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Stem cell plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910911/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-program-macrophage-plasticity-by-altering-their-metabolic-status-via-a-pge2-dependent-mechanism
#1
Anoop Babu Vasandan, Sowmya Jahnavi, Chandanala Shashank, Priya Prasad, Anujith Kumar, S Jyothi Prasanna
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are speculated to act at macrophage-injury interfaces to mediate efficient repair. To explore this facet in-depth this study evaluates the influence of MSCs on human macrophages existing in distinct functional states. MSCs promoted macrophage differentiation, enhanced respiratory burst and potentiated microbicidal responses in naïve macrophages (Mφ). Functional attenuation of inflammatory M1 macrophages was associated with a concomitant shift towards alternatively activated M2 state in MSC-M1 co-cultures...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908291/muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-modulates-satellite-cell-number-and-proliferation-by-remodeling-the-stem-cell-niche
#2
Ivana Dinulovic, Regula Furrer, Markus Beer, Arnaud Ferry, Bettina Cardel, Christoph Handschin
BACKGROUND: The myogenic capacity of satellite cells (SCs), adult muscle stem cells, is influenced by aging, exercise, and other factors. In skeletal muscle, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a key regulator of oxidative metabolism and endurance training adaptation. However, a link between PGC-1α and SC behavior remains unexplored. METHODS: We have now studied SC function in a PGC-1α fiber-specific gain-of-function animal model...
December 2, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906056/umbilical-cord-blood-derived-non-hematopoietic-stem-cells-retrieved-and-expanded-on-bone-marrow-derived-extracellular-matrix-display-pluripotent-characteristics
#3
Junjie Wu, Yun Sun, Travis J Block, Milos Marinkovic, Zhi-Liang Zhang, Richard Chen, Yixia Yin, Juquan Song, David D Dean, Zhongding Lu, Xiao-Dong Chen
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) not only contains hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but also non-hematopoietic stem cells (NHSCs) that are able to differentiate into a number of distinct cell types. Based on studies published to date, the frequency of NHSCs in UCB is believed to be very low. However, the isolation of these cells is primarily based on their adhesion to tissue culture plastic surfaces. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the current study, we demonstrate that this approach overlooks some of the extremely immature NHSCs because they lack the ability to adhere to plastic...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905026/native-matrix-based-human-lung-alveolar-tissue-model-in-vitro-studies-of-the-reparatory-actions-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Ieva Bruzauskaite, Jovile Raudoniute, Jaroslav Denkovskij, Edvardas Bagdonas, Sandra Meidute-Abaraviciene, Vaida Simonyte, Daiva Bironaite, Almantas Siaurys, Eiva Bernotiene, Ruta Aldonyte
Studies of lung diseases in vitro often rely on flat, plastic-based monocultures, due to short lifespan of primary cells, complicated anatomy, lack of explants, etc. We hereby present a native 3D model with cues for repopulating epithelial cells. Abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to modulate bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cigarette smoke-induced injury to pulmonary epithelium were tested in our model. Post-mortem human lung tissue was sliced, cut and decellularized. Resulting matrix pads were reseeded with pulmonary epithelium (A549 line)...
December 1, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904609/deciphering-biological-characteristics-of-tumorigenic-subpopulations-in-human-colorectal-cancer-reveals-cellular-plasticity
#5
Hamed Mirzaei, Hossein Salehi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Amir Avan, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Afshin Namdar, Abbas Rezaei, Hamid Reza Mirzaei
BACKGROUND: It is supposed that human colorectal cancer consists of a phenotypically distinct population of tumorigenic cancer cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) which play a pivotal role in cancer progression, maintenance, metastasis, and the relapse. The aim of this effort was to investigate and compare biological characterizations of CD133(+) with CD133(-) cell subsets isolated from both primary and metastatic human colorectal tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using our optimized protocols, unfixed colorectal tumors were enzymatically and mechanically dissociated into single cells followed by evaluation of postdigestion viability...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899899/cell-expansion-dependent-inflammatory-and-metabolic-profile-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Patricia Prieto, María Fernández-Velasco, María E Fernández-Santos, Pedro L Sánchez, Verónica Terrón, Paloma Martín-Sanz, Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Lisardo Boscá
Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising new area in regenerative medicine allowing the recovery of viable tissues. Among the many sources of adult stem cells, bone marrow-derived are easy to expand in culture via plastic adherence and their multipotentiality for differentiation make them ideal for clinical applications. Interestingly, several studies have indicated that MSCs expansion in vitro may be limited mainly due to "cell aging" related to the number of cell divisions in culture. We have determined that MSCs exhibit a progressive decline across successive passages in the expression of stem cell markers, in plasticity and in the inflammatory response, presenting low immunogenicity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899317/neurotrophic-factor-mediated-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-cord-blood-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-applicability-to-assess-the-developmental-neurotoxicity
#7
Sadaf Jahan, Dipak Kumar, Ashvini Kumar, Chetan Singh Rajpurohit, Shripriya Singh, Akriti Srivastava, Ankita Pandey, A B Pant
Plasticity and developmental capacity of stem cells have now been established as a promising tool to restore the degenerative disorders. The linearity differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic and even in neuronal subtypes has been demonstrated. The number of xenobiotics such as dexamethasone, insulin, isobutyl 1-methyle xanthine and retinoic acid has been reported for the potential to differentiate hMSCs into neuronal subtypes. But, the applicability of indigenous neurotrphic factor-nerve growth factor (NGF) has not been explored for the purpose...
