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Emily Morgan, Roger Levy
We ask whether word order preferences for binomial expressions of the form A and B (e.g. bread and butter) are driven by abstract linguistic knowledge of ordering constraints referencing the semantic, phonological, and lexical properties of the constituent words, or by prior direct experience with the specific items in questions. Using forced-choice and self-paced reading tasks, we demonstrate that online processing of never-before-seen binomials is influenced by abstract knowledge of ordering constraints, which we estimate with a probabilistic model...
October 21, 2016: Cognition
Sarah C Boyle, Andrew M Earle, Joseph W LaBrie, Kayla Ballou
Studies examining representations of college drinking on social media have almost exclusively focused on Facebook. However, recent research suggests college students may be more influenced by peers' alcohol-related posts on Instagram and Snapchat, two image-based platforms popular among this demographic. One potential explanation for this differential influence is that qualitative distinctions in the types of alcohol-related content posted by students on these three platforms may exist. Informed by undergraduate focus groups, this study examined the hypothesis that, of the three platforms, students tend to use Instagram most often for photos glamourizing drinking and Snapchat for incriminating photos of alcohol misuse and negative consequences...
October 19, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Emma S Spiro, Andrés Monroy-Hernández
In this paper we examine two protests characterized by substantial social media presence and distributed participation frameworks via two core questions: what roles did organizations and individuals play, and how did participants' social interactions change over the course of the protests? To answer these questions, we analyzed a large Twitter activity dataset for the #YoSoy132 student uprising in Mexico and Brazil's "bus rebellion." Results indicate that individuals initially took prominence at the protests but faded in importance as the movements dwindled and organizations took over...
2016: PloS One
Titia F Beek, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Walter P Bouman, Annelou L C de Vries, Thomas D Steensma, Gemma L Witcomb, Jon Arcelus, Christina Richards, Els Elaut, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels
The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently updating the tenth version of their diagnostic tool, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, WHO, 1992). Changes have been proposed for the diagnosis of Transsexualism (ICD-10) with regard to terminology, placement and content. The aim of this study was to gather the opinions of transgender individuals (and their relatives/partners) and clinicians in the Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium) and the United Kingdom regarding the proposed changes and the clinical applicability and utility of the ICD-11 criteria of 'Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood' (GIAA)...
2016: PloS One
Marc Argilés, Genís Cardona, Elisabet Pérez-Cabré, Ramon Pérez-Magrané, Bernardo Morcego, Joan Gispets
PURPOSE: To develop and test the sensitivity of an ultrasound-based sensor to assess the viewing distance of visual display terminals operators in real-time conditions. METHODS: A modified ultrasound sensor was attached to a computer display to assess viewing distance in real time. Sensor functionality was tested on a sample of 20 healthy participants while they conducted four 10-minute randomly presented typical computer tasks (a match-three puzzle game, a video documentary, a task requiring participants to complete a series of sentences, and a predefined internet search)...
October 22, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Claudio Ricci, Riccardo Casadei, Giovanni Taffurelli, Elia Zani, Nico Pagano, Carlo Alberto Pacilio, Carlo Ingaldi, Selene Bogoni, Donatella Santini, Marina Migliori, Mariacristina Di Marco, Carla Serra, Lucia Calculli, Roberto De Giorgio, Francesco Minni
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the risk factors proposed by Fukuoka guidelines in detecting malignancy of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. METHOD: Diagnostic meta-analysis of cohort studies. A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, and the ISI-Web of Science databases to identify all studies published up to 2014. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies (2025 patients) were suitable for the meta-analysis...
October 2016: Pancreas
Hyung Nam Kim, Tami H Wyatt, Xueping Li, Mark Gaylord
Although parents of premature infants experience many challenges when transitioning home from the neonatal intensive care unit, healthcare providers and social support systems tend to focus on mothers and infants rather than fathers. Unfortunately, very little is known about paternal concerns and needs as compared with maternal ones. The lack of understanding about paternal needs may lead to inadequate designs of neonatal intensive care unit family support programs with less involved fathers, all of which contribute to increased burdens on mothers and poor health outcomes for their infants...
