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Body structural description

L Meomartino, M P Pasolini, B Lamagna, G Mennonna, L Auletta, C Murino, G Della Valle, L Esposito
The aim of this work is to assess the normal ultrasonographic features and dimensions of eyes in European hares. Corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber depth and eye axial length were measured by ultrasound in 40 healthy hares (Lepus europaeus), 20 males and 20 females, mean age of 5.5 months (range 2-15 months). The effects of sex, side, age and body weight on each feature were recorded. Results show that ocular dimensions were not affected by considered variables except for the lenses thickness and axial length that were correlated with age and body weight...
March 14, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Olga Vladimirovna Ezhova, Vladimir Vasil'yevich Malakhov, Ekaterina Alekseevna Egorova
Studies of echinoid microscopic anatomy over the last two centuries have created a number of inaccuracies and mistakes that have accumulated in the descriptions of the intricate organization of the coelomic system of Echinoidea. To clarify the situation, we reconstructed the axial complex and radial complex of the echinoid Strongylocentrotus pallidus. The water ring is located between the perivisceral coelom and the perioral coelom. The oral haemal ring lies between the coelothelia of the water-vascular, perivisceral, and perioral rings...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Karolis Uziela, David Menéndez Hurtado, Nanjiang Shu, Björn Wallner, Arne Elofsson
Protein modeling quality is an important part of protein structure prediction. We have for more than a decade developed a set of methods for this problem. We have used various types of description of the protein and different machine learning methodologies. However, common to all these methods has been the target function used for training. The target function in ProQ describes the local quality of a residue in a protein model. In all versions of ProQ the target function has been the S-score. However, other quality estimation functions also exist, which can be divided into superposition- and contact-based methods...
March 9, 2018: Proteins
Richard Boyle, Reza Ehsanian, Alireza Mofrad, Yekaterina Popova, Joseph Varelas
The utricle provides the vestibular reflex pathways with the sensory codes of inertial acceleration of self motion and head orientation with respect to gravity to control balance and equilibrium. Here we present an anatomical description of this structure in the adult oyster toadfish, and establish a morphological basis for interpretation of subsequent functional studies. Light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were applied to visualize the sensory epithelium at varying levels of detail, its neural innervation and its synaptic organization...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Mike Mikkelsen Lorenzen, Lotte Poulsen, Signe Poulsen, Jens Ahm Sørensen, Kirsten K Roessler
INTRODUCTION: Body contouring surgery is associated with changes in body image and identity. The primary aim of the study was to investigate a multidisciplinary assessment of potential psychological challenges before and after body contouring surgery. METHODS: Eight pre- and post-operative patients undergoing plastic surgery, two surgeons and two nurses were investigated using semi-structured and focus group interviews to capture the perspectives of both the healthcare professionals and the patients...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Brett Vaughan, Sandra Grace
Background: Peer physical examination (PPE) is a teaching and learning strategy utilised in most health profession education programs. Perceptions of participating in PPE have been described in the literature, focusing on areas of the body students are willing, or unwilling, to examine. A small number of questionnaires exist to evaluate these perceptions, however none have described the measurement properties that may allow them to be used longitudinally. The present study undertook a Mokken scale analysis of the Peer Physical Examination Questionnaire (PPEQ) to evaluate its dimensionality and structure when used with Australian osteopathy students...
2018: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
Luca Placidi, Emilio Barchiesi
In this paper, we exploit some results in the theory of irreversible phenomena to address the study of quasi-static brittle fracture propagation in a two-dimensional isotropic continuum. The elastic strain energy density of the body has been assumed to be geometrically nonlinear and to depend on the strain gradient. Such generalized continua often arise in the description of microstructured media. These materials possess an intrinsic length scale, which determines the size of internal boundary layers. In particular, the non-locality conferred by this internal length scale avoids the concentration of deformations, which is usually observed when dealing with local models and which leads to mesh dependency...
February 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Koopong Siribumrungwong, Chitpon Sinchai, Boonsin Tangtrakulwanich, Weera Chaiyamongkol
Study Design: A descriptive experimental study. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the reliability and accuracy of palpable anterior neck landmarks (angle of the mandible, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, and cricoid cartilage) for the identification of cervical spinal levels in a slight neck-extended position as in anterior approach cervical spinal surgery. Overview of Literature: Standard, palpable anatomical landmarks for the identification of cervical spinal levels were described by Hoppenfeld using the midline palpable anterior structures (angle of the mandible [C2 body], hyoid bone [C3 body], thyroid cartilage [C4-C5 disc], cricoid cartilage [C6 body], and carotid tubercle [C6 body]) to determine the approximate level for skin incisions...
