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Stem cell plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741725/cell-derived-micro-environment-helps-dental-pulp-stem-cells-promote-dental-pulp-regeneration
#1
Xuexin Zhang, Hui Li, Jingjing Sun, Xiangyou Luo, Hefeng Yang, Li Xie, Bo Yang, Weihua Guo, Weidong Tian
OBJECTIVES: The function of the dental pulp is closely connected to the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure, and ECM has received significant attention due to its biological functions for regulating cells. As such, the interaction between the ECM niche and cells is worth exploring for potential clinical uses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-derived ECM (DPM) was prepared through cell culture and decellularization to function as the cell niche, and changes in DPSC behaviour and histological analysis of dental pulp tissue regeneration were evaluated following the DPM culture...
July 25, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741520/nutrient-exploitation-within-the-tumor-stroma-metabolic-crosstalk
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Morandi, Elisa Giannoni, Paola Chiarugi
The tumor microenvironment has an essential role in defining tumor malignancy, since it can either promote or prevent tumor initiation and subsequent progression and metastatic dissemination. Recent studies demonstrate that highly aggressive cancer cells display a high degree of metabolic plasticity paralleled by the acquisition of stemness and chemoresistant properties. In addition, cancer-associated fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells have an important role in shaping the metabolic behavior of cancer cells...
December 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740831/the-impact-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-on-the-properties-of-glioma-stem-like-cells
#3
REVIEW
Alessandra Audia, Siobhan Conroy, Rainer Glass, Krishna P L Bhat
Glioblastoma is the most common and highly malignant primary brain tumor, and patients affected with this disease exhibit a uniformly dismal prognosis. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are a subset of cells within the bulk tumor that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation properties similar to somatic stem cells. These cells also are at the apex of the cellular hierarchy and cause tumor initiation and expansion after chemo-radiation. These traits make them an attractive target for therapeutic development...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737230/endometrial-cytopathology-an-image-analysis-approach-using-the-ki-67-biomarker
#4
G Apostolou, N Apostolou, P Moulos, P Chatzipantelis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the different identity and biological behaviour of endometrial benign epithelial and endometrial adenocarcinoma cell categories. METHODS: For this study, the imprint smears from three groups, 10 cases of disordered proliferative/benign hyperplastic endometrium, 21 cases of low-grade and eight cases of high-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma, were examined using image analysis and the Ki-67 biomarker. The plastic stem cell model was also applied...
July 24, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732600/hierarchy-and-plasticity-in-the-intestinal-stem-cell-compartment
#5
REVIEW
Maryam Yousefi, Linheng Li, Christopher J Lengner
Somatic stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by organizing themselves in such a way that they can maintain proliferative output while simultaneously protecting themselves from DNA damage that may lead to oncogenic transformation. There is considerable debate about how such stem cell compartments are organized. Burgeoning evidence from the small intestine and colon provides support for a two-stem cell model involving an actively proliferating but injury-sensitive stem cell and a rare, injury-resistant pool of quiescent stem cells...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732340/vascular-regulation-of-glioma-stem-like-cells-a-balancing-act
#6
REVIEW
Lucy J Brooks, Simona Parrinello
Glioblastoma (GBM) are aggressive and therapy-resistant brain tumours driven by glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). GSC behaviour is controlled by the microenvironment, or niche, in which the cells reside. It is well-established that the vasculature is a key component of the GSC niche, which drives maintenance in the tumour bulk and invasion at the margin. Emerging evidence now indicates that the specific properties of the vasculature within these two regions impose different functional states on resident GSCs, generating distinct subpopulations...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731141/botulinum-toxin-a-improves-adipose-tissue-engraftment-by-promoting-cell-proliferation-adipogenesis-and-angiogenesis
#7
Qi Tang, Chang Chen, Xiaqi Wang, Wei Li, Yan Zhang, Muyao Wang, Wei Jing, Hang Wang, Weihua Guo, Weidong Tian
Adipose tissue engraftment has become a well-established therapy in plastic and reconstructive surgery used to restore age-related or injury-related soft tissue loss. However, the unpredictable absorption rates limit its further application. Some clinicians have noted that more optimal aesthetic results are achieved when botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) is applied prior to adipose tissue grafting. In the present study, we transplanted allogeneic adipose tissue treated with or without BoNTA in SD rats in vivo. We subsequently evaluated the survival rate (weight, volume, apoptosis and cellular integrity) and revascularization of the adipose tissue...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719644/isolation-of-putative-stem-cells-present-in-human-adult-olfactory-mucosa