October 2016: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
Saad Mohamad, Abdelhamid Bouchachia, Moamar Sayed-Mouchaweh
Active learning (AL) is a promising way to efficiently build up training sets with minimal supervision. A learner deliberately queries specific instances to tune the classifier's model using as few labels as possible. The challenge for streaming is that the data distribution may evolve over time, and therefore the model must adapt. Another challenge is the sampling bias where the sampled training set does not reflect the underlying data distribution. In the presence of concept drift, sampling bias is more likely to occur as the training set needs to represent the whole evolving data...
October 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Hye Jin Yoo, Sung Hwan Hong, Hye Yeon Oh, Ja-Young Choi, Hee Dong Chae, Joong Mo Ahn, Heung Sik Kang
Purpose To determine the agreement of fat-suppressed (FS) fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and contrast material-enhanced (CE) T1-weighted MR imaging for the assessment of peripatellar synovitis. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for patient informed consent. Thirty-three patients with knee pain underwent 3-T MR imaging. The protocol consisted of routine clinical sequences followed by the FLAIR FS sequence (inversion time, 2200 msec) and CE T1-weighted imaging...
October 24, 2016: Radiology
Alexis Klengel, Patrick Stumpp, Steffen Klengel, Ina Böttger, Nadja Rönisch, Thomas Kahn
Purpose To compare single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging-derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with fat-saturated (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging in the detection of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) after knee trauma. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained from Leipzig University. Written informed consent was waived. Three radiologists retrospectively re-examined 97 consecutive patients with reported knee trauma who underwent 1...
October 24, 2016: Radiology
P Dhakal, V R Bhatt
Diagnosis and management of hematopoietic cell transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) are very complex and controversial, given multiple ongoing issues and comorbidities in sick transplant recipients. Complement activation via classic and alternative pathways is emerging as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in the development of TA-TMA. Complement-centric diagnostic strategy using functional and genetic tests may possibly support diagnosis, enhance molecular understanding and direct drug development...
October 24, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
N Ben Abdejlil, D Belloumi, M Mâammar, R El Fatimi, L Torjman, A Lakhal, F Jenhani, S Hmida, T Ben Othman, S Ladeb
This study compared retrospectively the effectiveness, toxicity and hematopoietic recovery after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) of two consecutive peripheral blood stem cell mobilization regimens in newly diagnosed MM patients. Patients in group 1 (n=178) were treated with 4 g/m(2) of cyclophosphamide (CY) plus G-CSF (5 μg/kg/day). Patients in group 2 (n=117) with 750 mg/m(2) of VP16 plus G-CSF (10 μg/kg/day). Optimal mobilization, defined by a target number of 8 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg collected, was achieved in 62...
October 24, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
A Antar, Z K Otrock, J El-Cheikh, M A Kharfan-Dabaja, G Battipaglia, R Mahfouz, M Mohty, A Bazarbachi
FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is one of the most commonly mutated genes in AML. FLT3 is mutated in ~30% of patients with AML, either by internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) of the juxta-membrane domain or by a point mutation, usually involving the tyrosine kinase domain. Several FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being evaluated in multiple studies aiming at improving outcomes. The most widely used is sorafenib, a potent multikinase inhibitor approved for hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma...
October 24, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Famke Aeffner, Nathan T Martin, Mirza Peljto, Joshua C Black, Justin K Major, Maryam Jangani, Michael O Ports, Joseph S Krueger, G David Young
Tissue image analysis (tIA) is emerging as a powerful tool for quantifying biomarker expression and distribution in complex diseases and tissues. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) develops in a highly complex and heterogeneous tissue environment and, generally, has a very poor prognosis. Early detection of PDAC is confounded by limited knowledge of the pre-neoplastic disease stages and limited methods to quantitatively assess disease heterogeneity. We sought to develop a tIA approach to assess the most common PDAC precursor lesions, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), in tissues from Kras(LSL-G12D/+); Trp53(LSL-R172H/+); Pdx-Cre (KPC) mice, a validated model of PDAC development...
