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Body structural description

Bettina Pretterklieber
The quadratus plantae (QP) is a highly variable structure. A number of partly inexact descriptions of this entity have been provided in textbooks of anatomy. Although several authors have examined the QP, its exact site of origin and type of insertion have hitherto not been specified. The aim of this study has been to provide detailed qualitative and quantitative data about the number of heads, points of origin, and type of insertion of the QP. The QP in both feet of 50 formalin-fixed specimens of body donors (25 men and women) were analyzed by gross anatomical dissection...
November 19, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Eliasz Engelhardt
Fritz Heinrich Jakob Lewy described, for the first time, in 1912, novel peculiar inclusions in neurons of certain brain nuclei in patients with Paralysis agitans, and compared his finding to the amyloid bodies described by Lafora one year before. Gonzalo Rodriguez Lafora studied one patient with Paralysis agitans, in 1913, and recognized, described, and depicted structures identical to those previously reported by Lewy. He was the first to acknowledge Lewy's finding, and also the first to name such inclusions after the discoverer - cuerpos intracelulares de Lewy (Lewy bodies)...
October 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Matthes Kenning, Carsten H G Müller, Andy Sombke
The arthropodium is the key innovation of arthropods. Its various modifications are the outcome of multiple evolutionary transformations, and the foundation of nearly endless functional possibilities. In contrast to hexapods, crustaceans, and even chelicerates, the spectrum of evolutionary transformations of myriapod arthropodia is insufficiently documented and rarely scrutinized. Among Myriapoda, Chilopoda (centipedes) are characterized by their venomous forcipules-evolutionarily transformed walking legs of the first trunk segment...
2017: PeerJ
S Erdoğan, S Villar, H E König, W Pérez
This research presents the first anatomical description of the tongue and lingual papillae of the mountain lion (puma). The tongues of three adult male pumas were used in this study. The tongues were dissected and studied firstly by gross and stereomicroscopy. Samples of each part were processed by study with scanning electron microscopy. The margins of the lingual apex were surrounded by numerous filiform papillae, which had a bulky papillary body and a bifurcated tip. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex, filiform papillae were remarkably pointed and had many secondary projections, which emerged from the base of the main papilla...
November 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
M Gorostidi, C Villalain, R Ruiz, I Jaunarena, A Lekuona
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe our technique for excision of the pre-caval and laterocaval nodes using an extraperitoneal approach. This technique was developed to make the dissection and excision of the less accessible nodes in an easier and safer way by minimizing the risk of great vessels injury and bleeding. DESIGN: Step-by-step description of the surgical procedure using video (Canadian Task Force classification III). SETTING: The procedure was performed at a teaching hospital, Hospital Universitario Donostia (Spain)...
November 11, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
Olga Giraldo, Alexander García, Federico López, Oscar Corcho
BACKGROUND: An experimental protocol is a sequence of tasks and operations executed to perform experimental research in biological and biomedical areas, e.g. biology, genetics, immunology, neurosciences, virology. Protocols often include references to equipment, reagents, descriptions of critical steps, troubleshooting and tips, as well as any other information that researchers deem important for facilitating the reusability of the protocol. Although experimental protocols are central to reproducibility, the descriptions are often cursory...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Oboshie Anim-Boamah, Lydia Aziato, Victoria May Adabayeri
AIM: To explore Ghanaian nurses' knowledge of invasive procedural pain in children who are in hospital and to identify the effect of unrelieved pain on children, parents and nurses. METHOD: An exploratory, descriptive and qualitative design was adopted. A purposive sampling technique was used and individual face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 registered nurses from four children's units at a hospital in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Thematic and content analyses were performed...
September 11, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
Charles S Mayo, John Yao, Avraham Eisbruch, James M Balter, Dale W Litzenberg, Martha M Matuszak, Marc L Kessler, Grant Weyburn, Carlos J Anderson, Dawn Owen, William C Jackson, Randall Ten Haken
Purpose: To develop statistical dose-volume histogram (DVH)-based metrics and a visualization method to quantify the comparison of treatment plans with historical experience and among different institutions. Methods and materials: The descriptive statistical summary (ie, median, first and third quartiles, and 95% confidence intervals) of volume-normalized DVH curve sets of past experiences was visualized through the creation of statistical DVH plots. Detailed distribution parameters were calculated and stored in JavaScript Object Notation files to facilitate management, including transfer and potential multi-institutional comparisons...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Mulugeta Dedha, Melake Damena, Gudina Egata, Lemma Negesa
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess undernutrition and factors associated with, among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: Facility-based cross-sectional study design was implemented. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaire at ART service site. Basic descriptive statistics were computed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between outcome variable and explanatory variables...
