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Cephalic index

Kayla C Hall, Peter J Hundt, John D Swenson, Adam P Summers, Karen D Crow
Batoids are a diverse clade of flat cartilaginous fishes that occur primarily in benthic marine habitats. The skates and rays typically use their flexible pectoral fins for feeding and propulsion via undulatory swimming. However, two groups of rays have adopted a pelagic or bentho-pelagic lifestyle and utilize oscillatory swimming-the Myliobatidae and Gymnuridae. The myliobatids have evolved cephalic lobes, anteriorly extended appendages that are optimized for feeding, while their pectoral fins exhibit several modifications that likely arose in association with functional optimization of pelagic cruising via oscillatory flight...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Morphology
José J C Nascimento, Nayyara M F Carreiro, Gabriela T Oliveira, Elayne C O Ribeiro, Maurus M A Holanda, Eulâmpio J S Neto, Severino A Araújo-Neto
BACKGROUND: Basilar invagination (BI) is an abnormality characterized by a superior projection at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). The high prevalence of BI in Northeastern Brazil associated with brachycephaly, which is measured by the cranial index (CI), has been widely reported by several neurosurgeons and radiologists from that region since the 1950s. However, strong evidence for this relationship is still pending. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a relationship between BI and CI in a sample with participants from Northeastern Brazil...
July 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Jessica Little, Rachael Nugent, Venkat Vangaveti
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is a growing health concern that has previously been associated with increased need for induction of labour (IOL) and caesarean section (CS) rates. Currently, limited evidence explores the influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) on Bishop Score (BS) and outcome of IOL. This study hypothesises that maternal obesity will lead to a lower BS at presentation, higher rates of failed IOL, and increased CS rates. AIMS: To explore the influence of maternal obesity on BS and likelihood of failed IOL...
May 23, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Julia D Sharma, Justine L O'Hara, Alessandro Borghi, Naiara Florez-Rodriguez, William Breakey, Juling Ong, Nu Owase Jeelani, David J Dunaway, Greg James
The Melbourne technique was described in 2008 as a novel method for complete correction of scaphocephaly. Since 2015, it has become our operation of choice for children with sagittal synostosis who are too old at presentation for minimally invasive techniques. Our modifications were 2-position (initially supine then prone) technique and undertaking a formal fronto-orbital remodeling to correct forehead contour. Retrospective chart review was used to record demographics, blood transfusion frequency and volumes, operating time, length of stay, clinical outcome, and complications...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Thilo L Schenck, Konstantin C Koban, Alexander Schlattau, Konstantin Frank, Jonathan M Sykes, Stefan Targosinski, Katharina Erlbacher, Sebastian Cotofana
BACKGROUND: The superficial (subcutaneous) facial fat compartments contribute to the signs of facial aging, but a comprehensive anatomical description of their location and their functional behavior during the application of soft-tissue fillers remains elusive. METHODS: The authors investigated 30 fresh frozen cephalic specimens from 13 male and 17 female Caucasian body donors (age, 78.3 ± 14.2 years; body mass index, 23.1 ± 5.3 kg/m). Upright-position, contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scanning, and additional magnetic resonance imaging were performed...
June 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Ting-Kui Wu, Yang Meng, Bei-Yu Wang, Ying Hong, Xin Rong, Chen Ding, Hua Chen, Hao Liu
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Hybrid surgery (HS), consisting of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) at the mobile level, along with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at the spondylotic level, could be a promising treatment for patients with multilevel cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD). An advantage of this technique is that it uses an optimal procedure according to the status of each level. However, information is lacking regarding the influence of the relative location of the replacement and the fusion segment in vivo...
April 27, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Philipp Meyer-Marcotty, Felix Kunz, Tilmann Schweitzer, Barbara Wachter, Hartmut Böhm, Nina Waßmuth, Christian Linz
PURPOSE: In the first months of life, any deviation from a physiological growth pattern can cause skull deformity. As there has not been any longitudinal three-dimensional (3D) study investigating the physiological growth of the infant skull, the aim of the present study was to acquire such data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 3D stereophotogrammetric scans of 40 infants without cranial asymmetry at four regular 2-month intervals from the 4th to the 10th month of age...
June 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Jasmien Roosenboom, Myoung Keun Lee, Jacqueline T Hecht, Carrie L Heike, George L Wehby, Kaare Christensen, Eleanor Feingold, Mary L Marazita, A Murat Maga, John R Shaffer, Seth M Weinberg
The shape of the cranial vault, a region comprising interlocking flat bones surrounding the cerebral cortex, varies considerably in humans. Strongly influenced by brain size and shape, cranial vault morphology has both clinical and evolutionary relevance. However, little is known about the genetic basis of normal vault shape in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on three vault measures (maximum cranial width [MCW], maximum cranial length [MCL], and cephalic index [CI]) in a sample of 4419 healthy individuals of European ancestry...
2018: PloS One
Arne Jensen, Bert Holmer
Background: White matter damage (WMD) is a prime risk factor for cerebral palsy, in part occurring unexplained. Though primarily a problem of preterm infants, there is growing evidence that in large newborns cephalopelvic disproportion and prolonged labor are involved. Objective: To explore both incidence of and morphometric risk factors for WMD in term-born infants. Study Design: We related growth variables and risk factors of term-born infants to WMD (61/4,725) using odds ratios of z -score bands...
