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Stem cell plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926092/key-genes-regulating-the-liposecretion-process-of-mature-adipocytes
#1
Giulia Maurizi, Tiina Petäistö, Angela Maurizi, Lucio Della Guardia
White mature adipocytes (MAs) are plastic cells able to reversibly transdifferentiate toward fibroblast-like cells maintaining stem cell gene signatures. The main morphologic aspect of this transdifferentiation process, called liposecretion, is the secretion of large lipid droplets and the development of organelles necessary for exocrine secretion. There is a considerable interest in the adipocyte plastic properties involving liposecretion process, but the molecular details are incompletely explored. This review analyzes the gene expression of MAs isolated from human subcutaneous fat tissue with respect to bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) focusing on gene regulatory pathways involved into cellular morphology changes, cellular proliferation and transports of molecules through the membrane, suggesting potential ways to guide liposecretion...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925497/the-feasibility-of-the-cd271-and-cd271-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-enrichment-toward-nucleus-pulposus-like-cells
#2
Katarzyna Jezierska-Wozniak, Monika Barczewska, Aleksandra Habich, Pawel Wojtacha, Wanda Badowska, Wojciech Maksymowicz, Joanna Wojtkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Factors promoting nerve cell ingrowth are considered responsible for chronic back pain resulting from the intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). One of the recent exploratory IDD treatments is stem cell transplantation therapy. The CD271 (low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor) has been identified as a marker of the most homogeneous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) subset. It is capable of promoting differentiation along adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages and producing significantly higher levels of cytokines as compared to the total population of plastic adherence-mesenchymal stem cells (PA-MSCs)...
September 19, 2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925399/dock4-promotes-loss-of-proliferation-in-glioblastoma-progenitor-cells-through-nuclear-beta-catenin-accumulation-and-subsequent-mir-302-367-cluster-expression
#3
D N Debruyne, L Turchi, F Burel-Vandenbos, M Fareh, F Almairac, V Virolle, D Figarella-Branger, N Baeza-Kallee, P Lagadec, V Kubiniek, P Paquis, D Fontaine, M-P Junier, H Chneiweiss, T Virolle
Glioblastomas (GBM) are lethal primitive brain tumours characterized by a strong intra-tumour heterogeneity. We observed in GBM tissues the coexistence of functionally divergent micro-territories either enriched in more differentiated and non-mitotic cells or in mitotic undifferentiated OLIG2 positive cells while sharing similar genomic abnormalities. Understanding the formation of such functionally divergent micro-territories in glioblastomas (GBM) is essential to comprehend GBM biogenesis, plasticity and to develop therapies...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922973/a-new-wnt1-cre-tomatorosa-es-cell-line-a-tool-for-studying-neural-crest-cell-integration-capacity
#4
Soledad Acuna Mendoza, Sabrina Martin, Sabine Kuchler-Bopp, Sandy Ribes, Jeremy H Thalgott, Catherine Chaussain, Sophie Creuzet, Hervé Lesot, Franck Lebrin, Anne Poliard
Neural crest (NC) cells are a migratory, multipotent population giving rise to numerous lineages in the embryo. Their plasticity renders attractive their use in tissue engineering-based therapies but further knowledge on their in vivo behaviour is required before clinical transfer may be envisioned. We here describe isolation and characterization of a new mouse ES line derived from Wnt1-CRE-R26 RosaTomatoTdv blastocyst and show that it displays the characteristics of typical ES cells. Furthermore, these cells can be efficiently directed towards a NC stem cell-like phenotype as attested by concomitant expression of NC marker genes and Tomato fluorescence...
