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Stem cell plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143185/osteogenic-prospective-of-deriving-human-dental-stem-cells-in-collagen-matrix-boost
#1
Tong-Jing Fang, Ding-Han Wang, Chia-Yu Wang, Raju Poongodi, Nien-Hsien Liou, Jiang-Chuan Liu, Ming-Lun Hsu, Po-Da Hong, Shih-Fang Yang, Meng-Lun Liu
Stem cells derived from oral tissue represent a highly attractive alternative source for clinical bone regeneration because they can be collected by non-invasive or minimally invasive procedures. Herein, we describe the human dental stem cells (DSCs) deriving from buccal fat pads (BFP), dental pulp (DP) of impacted teeth, and periodontal ligaments (PDL) to obtain BFPSCs, DPSCs, and PDLSCs, respectively. Cells were purified with selected medium and expanded through passages in stem cell culture medium. Purified cells were characterized for stemness by their growth rate, immunostaining, and multilineage differentiation ability...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141966/nutritional-factors-affecting-adult-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function
#2
REVIEW
Shibu M Poulose, Marshall G Miller, Tammy Scott, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134703/origin-and-dynamics-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-developing-brain-implications-for-perinatal-white-matter-injury
#3
REVIEW
Erik van Tilborg, Caroline G M de Theije, Maurik van Hal, Nienke Wagenaar, Linda S de Vries, Manon J Benders, David H Rowitch, Cora H Nijboer
Infants born prematurely are at high risk to develop white matter injury (WMI), due to exposure to hypoxic and/or inflammatory insults. Such perinatal insults negatively impact the maturation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), thereby causing deficits in myelination. To elucidate the precise pathophysiology underlying perinatal WMI, it is essential to fully understand the cellular mechanisms contributing to healthy/normal white matter development. OLs are responsible for myelination of axons. During brain development, OLs are generally derived from neuroepithelial zones, where neural stem cells committed to the OL lineage differentiate into OL precursor cells (OPCs)...
November 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133867/evidence-of-renal-angiomyolipoma-neoplastic-stem-cells-arising-from-renal-epithelial-cells
#4
Ana Filipa Gonçalves, Mojca Adlesic, Simone Brandt, Tomas Hejhal, Sabine Harlander, Lukas Sommer, Olga Shakhova, Peter J Wild, Ian J Frew
Renal angiomyolipomas (AML) contain an admixture of clonal tumour cells with features of several different mesenchymal lineages, implying the existence of an unidentified AML neoplastic stem cell. Biallelic inactivation of TSC2 or TSC1 is believed to represent the driving event in these tumours. Here we show that TSC2 knockdown transforms senescence-resistant cultured mouse and human renal epithelial cells into neoplastic stem cells that serially propagate renal AML-like tumours in mice. mTOR inhibitory therapy of mouse AML allografts mimics the clinical responses of human renal AMLs...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131159/enhancing-the-precision-of-genetic-lineage-tracing-using-dual-recombinases
#5
Lingjuan He, Yan Li, Yi Li, Wenjuan Pu, Xiuzhen Huang, Xueying Tian, Yue Wang, Hui Zhang, Qiaozhen Liu, Libo Zhang, Huan Zhao, Juan Tang, Hongbin Ji, Dongqing Cai, Zhibo Han, Zhongchao Han, Yu Nie, Shengshou Hu, Qing-Dong Wang, Ruilin Sun, Jian Fei, Fengchao Wang, Ting Chen, Yan Yan, Hefeng Huang, William T Pu, Bin Zhou
The Cre-loxP recombination system is the most widely used technology for in vivo tracing of stem or progenitor cell lineages. The precision of this genetic system largely depends on the specificity of Cre recombinase expression in targeted stem or progenitor cells. However, Cre expression in nontargeted cell types can complicate the interpretation of lineage-tracing studies and has caused controversy in many previous studies. Here we describe a new genetic lineage tracing system that incorporates the Dre-rox recombination system to enhance the precision of conventional Cre-loxP-mediated lineage tracing...
November 13, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129882/plasticity-in-glioma-stem-cell-phenotype-and-its-therapeutic-implication
#6
Yasuo Iwadate
The marked heterogeneity in glioblastoma (GBM) may be induced through dynamic differentiation and dedifferentiation process of glioma cells. The hypothesis that environmental stimuli induce these phenotypic changes, including dedifferentiation into the stem cell phenotype which contributes to the high invasiveness and resultant poor outcome in GBM patients, is recently being proven. In the process of cancer invasion and metastasis, the phenotypic change has also been described as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
November 13, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129620/human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-adsc-and-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-pdlsc-as-cellular-substrates-of-a-toxicity-prediction-assay
#7
Natássia Caroline Resende Corrêa, Crisciele Kuligovski, Ariane Caroline Campos Paschoal, Ana Paula Ressetti Abud, Carmen Lucia Kuniyoshi Rebelatto, Lidiane Maria Boldrini Leite, Alexandra Cristina Senegaglia, Bruno Dallagiovanna, Alessandra Melo de Aguiar
With the increasing need to develop in vitro assays to replace animal use, human stem cell-derived methods are emerging and showing outstanding contributions to the toxicological screening of substances. Adult human stem cells such as adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) were used as cell substrates for a cytotoxicity assay and toxicity prediction using the neutral red uptake (NRU) assay. First, primary cell cultures from three independent donors, from each tissue source, were characterized as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by plastic adherence and appropriate immunophenotype for MSC markers (positive for CD90, CD73, and CD105 and negative for CD11b, CD34, CD45, HLADR, and CD19)...