2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Amelia Geraldine Peregrina-Chávez, María Del Rayo Ramírez-Galindo, Rolando Chávez-Martínez, Cesar Anuar Delahanty-Delgado, Fernando Vazquez-Alaniz
Background: The biological behaviour and clinical significance of mercury toxicity vary according to its chemical structure. Mercury differs in its degree of toxicity and in its effects on the nervous, digestive and immune systems as well as on organs such as the lungs, kidneys, skin, eyes and heart. Human exposure occurs mainly through inhalation of elemental mercury vapours during industrial and artisanal processes such as artisanal and small-scale gold mining. Case presentation: A 52-years-old female, housewife, with a body mass index of 25...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lorentz Erland Linde, Svein Rasmussen, Jörg Kessler, Cathrine Ebbing
OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for short and long umbilical cord, entanglement and knot. Explore their associated risks of adverse maternal and perinatal outcome, including risk of recurrence in a subsequent pregnancy. To provide population based gestational age and sex and parity specific reference ranges for cord length. DESIGN: Population based registry study. SETTING: Medical Birth Registry of Norway 1999-2013. POPULATION: All singleton births (gestational age>22weeks<45 weeks) (n = 856 300)...
2018: PloS One
Takao Okawa, Masaaki Murakami, Ryo Yamada, Satoshi Tanaka, Kiyoshi Mori, Noriko Mori
PURPOSE: The population of obese patients is increasing in general and also at hemodialysis initiation. For successful cannulation of arteriovenous fistula, the National Kidney Foundation-Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative guidelines suggest that the required maturation parameters are at a depth of <6 mm. There are several reports describing two-stage superficialization of arteriovenous fistulas in obese cases. Therefore, we investigated the utility and complications of one-stage superficialization of radio-cephalic fistula...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Ye Sel Kim, In Sung Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Dasom Kim, Nam Joon Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether there was any secular change in cranial vault morphology among Koreans born between the 1930s and 1970s, a period of dramatic shift in Korea's socioeconomic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using three-dimensional MRI volumetry, we obtained the intracranial volume (ICV) and craniometric measurements of 115 healthy Koreans: 58 individuals (32 males and 26 females) born in the 1930s (1926-1936) and 57 (28 males and 29 females) born in the 1970s (1972-1979)...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Tatjana M Pavlica, Rada S Rakić, Verica S Božić-Krstić, Biljana Đ Srdić-Galić
BACKGROUND: Different populations show variation in the pattern of change in craniofacial dimensions over time. Earlier studies of craniofacial traits in the Republic of Serbia were carried out, without any particular reference to secular changes. AIM: The aim of the study is to determine possible changes in craniofacial dimensions among the adult population of Vojvodina (Serbia) during a 33 year period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The findings of the study are based on the comparison of data from two cross-sectional surveys...
March 26, 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Ali Kordzadeh, Alan Askari, Yiannis Panayiotopoulos
OBJECTIVE: It has been hypothesized that a novel measurement technique of arteriovenous ratio (AVR) index obtained from inflow (radial artery diameter) to that of outflow (cephalic vein diameter) and its application through the Bernoulli effect has no impact on the primary functional maturation (FM) of autogenous radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCAVF). METHODS: A prospective consecutive single-center cohort study with intention to treat of 324 patients undergoing RCAVF during a period of 4 years was conducted...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Michael W M Gerrickens, Roel H D Vaes, Bastiaan Govaert, Joep A W Teijink, Marc R Scheltinga
INTRODUCTION: Some hemodialysis patients with a brachial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) have an unsuitable upper arm needle access segment (NAS) necessitating basilic vein transposition (BVT). It was frequently observed that a portion of these patients spontaneously experienced a warmer and less painful dialysis hand after BVT. Aim of this study was to determine whether BVT for an inadequate NAS attenuated hemodialysis access-induced distal ischemia in patients with a brachial AVF. METHODS: Patients with a brachial AVF and an unsuitable NAS also reporting hand ischemia and scheduled to undergo BVT between 2005 and 2016 in a single facility were studied...
March 8, 2018: Hemodialysis International
Jeffrey A Fearon, Kanlaya Ditthakasem, Morley Herbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Christopher A Derderian, Rami Hallac, Alex A Kane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Alexandra Macmillan, Joseph Lopez, Gerhard S Mundinger, Melanie Major, Miguel A Medina, Amir H Dorafshar
BACKGROUND: Late treatment of scaphocephaly presents challenges including need for more complex surgery to achieve desired head shape. Virtual surgical planning for total vault reconstruction may mitigate some of these challenges, but has not been studied in this unique and complex clinical setting. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients with scaphocephaly who presented to our institution between 2000 and 2014. Patients presenting aged 12 months or older who underwent virtual surgical planning-assisted cranial vault reconstruction were included...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Stefanie Rehm, Moritz Groβkopf, Maria Kabelitz, Thomas Keller, Rainer Freynhagen, Thomas R Tölle, Ralf Baron
Introduction: Animal experimental evidence suggests that mechanisms of pain generation and response to treatment differ between neuropathic pain in the cephalic and the extracephalic innervation territories. Objectives: The objective of the study was to examine whether in humans an identical peripheral painful neuropathy is associated with different pain qualities and sensory abnormalities in the face as compared with the thoracic region. Methods: We retrospectively analysed epidemiological and clinical data of 639 patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in the face and at the trunk who were collected within a cross-sectional cohort survey and compared the respective sensory symptom profiles captured with the painDETECT questionnaire...
January 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
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