November 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891292/cancer-stem-cells-cellular-plasticity-niche-and-its-clinical-relevance
#8
Gina Lee, Robert R Hall, Atique U Ahmed
Cancer handles an estimated 7.6 million deaths worldwide per annum. A recent theory focuses on the role Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in driving tumorigenesis and disease progression. This theory hypothesizes that a population of the tumor cell with similar functional and phenotypic characteristics as normal tissue stem cells are responsible for formation and advancement of many human cancers. The CSCs subpopulation can differentiate into non-CSC tumor cells and promote phenotypic and functional heterogeneity within the tumor...
October 2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887865/overcoming-the-bottleneck-of-platelet-lysate-supply-in-large-scale-clinical-expansion-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-a-comparison-of-fresh-versus-three-types-of-platelet-lysates-from-outdated-buffy-coat-derived-platelet-concentrates
#9
Peter V Glovinski, Mikkel Herly, Anders B Mathiasen, Jesper D Svalgaard, Rehannah Borup, Maj-Lis M Talman, Jens J Elberg, Stig-Frederik T Kølle, Krzysztof T Drzewiecki, Anne Fischer-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Platelet lysates (PL) represent a promising replacement for xenogenic growth supplement for adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) expansions. However, fresh platelets from human blood donors are not clinically feasible for large-scale cell expansion based on their limited supply. Therefore, we tested PLs prepared via three methods from outdated buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates (PCs) to establish an efficient and feasible expansion of ASCs for clinical use. METHODS: PLs were prepared by the freeze-thaw method from freshly drawn platelets or from outdated buffy coat-derived PCs stored in the platelet additive solution, InterSol...
November 22, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882459/analysis-of-proliferation-of-melanoma-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-co-culture-and-contribution-of-experimental-conditions-into-interpretation-of-the-results
#10
O F Kandarakov, E E Kopantseva, A V Belyavsky
A series of experiments on co-culturing of Mel IL melanoma cells and mesenhymal stem cells showed that these cells do not influence proliferation of each other, but we observed weaker adhesion of stromal stem cells to plastic in cocultures where with melanoma cells were grown on mesenhymal stem cells feeder. Cell proliferation was also considerably influenced by experimental conditions, which should be taken into account for correct interpretation of obtained results. The principles of experiments on co-culturing of cancer and stromal cells are formulated that take into account the most important factors influencing cell behavior and minimize the probability of artifact results...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882348/humanized-neuronal-chimeric-mouse-brain-generated-by-neonatally-engrafted-human-ipsc-derived-primitive-neural-progenitor-cells
#11
Chen Chen, Woo-Yang Kim, Peng Jiang
The creation of a humanized chimeric mouse nervous system permits the study of human neural development and disease pathogenesis using human cells in vivo. Humanized glial chimeric mice with the brain and spinal cord being colonized by human glial cells have been successfully generated. However, generation of humanized chimeric mouse brains repopulated by human neurons to possess a high degree of chimerism have not been well studied. Here we created humanized neuronal chimeric mouse brains by neonatally engrafting the distinct and highly neurogenic human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived rosette-type primitive neural progenitors...
November 17, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882335/id-ealizing-control-of-adult-subventricular-zone-neural-stem-precursor-cell-differentiation-for-cns-regeneration
#12
COMMENT
Christian Bohrer, Christian Schachtrup
The adult central nervous system (CNS) was considered a comparatively static tissue with little cell turnover. It is now well established that there is more plasticity than previously thought and that astrocytes act as neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ). The discovery that these NSPCs can give rise to a limited number of new neurons, reactive astrocytes and oligodendrocytes contributing to brain repair in CNS disease, has raised hopes toward harnessing these cells for therapeutic interventions...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879349/ncam1-polysialylation-the-prion-protein-s-elusive-reason-for-being
#13
REVIEW
Mohadeseh Mehrabian, Herbert Hildebrandt, Gerold Schmitt-Ulms
Much confusion surrounds the physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). It is, however, anticipated that knowledge of its function will shed light on its contribution to neurodegenerative diseases and suggest ways to interfere with the cellular toxicity central to them. Consequently, efforts to elucidate its function have been all but exhaustive. Building on earlier work that uncovered the evolutionary descent of the prion founder gene from an ancestral ZIP zinc transporter, we recently investigated a possible role of PrP(C) in a morphogenetic program referred to as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
December 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879223/generation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-defined-feeder-free-conditions
#14
Athena Kyrkou, Dimitris Stellas, Marika Syrrou, Apostolos Klinakis, Theodore Fotsis, Carol Murphy
Herein, we describe a modified protocol for the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS) and expansion under defined, serum free and feeder free conditions. These cells exhibit a high level of plasticity towards various differentiation pathways both in vitro and in vivo. Ultimately, hiPS-derived lines achieved high standards of three dimensional differentiations on biomaterial scaffolds and promoted in vivo regeneration of complex organs, such as Anterior Cruciate Ligament (in swine ACL-rupture models) and other tissues as well...