October 24, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Mary Jc Hendrix, Irawati Kandela, Andrew P Mazar, Elisabeth A Seftor, Richard Eb Seftor, Naira V Margaryan, Luigi Strizzi, George F Murphy, Georgina V Long, Richard A Scolyer
Metastatic melanoma is a highly aggressive skin cancer with a poor prognosis. It is the leading cause of skin cancer deaths with a median overall survival for advanced-stage metastatic disease of <6 months. Despite advances in the field with conventional and targeted therapies, the heterogeneity of melanoma poses the greatest ongoing challenge, ultimately leading to relapse and progression to a more drug-resistant tumor in most patients. Particularly noteworthy are recent findings, indicating that these therapies exert selective pressure on tumors resulting in the activation of pathways associated with cancer stem cells that are unresponsive to current therapy...
October 24, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Lindsey L Kennedy, Fanyin Meng, Julie K Venter, Tianhao Zhou, Walker A Karstens, Laura A Hargrove, Nan Wu, Konstantina Kyritsi, John Greene, Pietro Invernizzi, Francesca Bernuzzi, Shannon S Glaser, Heather L Francis, Gianfranco Alpini
Cholestasis is a condition that leads to chronic hepatobiliary inflammation, fibrosis, and eventually cirrhosis. Many microRNAs (miRs) are known to have a role in fibrosis progression; however, the role of miR-21 during cholestasis remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of miR-21 during cholestasis-induced biliary hyperplasia and hepatic fibrosis. Wild-type (WT) and miR-21(-/-) mice underwent Sham or bile duct ligation (BDL) for 1 week, before evaluating liver histology, biliary proliferation, hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, fibrotic response, and small mothers against decapentaplegic 7 (Smad-7) expression...
October 24, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Jingjin Yang, Ting Wang, Yan Li, Wenxi Yao, Xiaoming Ji, Qiuyun Wu, Lei Han, Ruhui Han, Weiwen Yan, Jiali Yuan, Chunhui Ni
Silicosis is an occupational pulmonary fibrosis caused by inhalation of silica (SiO2) and there are no ideal drugs to treat this disease. Earthworm extract (EE), a natural nutrient, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptosis effects. The purpose of the current study was to test the protective effects of EE against SiO2-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to explore the underlying mechanisms using both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that treatment with EE significantly reduced lung inflammation and fibrosis and improved lung structure and function in SiO2-instilled mice...
October 24, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Alice Nomura, Kaustav Majumder, Bhuwan Giri, Patricia Dauer, Vikas Dudeja, Sabita Roy, Sulagna Banerjee, Ashok K Saluja
NF-κB has an essential role in the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer and specifically mediates the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasiveness. In this study, we demonstrate the importance of activated NF-κB signaling in EMT induction, lymphovascular metastasis, and neural invasion. Modulation of NF-κB activity was accomplished through the specific NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 11-7085), triptolide, and Minnelide treatment, as well as overexpression of IKBα repressor and IKK activator plasmids...
October 24, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Hiroaki Iwata, Mayumi Kamaguchi, Hideyuki Ujiie, Machiko Nishimura, Kentaro Izumi, Ken Natsuga, Satoru Shinkuma, Wataru Nishie, Hiroshi Shimizu
Macropinocytosis is an endocytic pathway that is involved in the nonselective fluid uptake of extracellular fluid. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease associated with autoantibodies to type XVII collagen (COL17), which is a component of hemidesmosome. When keratinocytes are treated with BP-IgG, COL17 internalizes into cells by way of the macropinocytosis. We investigated the mechanism of COL17 macropinocytosis using DJM-1 cells, a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell line...
October 24, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Wenjun Jia, Xin Qi, Qi Li
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia affected by multiple cardiovascular risk factors. It is reported that caveolin-1 gene (CAV1) rs3807989 polymorphism might be associated with AF risk. The goal of this meta-analysis was to confirm the association between CAV1 rs3807989 polymorphism and susceptibility to AF. MATERIAL AND METHODS We carried out a comprehensive literature search through the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLIN, and Web of Science. We performed a meta-analysis of all selected studies based on CAV1 rs3807989 polymorphism genotypes, including 3758 cases and 6126 controls...
October 24, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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