February 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Daniel Darbyshire, Morris Gordon, Paul Baker, Steven Agius, Sean McAleer
AIMS: Academic medicine is a career route that historically struggles to recruit and retain suitable doctors. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence for interventions to encourage careers in academic medicine by way of a descriptive systematic review. METHODS: Key databases were searched in February 2017. Studies that evaluated interventions to encourage careers in academic medicine and that used a pre-post analysis or included a comparison group were included...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
David A Penning
A snake's body represents an extreme degree of elongation with immense muscle complexity. Snakes have approximately 25 different muscles on each side of the body at each vertebra. These muscles serially repeat, overlap, interconnect, and rarely insert parallel to the vertebral column. The angled muscles mean that simple measurements of anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA, perpendicular to the long-axis of the body) serve only as proxies for the primary determinant of muscle force, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA, area perpendicular to the muscle fibers)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Hsun-Chin Chao
Background: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of picky eating among preschool children and to evaluate the association between eating behavior and growth, physical activity, development, and health status. Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to conduct a cross-sectional descriptive study of 300 primary caregivers of children aged 2-4 years in Taiwan. Data collected included: demographics, food preferences, eating behavior, body weight, and height, development, physical activity, and records of medical illness...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
D Hove, E Garrido, P Sarriguren, D V Fedorov, H O U Fynbo, A S Jensen, N T Zinner
We investigate the emergence of halos and Efimov states in nuclei by use of a newly designed model that combines self-consistent mean-field and three-body descriptions. Recent interest in neutron heavy calcium isotopes makes ^{72}Ca (^{70}Ca+n+n) an ideal realistic candidate on the neutron dripline, and we use it as a representative example that illustrates our broadly applicable conclusions. By smooth variation of the interactions we simulate the crossover from well-bound systems to structures beyond the threshold of binding, and find that halo configurations emerge from the mean-field structure for three-body binding energy less than ∼100  keV...
February 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Niladri Kumar Mahato
Objectives: The space available within the female pelvis is determined by the morphology of all bony components constituting the pelvic skeleton. Although several studies have investigated the impact of hip-bone structural variations in on parturition, the potential effects of commonly occurring lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) variations have been underreported. This descriptive morphometric study reports dimensions of the female sacrum associated LSTV variations and suggests their probable mechanistic effects on normal labor...
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
Shin-Young Lee, Eunice E Lee
BACKGROUND: Cancer is the greatest disease burden in Korea. Cancer screening can reduce the burden of cancer but cancer screening rates among Koreans remain low. The purposes of this study were to a) understand Koreans' beliefs and knowledge about cancer screening, and b) explore preferred strategies for increasing cancer screening utilization. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study using eight face-to-face focus groups with a total of 64 Koreans aged 40 and over...
February 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Humeera M Mulla, Nupura Vibhute, Rajendra Baad, N D Shashikiran, Mustaq Parker, R C Parmod, Uzma Belgaumi, Vidya Kadashetti, Sushma Bommanawar
Introduction: Foreign bodies and tissue reactions to foreign materials are commonly encountered in the oral cavity. Exogenous materials causing foreign body reactions may be metallic (amalgam) or nonmetallic (suture materials, vegetable matter). Implantation of food particles in the oral tissues has been known to cause reactive lesions such as oral pulse granuloma. Implantation could be through extraction sockets, deep periodontal pockets, associated with tumor growth, interdental areas of teeth, unfilled root canals, and grossly decayed teeth...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Sharon O'Brien, Sally Wilson, Fenella J Gill, Elizabeth Cotterell, Meredith L Borland, Edward Oakley, Stuart R Dalziel
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is the commonest respiratory infection in children less than 12 months and cause of hospitalisation in infants under 6 months of age in Australasia. Unfortunately there is substantial variation in management, despite high levels of supporting evidence. This paper reports on the process, strengths and challenges of the hybrid approach used to develop the first Australasian management guideline relevant to the local population. METHOD: An adaption of the nine steps recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology were utilised...
February 12, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Maxi Miciak, Maria Mayan, Cary Brown, Anthony S Joyce, Douglas P Gross
The therapeutic relationship between practitioner and patient is embedded in the clinical interaction. Research using self-report tools has illustrated that positively evaluated therapeutic relationships can have favorable impacts on patient satisfaction with services and clinical outcomes. However, little is known about how physiotherapists develop the connections, or positive attachments, that help establish the therapeutic relationship. This study aimed to identify the various ways that physiotherapists establish meaningful connections with their patients...
February 12, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Laura Milena Múnera Restrepo, Lucia Uribe Restrepo, Carlos Enrique Yepes Delgado
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perception that some general clinical practitioners have about depressive syndrome in a region of Colombia. METHODOLOGY: The qualitative approach was established as a basis for this study using grounded theory for the description, analysis, and interpretation of data collected in 20 semi-structured interviews aimed at general medical practitioners who had treated patients with depressive syndrome in their clinical practice. RESULTS: Throughout the interviews, some essential elements are highlighted such as: "seeing beyond a body," where the interest of the physician is reflected by individualising each patient case because regardless of having the same disease, knowing that not all can be addressed or treated equally...
January 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Mary Dial, Jennifer Holmes, Robin McGownd, M Cecilia Wendler
AIM: Obesity is a common co-morbidity of hospitalized patients, and nurses sometimes have great difficulty meeting the skin care needs of patients of size. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify successful self-care strategies patients of size used to care for themselves at home, in order to replicate these successes in the hospital. BACKGROUND: When patients who are obese are hospitalized they are vulnerable to complications, including skin integrity problems...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Cansu Uluseker, Giulia Simoni, Luca Marchetti, Marco Dauriz, Alice Matone, Corrado Priami
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiologic processes underlying the regulation of glucose homeostasis are considerably complex at both cellular and systemic level. A comprehensive and structured specification for the several layers of abstraction of glucose metabolism is often elusive, an issue currently solvable with the hierarchical description provided by multi-level models. In this study we propose a multi-level closed-loop model of whole-body glucose homeostasis, coupled with the molecular specifications of the insulin signaling cascade in adipocytes, under the experimental conditions of normal glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes...
2018: PloS One
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