#8
Tamara Tanos, Alberto Maria Saibene, Carlotta Pipolo, Paolo Battaglia, Giovanni Felisati, Alicia Rubio
The olfactory mucosa (OM) has the unique characteristic of performing an almost continuous and lifelong neurogenesis in response to external injuries, due to the presence of olfactory stem cells that guarantee the maintenance of the olfactory function. The easy accessibility of the OM in humans makes these stem cells feasible candidates for the development of regenerative therapies. In this report we present a detailed characterization of a patient-derived OM, together with a description of cell cultures obtained from the OM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718448/neuronal-activity-in-ontogeny-and-oncology
#9
REVIEW
Humsa Venkatesh, Michelle Monje
The nervous system plays a central role in regulating the stem cell niche in many organs, and thereby pivotally modulates development, homeostasis, and plasticity. A similarly powerful role for neural regulation of the cancer microenvironment is emerging. Neurons promote the growth of cancers of the brain, skin, prostate, pancreas, and stomach. Parallel mechanisms shared in development and cancer suggest that neural modulation of the tumor microenvironment may prove a universal theme, although the mechanistic details of such modulation remain to be discovered for many malignancies...
February 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718414/epigenetics-and-cancer-stem-cells-unleashing-hijacking-and-restricting-cellular-plasticity
#10
REVIEW
Elanor N Wainwright, Paola Scaffidi
Epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as key players in cancer development which affect cellular states at multiple stages of the disease. During carcinogenesis, alterations in chromatin and DNA methylation resulting from genetic lesions unleash cellular plasticity and favor oncogenic cellular reprogramming. At later stages, during cancer growth and progression, additional epigenetic changes triggered by interaction with the microenvironment modulate cancer cell phenotypes and properties, and shape tumor architecture...
May 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718304/the-role-of-surgery-in-low-grade-gliomas-do-timing-and-extent-of-resection-matter
#11
Hugues Duffau
Hugues Duffau is a Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team "plasticity of the central nervous system, human stem cells and glial tumors" at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors, such as low-grade gliomas, a routine which he has developed since 20 years. His fundamental approach is centered on the concepts of the brain connectomics and neuroplasticity, breaking with the traditional localizationist view of cerebral processing...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717174/over-expression-of-kdsoc1-gene-affected-plantlet-morphogenesis-in-kalanchoe-daigremontiana
#12
Chen Zhu, Li Wang, Jinhua Chen, Chenglan Liu, Huiming Zeng, Huafang Wang
Kalanchoe daigremontiana reproduces asexually by producing plantlets along the leaf margin. The aim of this study was to identify the function of the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 gene in Kalanchoe daigremontiana (KdSOC1) during plantlet morphogenesis. In this study, KdSOC1 gene expression was detected at stem cell niche during in vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet morphogenesis. Disrupting endogenous auxin transportation suppressed the KdSOC1 gene response. Knockdown of the KdSOC1 gene caused a defect in cotyledon formation during the early heart stage of somatic embryogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713615/effects-of-radiofrequency-exposure-emitted-from-a-gsm-mobile-phone-on-proliferation-differentiation-and-apoptosis-of-neural-stem-cells
#13
Mahsa Eghlidospour, Amir Ghanbari, Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi, Hassan Azari
Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differentiation. We also employed alamarBlue and caspase 3 apoptosis assays to assess harmful effects of mobile phone on NSCs...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710142/perspective-neuroregenerative-nutrition
#14
Dennis A Steindler, Brent A Reynolds
Good health while aging depends upon optimal cellular and organ functioning that contribute to the regenerative ability of the body during the lifespan, especially when injuries and diseases occur. Although diet may help in the maintenance of cellular fitness during periods of stability or modest decline in the regenerative function of an organ, this approach is inadequate in an aged system, in which the ability to maintain homeostasis is further challenged by aging and the ensuing suboptimal functioning of the regenerative unit, tissue-specific stem cells...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706205/the-alkaloids-of-banisteriopsis-caapi-the-plant-source-of-the-amazonian-hallucinogen-ayahuasca-stimulate-adult-neurogenesis-in-vitro
#15
Jose A Morales-García, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Sandra Alonso-Gil, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco, Amanda Feilding, Ana Perez-Castillo, Jordi Riba
