vitale, Graziamaria Corbi, Giovanni Scapagnini, Mariano Intrieri, Claudio Russo, Gaetano Corso, Alfonso Di Costanzo
This study aimed to determine the serum levels of free L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and 34 acyl-L-carnitine in healthy subjects and in patients with or at risk of Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, 18 with mild cognitive impairment of the amnestic type, 24 with subjective memory complaint and 46 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study, and the levels of carnitine and acyl-carnitines were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of acetyl-L-carnitine progressively decreased passing from healthy subjects group (mean±SD, 5...
2016: PloS One
Xiaoqing Guo, Melanie Dumas, Bonnie L Robinson, Syed F Ali, Merle G Paule, Qiang Gu, Jyotshna Kanungo
Verapamil is a Ca(2) (+) channel blocker and is highly prescribed as an anti-anginal, antiarrhythmic and antihypertensive drug. Ketamine, an antagonist of the Ca(2) (+) -permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors, is a pediatric anesthetic. Previously we have shown that acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) reverses ketamine-induced attenuation of heart rate and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. Here, we used 48 h post-fertilization zebrafish embryos that were exposed to relevant drugs for 2 or 4 h...
May 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Weiya Z Wysham, Dario R Roque, Jianjun Han, Lu Zhang, Hui Guo, Paola A Gehrig, Chunxiao Zhou, Victoria L Bae-Jump
OBJECTIVE: Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a key lipogenic enzyme that is highly expressed in endometrial cancer. Orlistat is a weight loss medication that has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of FAS. The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumorigenic potential of orlistat in endometrial cancer cell lines. METHODS: The endometrial cancer cell lines ECC-1 and KLE were used. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay after treatment with orlistat. Cell cycle progression was evaluated by Cellometer and apoptosis was assessed using the Annexin V assay...
May 18, 2016: Targeted Oncology
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