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Stem cell plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230484/plasticity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-in-mesangial-repair-the-crucial-role-of-electron-microscopy-em-monitoring-and-understanding-the-process
#1
Guillermo A Herrera, Jiamin Teng, Chun Zeng, Elba A Turbat-Herrera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229425/optimal-environmental-stiffness-for-stem-cell-mediated-ischemic-myocardium-repair
#2
Honghai Liu, Christian Paul, Meifeng Xu
Cardiovascular diseases related to myocardial infarction (MI) contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality worldwide. The loss of cardiomyocytes during MI is a key factor in the impairment of cardiac-pump functions. Employing cell transplantation has shown great potential as a therapeutic approach in regenerating ischemic myocardium. Several studies have suggested that the therapeutic effects of stem cells vary based on the timing of cell administration. It has been clearly established that the myocardium post-infarction experiences a time-dependent stiffness change, and many studies have highlighted the importance of stiffness (elasticity) of microenvironment on modulating the fate and function of stem cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229415/isolation-of-stromal-stem-cells-from-adipose-tissue
#3
Maria Prat, Francesca Oltolina, Silvia Antonini, Andrea Zamperone
Adipose tissue has been shown to be particularly advantageous as source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), because of its easy accessibility, and the possibility of obtaining stem cells in high yields. MSCs are obtained from the so-called Stromal Vascular Fraction, (SVF), exploiting their property of adhering to plastic surfaces and can be further purified by positive or negative immunomagnetic selection with appropriately chosen antibodies. These cells (Stromal Stem Cells, SSCs) can then be directly analyzed, frozen in liquid nitrogen, or expanded for further applications, e...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220862/induction-of-hair-follicle-dermal-papilla-cell-properties-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-multipotent-lngfr-thy-1-mesenchymal-cells
#4
Ophelia Veraitch, Yo Mabuchi, Yumi Matsuzaki, Takashi Sasaki, Hironobu Okuno, Aki Tsukashima, Masayuki Amagai, Hideyuki Okano, Manabu Ohyama
The dermal papilla (DP) is a specialised mesenchymal component of the hair follicle (HF) that plays key roles in HF morphogenesis and regeneration. Current technical difficulties in preparing trichogenic human DP cells could be overcome by the use of highly proliferative and plastic human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, hiPSCs were differentiated into induced mesenchymal cells (iMCs) with a bone marrow stromal cell phenotype. A highly proliferative and plastic LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) subset of iMCs was subsequently programmed using retinoic acid and DP cell activating culture medium to acquire DP properties...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217708/aberrant-rna-splicing-and-mutations-in-spliceosome-complex-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#5
COMMENT
Jianbiao Zhou, Wee-Joo Chng
The spliceosome, the cellular splicing machinery, regulates RNA splicing of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) into maturation of protein coding RNAs. Recurrent mutations and copy number changes in genes encoding spliceosomal proteins and splicing regulatory factors have tumor promoting or suppressive functions in hematological malignancies, as well as some other cancers. Leukemia stem cell (LSC) populations, although rare, are essential contributors of treatment failure and relapse. Recent researches have provided the compelling evidence that link the erratic spicing activity to the LSC phenotype in acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214347/involvement-of-the-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-vav3-in-central-nervous-system-development-and-plasticity
#6
Annika Ulc, Christine Gottschling, Ina Schäfer, David Wegrzyn, Simon van Leeuwen, Veronika Luft, Jacqueline Reinhard, Andreas Faissner
Small GTP-hydrolysing enzymes (GTPases) of the RhoA family play manifold roles in cell biology and are regulated by upstream guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we focus on the GEFs of the Vav subfamily. Vav1 was originally described as a protooncogene of the hematopoietic lineage. The GEFs Vav2 and Vav3 are more broadly expressed in various tissues. In particular, the GEF Vav3 may play important roles in the developing nervous system during the differentiation of neural stem cells into the major lineages, namely neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes...