Banisteriopsis caapi is the basic ingredient of ayahuasca, a psychotropic plant tea used in the Amazon for ritual and medicinal purposes, and by interested individuals worldwide. Animal studies and recent clinical research suggests that B. caapi preparations show antidepressant activity, a therapeutic effect that has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we report that harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, the three main alkaloids present in B. caapi, and the harmine metabolite harmol, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704968/epigenetic-modifications-and-head-and-neck-cancer-implications-for-tumor-progression-and-resistance-to-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Rogerio M Castilho, Cristiane H Squarize, Luciana O Almeida
Head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most prevalent cancer and one of the most aggressive malignancies worldwide. Despite continuous efforts to identify molecular markers for early detection, and to develop efficient treatments, the overall survival and prognosis of HNSCC patients remain poor. Accumulated scientific evidences suggest that epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, histone covalent modifications, chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNAs, are frequently involved in oral carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and resistance to therapy...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702186/the-biological-and-clinical-basis-for-the-use-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in-the-field-of-wound-healing
#17
REVIEW
Nicolò Bertozzi, Francesco Simonacci, Michele Pio Grieco, Eugenio Grignaffini, Edoardo Raposio
Worldwide, hard-to-heal lower limb wounds are estimated to affect 1.5-3% of the adult population with a treatment-related annual cost of $10 billion. Thus, chronic skin ulcers of the lower limb are a matter of economic and public concern. Over the years, multiple medical and surgical approaches have been proposed but they are still inadequate, and no effective therapy yet exists. Regenerative medicine and stem cell-based therapies hold great promise for wound healing. Recently, many plastic surgeons have studied the potential clinical application of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which are a readily available adult stem cell population that can undergo multilineage differentiation and secrete growth factors that can enhance wound-healing processes by promoting angiogenesis, and hence increase local blood supply...
August 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698547/metabolic-reprogramming-is-associated-with-flavopiridol-resistance-in-prostate-cancer-du145-cells
#18
Xiaoran Li, Jie Lu, Quancheng Kan, Xiaoli Li, Qiong Fan, Yaqing Li, Ruixia Huang, Ana Slipicevic, Hiep Phuc Dong, Lars Eide, Junbai Wang, Hongquan Zhang, Viktor Berge, Mariusz Adam Goscinski, Gunnar Kvalheim, Jahn M Nesland, Zhenhe Suo
Flavopiridol (FP) is a pan-cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, which shows strong efficacy in inducing cancer cell apoptosis. Although FP is potent against most cancer cells in vitro, unfortunately it proved less efficacious in clinical trials in various aggressive cancers. To date, the molecular mechanisms of the FP resistance are mostly unknown. Here, we report that a small fraction human prostate cancer DU145 cells can survive long-term FP treatment and emerge as FP-resistant cells (DU145(FP)). These DU145(FP) cells show accumulated mitochondrial lesions with stronger glycolytic features, and they proliferate in slow-cycling and behave highly migratory with strong anti-apoptotic potential...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692904/emerging-roles-of-the-histone-chaperone-caf-1-in-cellular-plasticity
#19
REVIEW
Sihem Cheloufi, Konrad Hochedlinger
During embryonic development, cells become progressively restricted in their differentiation potential. This is thought to be regulated by dynamic changes in chromatin structure and associated modifications, which act together to stabilize distinct specialized cell lineages. Remarkably, differentiated cells can be experimentally reprogrammed to a stem cell-like state or to alternative lineages. Thus, cellular reprogramming provides a valuable platform to study the mechanisms that normally safeguard cell identity and uncover factors whose manipulation facilitates cell fate transitions...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691356/tumor-microenvironment-and-noncoding-rnas-as-co-drivers-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-metastasis
#20
REVIEW
Kinan Drak Alsibai, Didier Meseure
Reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and tumor microenvironment (TME) are crucial events in tumor progression and metastasis. Pervasive stromal reprogramming of TME modifies numerous cellular functions including, extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness, inflammation and immunity. These environmental factors allow selection of more aggressive cells that develop adaptive strategies associating plasticity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stem-like phenotype, invasion, immunosuppression, and resistance to therapies...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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