September 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920957/klf4-dependent-perivascular-cell-plasticity-mediates-pre-metastatic-niche-formation-and-metastasis
#5
Meera Murgai, Wei Ju, Matthew Eason, Jessica Kline, Daniel W Beury, Sabina Kaczanowska, Markku M Miettinen, Michael Kruhlak, Haiyan Lei, Jack F Shern, Olga A Cherepanova, Gary K Owens, Rosandra N Kaplan
A deeper understanding of the metastatic process is required for the development of new therapies that improve patient survival. Metastatic tumor cell growth and survival in distant organs is facilitated by the formation of a pre-metastatic niche that is composed of hematopoietic cells, stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and pericytes, are involved in new vessel formation and in promoting stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Given the well-described plasticity of perivascular cells, we hypothesized that perivascular cells similarly regulate tumor cell fate at metastatic sites...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919904/plasticity-of-sorghum-stem-biomass-accumulation-in-response-to-water-deficit-a-multiscale-analysis-from-internode-tissue-to-plant-level
#6
Lisa Perrier, Lauriane Rouan, Sylvie Jaffuel, Anne Clément-Vidal, Sandrine Roques, Armelle Soutiras, Christelle Baptiste, Denis Bastianelli, Denis Fabre, Cécile Dubois, David Pot, Delphine Luquet
Sorghum is increasingly used as a biomass crop worldwide. Its genetic diversity provides a large range of stem biochemical composition suitable for various end-uses as bioenergy or forage. Its drought tolerance enables it to reasonably sustain biomass production under water limited conditions. However, drought effect on the accumulation of sorghum stem biomass remains poorly understood which limits progress in crop improvement and management. This study aimed at identifying the morphological, biochemical and histological traits underlying biomass accumulation in the sorghum stem and its plasticity in response to water deficit...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916764/rapid-and-reversible-epigenome-editing-by-endogenous-chromatin-regulators
#7
Simon M G Braun, Jacob G Kirkland, Emma J Chory, Dylan Husmann, Joseph P Calarco, Gerald R Crabtree
Understanding the causal link between epigenetic marks and gene regulation remains a central question in chromatin biology. To edit the epigenome we developed the FIRE-Cas9 system for rapid and reversible recruitment of endogenous chromatin regulators to specific genomic loci. We enhanced the dCas9-MS2 anchor for genome targeting with Fkbp/Frb dimerizing fusion proteins to allow chemical-induced proximity of a desired chromatin regulator. We find that mSWI/SNF (BAF) complex recruitment is sufficient to oppose Polycomb within minutes, leading to activation of bivalent gene transcription in mouse embryonic stem cells...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916494/transflammation-innate-immune-signaling-in-nuclear-reprogramming
#8
Shu Meng, Palas Chanda, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, John P Cooke
Induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by retroviral overexpression of four transcription factors has revolutionized the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. The efficient induction of pluripotency requires the activation of innate immune signaling in a process termed "transflammation" [1]. Specifically, the stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) causes global alterations in the expression and activity of epigenetic modifiers to favor an open chromatin configuration. Activation of toll-like receptors (TLR) or RIG-1-like receptors (RLR) [2] trigger signaling cascades that result in NFκB or IRF-3 mediated changes in epigenetic plasticity that facilitate reprogramming...
September 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910977/bisphenol-a-induced-apoptosis-and-transcriptome-differences-of-spermatogonial-stem-cells-in-vitro
#9
Xiaowen Gong, Hui Xie, Xiaoyong Li, Ji Wu, Yi Lin
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used as an industrial plasticizer, which is also an endocrine disruptor and considered to have adverse effects on reproduction. In male mammals, the long-term production of billions of spermatozoa relies on the regulated proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). However, little is known about the effects of BPA on the viability of SSCs. To investigate the influence of BPA exposure on SSCs in vitro, we isolated SSCs from mouse and successfully established in vitro propagation of SSCs...
September 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910422/a-prolonged-chronological-lifespan-is-an-unexpected-benefit-of-the-psi-prion-in-yeast
#10
Kai Wang, Ronald Melki, Mehdi Kabani
Self-replicating 'proteinaceous infectious particles' or prions are responsible for complex heritable traits in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our current understanding of the biology of yeast prions stems from studies mostly done in the context of actively dividing cells in optimal laboratory growth conditions. Evidence suggest that fungal prions exist in the wild where most cells are in a non-dividing quiescent state, because of imperfect growth conditions, scarcity of nutrients and competition. We know little about the faithful transmission of yeast prions in such conditions and their physiological consequences throughout the lifespan of yeast cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910138/hsp90-inhibition-and-cellular-stress-elicits-phenotypic-plasticity-in-hematopoietic-differentiation
#11
Abdalla A Lawag, Jennifer M Napper, Caroline A Hunter, Nickolas A Bacon, Seth Deskins, Manaf El-Hamdani, Sarah-Leigh Govender, Emine C Koc, Vincent E Sollars
Cancer cells exist in a state of Darwinian selection using mechanisms that produce changes in gene expression through genetic and epigenetic alteration to facilitate their survival. Cellular plasticity, or the ability to alter cellular phenotype, can assist in survival of premalignant cells as they progress to full malignancy by providing another mechanism of adaptation. The connection between cellular stress and the progression of cancer has been established, although the details of the mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated...