November 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
Rebecca Kristine Lindsey, Laurence E Fried, Nir Goldman
We present a new force field and development scheme for atomistic simulations of materials under extreme conditions. These models, which explicitly include two- and three-body interactions, are generated by fitting linear combinations of Chebyshev polynomials through force matching to trajectories from Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT). We apply our method to liquid carbon near the diamond/graphite/liquid triple point and at higher densities and temperatures, where metallization and many-body effects may be substantial...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
LeeAnne B Sherwin, Onyinyechi M Ozoji, Christina M Boulineaux, Paule V Joseph, Nicolaas H Fourie, Sarah K Abey, Xuemin Zhang, Wendy A Henderson
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and bowel dysfunction in the absence of structural abnormality. Diagnosis can be challenging and often leads to extensive medical tests, non-effective therapeutic modalities, and reduced quality of life (QOL). Identifying factors associated with dysfunction have the potential to enhance outcomes. Participants with IBS (n = 41) and healthy volunteers (n = 74) were recruited into this cross-sectional, descriptive, natural history protocol at the National Institute of Health, Clinical Center...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Marc Riera, Narbe Mardirossian, Pushp Bajaj, Andreas W Götz, Francesco Paesani
This study presents the extension of the MB-nrg (Many-Body energy) theoretical/computational framework of transferable potential energy functions (PEFs) for molecular simulations of alkali metal ion-water systems. The MB-nrg PEFs are built upon the many-body expansion of the total energy and include the explicit treatment of one-body, two-body, and three-body interactions, with all higher-order contributions described by classical induction. This study focuses on the MB-nrg two-body terms describing the full-dimensional potential energy surfaces of the M(+)(H2O) dimers, where M(+) = Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+)...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Zhifeng Jing, Rui Qi, Chengwen Liu, Pengyu Ren
The interactions between metal ions and proteins are ubiquitous in biology. The selective binding of metal ions has a variety of regulatory functions. Therefore, there is a need to understand the mechanism of protein-ion binding. The interactions involving metal ions are complicated in nature, where short-range charge-penetration, charge transfer, polarization, and many-body effects all contribute significantly, and a quantitative description of all these interactions is lacking. In addition, it is unclear how well current polarizable force fields can capture these energy terms and whether these polarization models are good enough to describe the many-body effects...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Adrian Paz Ramos, Gert Gooris, Joke Bouwstra, Michel Lafleur
The stratum corneum (SC), the top layer of skin, dictates both the rate of water loss through the skin, and absorption of exogenous molecules into the body. The crystalline organization of the lipids in the SC is believed to be a key feature associated with the very limited permeability of the skin. In this work, we characterized the organization of SC lipid models that include, as in native SC, cholesterol, a free fatty acid series (saturated with C16-C24 chains), as well as a ceramide bearing an oleate linked to a very long saturated acyl chain (Cer EOS)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
S Stelzner, M Böttner, J Kupsch, W Kneist, P Quirke, N P West, H Witzigmann, T Wedel
BACKGROUND: The internal anal sphincter (IAS) contributes substantially to anorectal functions. While its autonomic nerve supply has been studied at the microscopic level, little information is available concerning the macroscopic topography of extrinsic nerve fibres. This study was designed to identify neural connections between the pelvic plexus and the IAS, provide a detailed topographical description, and give histological proof of autonomic nerve tissue. METHODS: Macroscopic dissection of pelvic autonomic nerves was performed under magnification in seven (5 males, 2 females) hemipelvises obtained from body donors (67-92 years)...
October 25, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Katherine A Forrest, Tony Pham, Brian Space
Simulations of CO2 and H2 sorption were performed in an rht-metal-organic framework (MOF) that consists of Cu(2+) ions coordinated to 5,5',5''-(4,4',4''-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)tris(1H-1,2,3-triazole-4,1-diyl))triisophthalate (BTTI) linkers; it is referred to as Cu-BTTI herein. This MOF was previously synthesized and reported by three different experimental groups [Zhao et al., Sci. Rep., 2013, 3, 1149; Schröder et al., Chem. Sci., 2013, 4, 1731-1736; Hupp et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2013, 6, 1158-1163]. This MOF is notable for the presence of open-metal sites and nitrogen-rich regions through the copper paddlewheel ([Cu2(O2CR)4]) clusters and 1,2,3-triazole groups, respectively, which allows this material to display remarkable CO2 and H2 sorption properties...
November 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Piotr Wegierek, Dagmara Żyła, Agnieszka Homan, Chenyang Cai, Diying Huang
Recently, we are witnessing an increased appreciation for the importance of the fossil record in phylogenetics and testing various evolutionary hypotheses. However, this approach brings many challenges, especially for such a complex group as aphids and requires a thorough morphological analysis of the extinct groups. The extinct aphid family Szelegiewicziidae is supposed to be one of the oviparous lineages in aphid evolution. New material from the rock fossil deposits of Shar Teg (Upper Jurassic of Mongolia), Baissa (Lower Cretaceous of Siberia-Russia), and Burmese amber (Upper Cretaceous of Myanmar) allowed us to undertake a more detailed examination of the morphological features and carry out an analysis of the taxonomical composition and evolution of the family...
October 24, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Ali Sadeghi, Alessio Mondini, Barbara Mazzolai
In this article, we present a novel class of robots that are able to move by growing and building their own structure. In particular, taking inspiration by the growing abilities of plant roots, we designed and developed a plant root-like robot that creates its body through an additive manufacturing process. Each robotic root includes a tubular body, a growing head, and a sensorized tip that commands the robot behaviors. The growing head is a customized three-dimensional (3D) printer-like system that builds the tubular body of the root in the format of circular layers by fusing and depositing a thermoplastic material (i...
September 1, 2017: Soft Robotics
Menno Bokdam, Jonathan Lahnsteiner, Benjamin Ramberger, Tobias Schäfer, Georg Kresse
Which density functional is the "best" for structure simulations of a particular material? A concise, first principles, approach to answer this question is presented. The random phase approximation (RPA)-an accurate many body theory-is used to evaluate various density functionals. To demonstrate and verify the method, we apply it to the hybrid perovskite MAPbI_{3}, a promising new solar cell material. The evaluation is done by first creating finite temperature ensembles for small supercells using RPA molecular dynamics, and then evaluating the variance between the RPA and various approximate density functionals for these ensembles...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Stephen J Jenkins
A systematic stereographic approach to the description of surface symmetry and structure, applied previously to face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, and hexagonal close-packed metals, is here extended to the surfaces of diamond-structure and zinc-blende-structure semiconductors. A variety of symmetry-structure combinations are categorized and the chiral properties of certain cases emphasized. A general condition for nonpolarity in the surfaces of zincblende materials is also noted.
October 24, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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