September 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876573/stem-cell-therapies-in-age-related-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Yuan Wang, Xunming Ji, Rehana K Leak, Fenghua Chen, Guodong Cao
Aging, a complex process associated with various structural, functional and metabolic changes in the brain, is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. These diseases share similar neuropathological changes, such as the formation of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, loss of neurons and synapses, dysfunction of the neurovascular unit (NVU), reduction of self-repair capacity, and motor and/or cognitive deficiencies. In addition to gray matter dysfunction, the plasticity and repair capacity of white matter also decrease with aging and contribute to neurodegenerative diseases...
November 19, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871860/in%C3%A2-vitro-reconstitution-of-breast-cancer-heterogeneity-with-multipotent-cancer-stem-cells-using-small-molecules
#16
Masaki Kawamata, Takeshi Katsuda, Yasuhiro Yamada, Takahiro Ochiya
A small fraction of tumor cells are thought to possess the potential for both multiple-lineage differentiation and self-renewal, which underlies the cancer stem cell hypothesis. However, the differentiation mechanisms of these cells have not been elucidated due to a lack of appropriate culture methods. Here, we established a culture condition for maintaining multipotent tumor cells from rat breast tumors using 4 small molecules. Cultured tumor cells in this condition retained their intrinsic myoepithelial features, expressing p63 and CK14 and vimentin...
November 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869545/non-invasive-monitoring-of-3d-chondrogenic-constructs-using-molecular-beacon-nanosensors
#17
Li Min Tay, Christian Wiraja, David Yeo, Yingnan Wu, Zheng Yang, Yon Jin Chuah, Eng Hin Lee, Yuejun Kang, Chenjie Xu
Chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in 3D hydrogel holds promise as a method for repairing injured articular cartilage. Given MSC plasticity (its potential to mature into alternative lineages), non-destructive monitoring is critical for the optimization of chondrogenic differentiation conditions and the evaluation of the final product. However, conventional validation/assessment of the differentiation process (i.e. quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain (qRT-PCR) and histology) are end-point assays requiring disruption of the sample...
November 21, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869294/enhancement-of-human-neural-stem-cell-self-renewal-in-3d-hypoxic-culture
#18
Sasan Sharee Ghourichaee, Elizabeth M Powell, Jennie B Leach
The pathology of neurological disorders is associated with the loss of neuronal and glial cells that results in functional impairments. Human neural stem cells (hNSCs), due to their self-renewing and multipotent characteristics, possess enormous tissue-specific regenerative potential. However, the efficacy of clinical applications is restricted due to the lack of standardized in vitro cell production methods with the capability of generating hNSC populations with well-defined cellular compositions. At any point, a population of hNSCs may include undifferentiated stem cells, intermediate and terminally differentiated progenies, and dead cells...
November 21, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866156/hide-and-seek-the-interplay-between-cancer-stem-cells-and-the-immune-system
#19
REVIEW
Mohammad Sultan, Krysta Mila Coyle, Dejan Vidovic, Margaret Lois Thomas, Shashi Gujar, Paola Marcato
The enhanced ability of cancer stem cells (CSCs) to give rise to new tumors suggests that these cells may also have an advantage in evading immune detection and elimination. This tumor-forming ability, combined with the known plasticity of the immune system, which can play both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic roles, has motivated investigations into the interaction between CSCs and the immune system. Herein, we review the interplay between host immunity and CSCs by examining the immune-related mechanisms which favor CSCs and the CSC-mediated expansion of pro-tumorigenic immune cells...
November 19, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863245/epigenetic-memory-underlies-cell-autonomous-heterogeneous-behavior-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#20
Vionnie W C Yu, Rushdia Z Yusuf, Toshihiko Oki, Juwell Wu, Borja Saez, Xin Wang, Colleen Cook, Ninib Baryawno, Michael J Ziller, Eunjung Lee, Hongcang Gu, Alexander Meissner, Charles P Lin, Peter V Kharchenko, David T Scadden
Stem cells determine homeostasis and repair of many tissues and are increasingly recognized as functionally heterogeneous. To define the extent of-and molecular basis for-heterogeneity, we overlaid functional, transcriptional, and epigenetic attributes of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) at a clonal level using endogenous fluorescent tagging. Endogenous HSC had clone-specific functional attributes over time in vivo. The intra-clonal behaviors were highly stereotypic, conserved under the stress of transplantation, inflammation, and genotoxic injury, and associated with distinctive transcriptional, DNA methylation, and chromatin accessibility patterns...
November 17, 2016: Cell
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