November 9, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128533/fabrication-of-dense-anisotropic-collagen-scaffolds-using-biaxial-compression
#8
Jared L Zitnay, Shawn P Reese, Garvin Tran, Niloofar Farhang, Robert D Bowles, Jeffrey A Weiss
We developed a new method to manufacture dense, aligned, and porous collagen scaffolds using biaxial plastic compression of type I collagen gels. Using a novel compression apparatus that constricts like an iris diaphragm, low density collagen gels were compressed to yield a permanently densified, highly aligned collagen material. Micro-porosity scaffolds was created using hydrophilic elastomer porogens that can be selectively removed following biaxial compression, with porosity modulated by using different porogen concentrations...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128445/the-promise-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Katrin Linda, Carol Fiuza, Nael Nadif Kasri
A major challenge in clinical genetics and medicine is represented by genetically and phenotypically highly diverse neurodevelopmental disorders, like for example intellectual disability and autism. Intellectual disability is characterized by substantial limitations in cognitive function and adaptive behaviour. At the cellular level, this is reflected by deficits in synaptic structure and plasticity and therefore has been coined as a synaptic disorder or "synaptopathy". In this review, we summarize the findings from recent studies in which iPSCs have been used to model specific neurodevelopmental syndromes, including Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Williams-Beuren syndrome and Phelan-McDermid syndrome...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124394/influence-of-hippocampal-niche-signals-on-neural-stem-cell-functions-during-aging
#10
REVIEW
Kira Irving Mosher, David V Schaffer
The genesis of new neurons from neural stem cells in the adult brain offers the hope that this mechanism of plasticity can be harnessed for the treatment of brain injuries and diseases. However, neurogenesis becomes impaired during the normal course of aging; this is also the primary risk factor for most neurodegenerative diseases. The local microenvironment that regulates the function of resident neural stem cells (the "neurogenic niche") is a particularly complex network of various signaling mechanisms, rendering it especially challenging for the dissection of the control of these cells but offering the potential for the advancement of our understanding of the regulation/misregulation of neurogenesis...
November 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120754/new-opportunities-and-challenges-to-defeat-cancer-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Erika K Ramos, Andrew D Hoffmann, Stanton L Gerson, Huiping Liu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells that are capable of self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation, plastic adaptation, and immune regulation, thereby mediating tumorigenesis, metastasis, and therapy resistance. CSCs are associated with cancer progression and clinical outcome in cancer patients. Successful targeting of CSCs will therefore be necessary to eradicate and cure cancer. Functional regulators of stem cell (stemness) signaling pathways in human cancers have brought new opportunities to target CSCs and reframe cancer-targeting strategies in clinical settings...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120751/breast-cancer-multiple-subtypes-within-a-tumor
#12
REVIEW
Syn Kok Yeo, Jun-Lin Guan
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and stratification of tumors is paramount to achieve better clinical outcomes. While it is common to stratify and treat breast tumors as a single entity, insights from studies on intratumoral heterogeneity and cancer stem cells raise the possibility that multiple breast cancer subtypes may coexist within a tumor. A role for plasticity in driving dynamic conversions between breast cancer subtypes is proposed, and the clinical implications include a need for combinatorial therapeutic strategies that account for the discrete disease entities and their plasticity...
November 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119116/use-of-limiting-dilution-method-for-isolation-of-nucleus-pulposus-mesenchymal-stem-progenitor-cells-and-effects-of-plating-density-on-biological-characteristics-and-plasticity
#13
Linghan Lin, Zhiwei Jia, Yachao Zhao, Yaohong Wu, Xiyan Zhao, Yong Li, Ziming Guo, Jiahai Chen, Shi Cheng, Deli Wang, Dike Ruan
Objectives: To evaluate the effects of the limiting dilution method and plating density in rat nucleus pulposus mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (NPMSCs). Materials and Methods: Nucleus pulposus tissues were isolated from 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and NPMSCs were isolated using limiting dilution method. Cells were then classified into 3 groups according to plating density. Cell morphologies were observed, and colony-forming units, migration abilities, proliferative capacities, cell cycle percentages, multilineage differentiation capacities, stem cell biomarker expression levels, and immunophenotyping were also examined in each group...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115987/cancer-cell-soluble-factors-reprogram-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-to-slow-cycling-chemoresistant-cells-with-a-more-stem-like-state
#14
Ahmed El-Badawy, Mohamed A Ghoneim, Mahmoud M Gabr, Radwa Ayman Salah, Ihab K Mohamed, Marwa Amer, Nagwa El-Badri
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play different roles in modulating tumor progression, growth, and metastasis. MSCs are recruited to the tumor site in large numbers and subsequently have an important microenvironmental role in modulating tumor progression and drug sensitivity. However, the effect of the tumor microenvironment on MSC plasticity remains poorly understood. Herein, we report a paracrine effect of cancer cells, in which they secrete soluble factors that promote a more stem-like state in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs)...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111577/applications-of-acupuncture-therapy-in-modulating-plasticity-of-central-nervous-system
#15
REVIEW
Ling-Yong Xiao, Xue-Rui Wang, Ye Yang, Jing-Wen Yang, Yan Cao, Si-Ming Ma, Tian-Ran Li, Cun-Zhi Liu
OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture is widely applied for treatment of various neurological disorders. This manuscript will review the preclinical evidence of acupuncture in mediating neural plasticity, the mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched acupuncture, plasticity, and other potential related words at the following sites: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and VIP information data base. The following keywords were used: acupuncture, electroacupuncture, plasticity, neural plasticity, neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, neuroblast, stem cell, progenitor cell, BrdU, synapse, synapse structure, synaptogenesis, axon, axon regeneration, synaptic plasticity, LTP, LTD, neurotrophin, neurotrophic factor, BDNF, GDNF, VEGF, bFGF, EGF, NT-3, NT-4, NT-5, p75NTR, neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, noradrenaline, dopamine, monamine...