February 18, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213979/mmp-2-and-mmp-14-silencing-inhibits-vegfr2-cleavage-and-induces-the-differentiation-of-porcine-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-endothelial-cells
#7
Sami G Almalki, Yovani Llamas Valle, Devendra K Agrawal
The molecular mechanisms that control the ability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) to remodel three-dimensional extracellular matrix barriers during differentiation are not clearly understood. Herein, we studied the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during the differentiation of AMSCs to endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. MSCs were isolated from porcine abdominal adipose tissue, and characterized by immunopositivity to CD44, CD90, CD105, and immunonegativity to CD14 and CD45. Plasticity of AMSCs was confirmed by multilineage differentiation...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213718/reprogramming-cell-fates-by-small-molecules
#8
REVIEW
Xiaojie Ma, Linghao Kong, Saiyong Zhu
Reprogramming cell fates towards pluripotent stem cells and other cell types has revolutionized our understanding of cellular plasticity. During the last decade, transcription factors and microRNAs have become powerful reprogramming factors for modulating cell fates. Recently, many efforts are focused on reprogramming cell fates by non-viral and non-integrating chemical approaches. Small molecules not only are useful in generating desired cell types in vitro for various applications, such as disease modeling and cell-based transplantation, but also hold great promise to be further developed as drugs to stimulate patients' endogenous cells to repair and regenerate in vivo...
February 17, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209166/intra-tumor-heterogeneity-from-a-cancer-stem-cell-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Pramudita R Prasetyanti, Jan Paul Medema
Tumor heterogeneity represents an ongoing challenge in the field of cancer therapy. Heterogeneity is evident between cancers from different patients (inter-tumor heterogeneity) and within a single tumor (intra-tumor heterogeneity). The latter includes phenotypic diversity such as cell surface markers, (epi)genetic abnormality, growth rate, apoptosis and other hallmarks of cancer that eventually drive disease progression and treatment failure. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been put forward to be one of the determining factors that contribute to intra-tumor heterogeneity...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202540/sorting-out-adipocyte-precursors-and-their-role-in-physiology-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Chelsea Hepler, Lavanya Vishvanath, Rana K Gupta
The ability to maintain and expand the pool of adipocytes in adults is integral to the regulation of energy balance, tissue/stem cell homeostasis, and disease pathogenesis. For decades, our knowledge of adipocyte precursors has relied on cellular models. The identity of native adipocyte precursors has remained unclear. Recent studies have identified distinct adipocyte precursor populations that are physiologically regulated and contribute to the development, maintenance, and expansion of adipocyte pools in mice...
January 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202061/in-vitro-generation-of-sertoli-like-and-haploid-spermatid-like-cells-from-human-umbilical-cord-perivascular-cells
#11
Ekaterina Shlush, Leila Maghen, Sonja Swanson, Shlomit Kenigsberg, Sergey Moskovtsev, Tanya Barretto, Andrée Gauthier-Fisher, Clifford L Librach
BACKGROUND: First trimester (FTM) and term human umbilical cord-derived perivascular cells (HUCPVCs), which are rich sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), can give rise to Sertoli cell (SC)-like as well as haploid germ cell (GC)-like cells in vitro using culture conditions that recapitulate the testicular niche. Gamete-like cells have been produced ex vivo using pluripotent stem cells as well as MSCs. However, the production of functional gametes from human stem cells has yet to be achieved...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197531/targeting-sox9-for-degradation-to-inhibit-chemoresistance-metastatic-spread-and-recurrence
#12
Aldwin Suryo Rahmanto, Fredrik J Swartling, Olle Sangfelt
Cancer cells with stem-like properties are believed to contribute to treatment resistance, dissemination, and recurrence. SOX9 controls stem cell plasticity and its deregulation may provide a basis for tumor progression. Here, we summarize our findings of targeted SOX9 destruction by SCF(FBW7) (Skp1/Cul1/F-box) in medulloblastoma and its potential for therapeutic intervention.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192031/neural-crest-stem-cells-can-differentiate-to-a-cardiomyogenic-lineage-with-an-ability-to-contract-in-response-to-pulsed-infrared-stimulation
#13
Jordan M Greenberg, Vicente Lumbreras, Daniel Pelaez, Suhrud M Rajguru, Herman S Cheung
INTRODUCTION: Cellular cardiomyoplasty has rapidly risen to prominence in the clinic following a myocardial infarction; however, low engraftment of transplanted cells limits the therapeutic benefit to these procedures. Recently, lineage-specific stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes have gained much attention to assist in the repair of an injured heart tissue; however, questions regarding the ideal cell source remain. In the present study, we have identified a source that is easy to extract stem cells from and show that the cells present have a high plasticity toward the cardiomyogenic lineage...