September 14, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904399/semaphorin-3%C3%A2-c-drives-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-invasiveness-and-stem-like-characteristics-in-prostate-cells
#12
Kevin J Tam, Daniel H F Hui, Wilson W Lee, Mingshu Dong, Tabitha Tombe, Ivy Z F Jiao, Shahram Khosravi, Ario Takeuchi, James W Peacock, Larissa Ivanova, Igor Moskalev, Martin E Gleave, Ralph Buttyan, Michael E Cox, Christopher J Ong
Prostate cancer (PCa) is among the most commonly-occurring cancers worldwide and a leader in cancer-related deaths. Local non-invasive PCa is highly treatable but limited treatment options exist for those with locally-advanced and metastatic forms of the disease underscoring the need to identify mechanisms mediating PCa progression. The semaphorins are a large grouping of membrane-associated or secreted signalling proteins whose normal roles reside in embryogenesis and neuronal development. In this context, semaphorins help establish chemotactic gradients and direct cell movement...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#13
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901188/engineered-microvasculature-in-pdms-networks-using-endothelial-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Amogh Sivarapatna, Mahboobe Ghaedi, Yang Xiao, Edward Han, Binod Aryal, Jing Zhou, Carlos Fernandez-Hernando, Yibing Qyang, Karen K Hirschi, Laura E Niklason
In this study, we used a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based platform for the generation of intact, perfusion-competent microvascular networks in vitro. COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite-element analysis and simulation software package, was used to obtain simulated velocity, pressure, and shear stress profiles. Transgene-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were differentiated into partially arterialized endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs) in 5 d under completely chemically defined conditions, using the small molecule glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor CHIR99021 and were thoroughly characterized for functionality and arterial-like marker expression...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884398/developmental-exposure-of-decabromodiphenyl-ether-impairs-subventricular-zone-neurogenesis-and-morphology-of-granule-cells-in-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#15
Mingrui Xu, Yingxue Huang, Kaikai Li, Xinran Cheng, Guohong Li, Mengmeng Liu, Yufei Nie, Shu Geng, Shanting Zhao
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are additive flame retardants widely used in various products (e.g., textiles, consumer electronics, and plastics). Strong evidence indicates that PBDEs are developmental neurotoxicants that can cause neurodevelopmental disabilities and cognitive defects. Currently, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) is the only PBDE permitted for production in most countries. This study investigated the impact of BDE 209 on postnatal neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of ICR mice...
September 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879677/transcriptomic-analysis-of-gingival-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cultured-on-3d-bioprinted-scaffold-a-promising-strategy-for-neuroregeneration
#16
Agnese Gugliandolo, Francesca Diomede, Paolo Cardelli, Alessia Bramanti, Domenico Scionti, Placido Bramanti, Oriana Trubiani, Emanuela Mazzon
The combined approach of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and scaffolds has been proposed as a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, even if MSCs can promote neuronal regeneration, replacing lost neurons or secreting neurotrophic factors, many limitations still exist for their application in regenerative medicine, including the low survival and differentiation rate. The scaffolds, by mimicking the endogenous microenvironment, have shown to promote cell survival, proliferation and differentiation...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873382/development-and-anatomy-of-the-enteroendocrine-system-in-humans
#17
Carsten Posovszky
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract exhibits an enormous surface area that consists mostly of absorptive enterocytes. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are found scattered along the GI tract between absorptive enterocytes and other secretory cells, and comprise around 1% of the epithelial cell population. Interestingly, they develop from the same crypt stem cell as the other absorptive or secretory cells of the gut. EECs differentiate along the crypt villus axis and are renewed every 4-6 days, and hence possess a high plasticity...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873074/adipose-derived-cellular-therapies-in-solid-organ-and-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation
#18
Katlin B Stivers, Jason E Beare, Paula M Chilton, Stuart K Williams, Christina L Kaufman, James B Hoying
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Controlling acute allograft rejection following vascularized composite allotransplantation requires strict adherence to courses of systemic immunosuppression. Discovering new methods to modulate the alloreactive immune response is essential for widespread application of vascularized composite allotransplantation. Here, we discuss how adipose-derived cellular therapies represent novel treatment options for immune modulation and tolerance induction in vascularized composite allotransplantation...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873068/neuroinflammation-and-physical-exercise-as-modulators-of-adult-hippocampal-neural-precursor-cell-behavior
#19
Martha Pérez-Domínguez, Luis B Tovar-Y-Romo, Angélica Zepeda
The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is a plastic structure where adult neurogenesis constitutively occurs. Cell components of the neurogenic niche are source of paracrine as well as membrane-bound factors such as Notch, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Wnts, Sonic Hedgehog, cytokines, and growth factors that regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cell fate decision. The integration and coordinated action of multiple extrinsic and intrinsic cues drive a continuous decision process: if adult neural stem cells remain quiescent or proliferate, if they take a neuronal or a glial lineage, and if new cells proliferate, undergo apoptotic death, or survive...
September 5, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869034/plasticity-and-function-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-relation-to-disuse-and-rehabilitation-influence-of-ageing-and-surgery
#20
Charlotte Suetta
In order to study the influence of disuse and aging on skeletal muscle homeostasis, different human models were employed. Effects of chronic disuse were investigated in elderly patients suffering from uni-lateral hip-osteoarthritis, whereas the effect of short-term disuse (4 and 14 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation) was assessed in healthy young and old individuals. In summary, chronic muscle disuse in the elderly was associated with marked quantitative as well as qualitative neuromuscular impairments...
August 2017: Danish Medical Journal
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