November 7, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105383/hypoxia-and-placental-development
#16
REVIEW
Michael J Soares, Khursheed Iqbal, Keisuke Kozai
Hemochorial placentation is orchestrated through highly regulated temporal and spatial decisions governing the fate of trophoblast stem/progenitor cells. Trophoblast cell acquisition of specializations facilitating invasion and uterine spiral artery remodeling is a labile process, sensitive to the environment, and represents a process that is vulnerable to dysmorphogenesis in pathologic states. Hypoxia is a signal guiding placental development, and molecular mechanisms directing cellular adaptations to low oxygen tension are integral to trophoblast cell differentiation and placentation...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098106/a-rare-case-of-idiopathic-plastic-bronchitis
#17
Mohammed Raoufi, Leila Achachi, Fatima Zahra Mrabet, Laila Herrak, Mustapha El Ftouh, Najoua Bourhroum, Nezha Ouazzani Taibi
Plastic bronchitis is a rare disorder characterized by formation of large, branching bronchial casts, which are often expectorated. We present an interesting case of a 35-year-old woman who presented for evaluation of a chronic cough productive of voluminous secretions. Clinical and radiological examination confirmed a total left lung atelectasis without any pathological mediastinal node. Flexible bronchoscopy demonstrated tenacious, thick, and sticky whitish secretions blocking the left stem bronchus. This material was extracted, and inspection demonstrated a bronchial cast, whose pathological analysis revealed necrotic epithelial cells, some eosinophils, and Charcot-Leyden crystals...
2017: Case Reports in Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084232/phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-modeling-cancer-evolution
#18
Ali Mahdipour-Shirayeh, Kamran Kaveh, Mohammad Kohandel, Sivabal Sivaloganathan
The unwelcome evolution of malignancy during cancer progression emerges through a selection process in a complex heterogeneous population structure. In the present work, we investigate evolutionary dynamics in a phenotypically heterogeneous population of stem cells (SCs) and their associated progenitors. The fate of a malignant mutation is determined not only by overall stem cell and non-stem cell growth rates but also differentiation and dedifferentiation rates. We investigate the effect of such a complex population structure on the evolution of malignant mutations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078802/restoring-the-quantity-and-quality-of-elderly-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-autologous-cell-based-therapies
#19
Travis J Block, Milos Marinkovic, Olivia N Tran, Aaron O Gonzalez, Amanda Marshall, David D Dean, Xiao-Dong Chen
BACKGROUND: Degenerative diseases are a major public health concern for the aging population and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great potential for treating many of these diseases. However, the quantity and quality of MSCs declines with aging, limiting the potential efficacy of autologous MSCs for treating the elderly population. METHODS: Human bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs from young and elderly donors were obtained and characterized using standard cell surface marker criteria (CD73, CD90, CD105) as recommended by the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT)...
October 27, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076503/excessive-ube3a-dosage-impairs-retinoic-acid-signaling-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Xingxing Xu, Chuanyin Li, Xiaobo Gao, Kun Xia, Hui Guo, Yali Li, Zijian Hao, Lei Zhang, Daming Gao, Chenfan Xu, Huatai Xu, Zhi-Qi Xiong, Zilong Qiu, Ling Mei, Xiaoduo Xie, Kangcheng Ruan, Ronggui Hu
The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a collection of human neurological disorders with heterogeneous etiologies. Hyperactivity of E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase UBE3A, stemming from 15q11-q13 copy number variations, accounts for 1%-3% of ASD cases worldwide, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. Here we report that the functionality of ALDH1A2, the rate-limiting enzyme of retinoic acid (RA) synthesis, is negatively regulated by UBE3A in a ubiquitylation-dependent manner. Excessive UBE3A dosage was found to impair RA-mediated neuronal homeostatic synaptic plasticity...
October 27, 2017: Cell Research
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