October 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191771/linking-pluripotency-reprogramming-and-cancer
#14
Juan Manuel Iglesias, Juan Gumuzio, Angel G Martin
Tumor development and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells are highly comparable processes with striking similarities. Cellular plasticity is inherent to tumor evolution, rendering cells that acquire a stem cell-like phenotype, for which Sox2 activation has proved instrumental for the plastic acquisition of stemness properties in tumor cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying both events might uncover novel approaches for the development of anticancer therapeutics and constitute model systems for understanding tumor generation and ensuring the biosafety of cell-based therapies...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177127/emerging-roles-of-er-stress-and-unfolded-protein-response-pathways-in-skeletal-muscle-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Kyle R Bohnert, Joseph D McMillan, Ashok Kumar
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body and can adapt its mass as a consequence of physical activity, metabolism, growth factors, and disease conditions. Skeletal muscle contains an extensive network of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), called sarcoplasmic reticulum, which plays an important role in the regulation of proteostasis and calcium homeostasis. In many cell types, environmental and genetic factors that disrupt ER function cause an accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins in the ER lumen that ultimately leads to ER stress...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176337/how-fish-color-their-skin-a-paradigm-for-development-and-evolution-of-adult-patterns-multipotency-plasticity-and-cell-competition-regulate-proliferation-and-spreading-of-pigment-cells-in-zebrafish-coloration
#16
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Ajeet Pratap Singh
Pigment cells in zebrafish - melanophores, iridophores, and xanthophores - originate from neural crest-derived stem cells associated with the dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system. Clonal analysis indicates that these progenitors remain multipotent and plastic beyond embryogenesis well into metamorphosis, when the adult color pattern develops. Pigment cells share a lineage with neuronal cells of the peripheral nervous system; progenitors propagate along the spinal nerves. The proliferation of pigment cells is regulated by competitive interactions among cells of the same type...
February 3, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174250/direct-conversion-of-root-primordium-into-shoot-meristem-relies-on-timing-of-stem-cell-niche-development
#17
Olga Rosspopoff, Liudmila Chelysheva, Julie Saffar, Lena Lecorgne, Delphine Gey, Erwann Caillieux, Vincent Colot, François Roudier, Pierre Hilson, Richard Berthomé, Marco Da Costa, Philippe Rech
To understand how the identity of an organ can be switched, we studied the transformation of lateral root primordia (LRP) into shoot meristems in Arabidopsis root segments. In this system, the cytokinin-induced conversion does not involve the formation of callus-like structures. Detailed analysis showed that the conversion sequence starts with a mitotic pause and is concomitant with the differential expression of regulators of root and shoot development. The conversion requires the presence of apical stem cells and only LRP at stages VI or VII can be switched...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173846/phenotype-and-multipotency-of-rabbit-oryctolagus-cuniculus-amniotic-stem-cells
#18
Jéssica Borghesi, Lara Carolina Mario, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Maria Angélica Miglino, Phelipe Oliveira Favaron
BACKGROUND: Stem cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and are able to remain undifferentiated for extended periods of time prior to their differentiation into specific cell lineages. Because of the issues (ethical and religious) involved in the use of embryonic stem cells and the limited plasticity of adult stem cells, an alternative cell source could be foetal stem cells derived from extra-embryonic tissue, which are highly proliferative, grow in vitro and possess interesting immunogenic characteristics...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170170/the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-as-a-source-of-perivascular-stem-cells-with-increased-chondrogenic-potential-for-regenerative-medicine
#19
Paul Hindle, Nusrat Khan, Leela Biant, Bruno Péault
Perivascular stem cells (PSCs) are the natural ancestors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are the stem cells responsible for homeostasis and repair in vivo. Prospectively identified and isolated PSCs have demonstrated increased plasticity and osteogenic potential. Cells from the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have demonstrated increased chondrogenic potential compared with those from subcutaneous fat. This research assessed the chondrogenic potential of IFP PSCs compared with MSCs from the IFP and bone marrow...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168441/late-effect-of-developmental-exposure-to-3-3-iminodipropionitrile-on-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-of-mice
#20
Yasuko Hasegawa-Baba, Takeshi Tanaka, Yousuke Watanabe, Liyun Wang, Megu Itahashi, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
The effects of developmental exposure to 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN), a neurotoxicant that causes proximal axonopathy, on mouse hippocampal neurogenesis was examined. Pregnant mice were exposed to IDPN at 0, 600, or 1200 ppm in their drinking water from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21. On PND 21, male offspring showed increased postmitotic neuron-specific NeuN-immunoreactive((+)) granule cell numbers in the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ) and granule cell layer (GCL) and decreased glutamate receptor gene Grin2d levels in the dentate gyrus at 1200 ppm...
February 6, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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