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chemokine receptor

Xin Yu, Qilong Wan, Gu Cheng, Xin Cheng, Jing Zhang, Janak L Pathak, Zubing Li
Mesenchymal stem cells homing and migration is a crucial step during bone fracture healing. Hypoxic environment in fracture site induces bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) migration, but its mechanism remains unclear. Our previous study and studies by other groups have reported the involvement of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in cell migration. However, the role of STAT3 pathway in hypoxia-induced cell migration is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of STAT3 signaling in hypoxia-induced BMSCs migration and osteogenic differentiation...
June 16, 2018: Cell Biology International
Mario García-Domínguez, Ana Lastra, Alicia R Folgueras, Rafael Cernuda-Cernuda, María Teresa Fernández-García, Agustín Hidalgo, Luis Menéndez, Ana Baamonde
In the present study, we characterize the antinociceptive effects produced by the chemokine CCL4 in mice. The intraplantar administration of very low doses of CCL4 (0.1-3 pg) produced bilateral antinociception assessed by the unilateral hot-plate test (UHP) without evoking chemotactic responses at the injection site. Moreover, the subcutaneous administration of CCL4 (3-100 pg/kg) also yielded bilateral antinociception in the UHP and the paw pressure test and reduced the number of spinal neurons that express Fos protein in response to noxious stimulation...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ida Marie Rundgren, Øystein Bruserud, Anita Ryningen, Elisabeth Ersvær
INTRODUCTION: Monocytes are important for innate immunity and include the classical (CD14bright CD16negative ), intermediate (CD14bright CD16dim ) and non-classical (CD14dim CD16bright ) monocyte subsets. The quantification of these functionally different subsets in peripheral blood may become useful for diagnosis and follow-up in human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different pre-analytical parameters influence analysis of monocyte subsets in peripheral blood samples...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Alex Karlsson-Parra, Juliana Kovacka, Emilia Heimann, Margareth Jorvid, Sijme Zeilemaker, Sharon Longhurst, Peter Suenaert
Intratumoral administration of an immune primer is a therapeutic vaccine strategy aimed to trigger dendritic cell (DC)-mediated cross-presentation of cell-associated tumor antigens to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells without the need for tumor antigen characterization. The prevailing view is that these cross-presenting DCs have to be directly activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), including Toll-like receptor ligands or live microbial agents like oncolytic viruses. Emerging data are however challenging this view, indicating that the cross-presenting machinery in DCs is suboptimally activated by direct PAMP recognition, and that endogenous inflammatory factors are the main drivers of DC-mediated cross-presentation within the tumor...
June 14, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Hanne A Eide, Ingerid Skjei Knudtsen, Vandana Sandhu, Ayca M Løndalen, Ann Rita Halvorsen, Azadeh Abravan, Elin H Kure, Trond V Bogsrud, Odd Terje Brustugun, Jon Amund Kyte, Eirik Malinen, Åslaug Helland
Purpose: Radiation therapy effectively kills cancer cells and elicits local effects in the irradiated tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of cytokines in the serum of patients with lung cancer undergoing radiation therapy and to identify associations with metabolic tumor burden as determined by 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods and materials: Forty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were included in a phase 2 clinical trial and randomized between fractionated thoracic radiation therapy alone or concurrent with an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Philip E Dubé, Cambrian Y Liu, Nandini Girish, M Kay Washington, D Brent Polk
Current treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) target the overactive immune response of the intestinal mucosa. However, epidermal growth factor (EGF), an activating ligand of the EGF receptor (EGFR), has been shown to induce disease remission through direct targeting of intestinal mucosal healing. Despite promising preclinical and clinical results, this EGFR-activating therapy has not progressed, in part due to the potential for carcinogenesis associated with long-term use and the increased risk of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in IBD...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenzhe Yu, Mengru Tao, Yueliang Zhao, Xiaoqian Hu, Mingfu Wang
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) could interact with the receptor for AGE (RAGE) as a sterile danger signal to induce inflammation. 4′-methoxyresveratrol (4′MR), a polyphenol derived from Dipterocarpaceae, has not been studied for its anti-inflammation effects. In the present study, we sought to explore the protective role of 4′MR in AGEs-induced inflammatory model using RAW264.7 macrophages. 4′MR significantly inhibited gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as well as two typical pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)...
June 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ilaria Scurci, Elsa Martins, Oliver Hartley
Because of the level of attention it received due to its role as the principal HIV coreceptor, CCR5 has been described as a 'celebrity' chemokine receptor. Here we describe the development of CCR5 inhibitory strategies that have been developed for HIV therapy and which are now additionally being considered for use in HIV prevention and cure. The wealth of CCR5-related tools that have been developed during the intensive investigation of CCR5 as an HIV drug target can now be turned towards the study of CCR5 as a model chemokine receptor...
September 2018: Cytokine
Darrin Gao, Eleanor N Fish
Accumulating evidence indicates that chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions invoke biological responses beyond their originally described function of orchestrating leukocyte trafficking. In this review we will extend the findings that chemokines participate actively in the neoplastic process, and consider the contribution of CCL5 activation of CCR5 on breast cancer cells to upregulation of anabolic metabolic events that would support the energy demands of cell replication and proliferation.
September 2018: Cytokine
Vincent Vanheule, Mieke Metzemaekers, Rik Janssens, Sofie Struyf, Paul Proost
Chemokines are important proteins involved in the regulation of directed leukocyte migration during inflammation and the homeostatic homing of immune cells. In addition, they play a role in angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, organogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, the chemokine/chemokine receptor network is highly complex and needs to be tightly controlled. An important mechanism of fine-tuning chemokine activity and reducing its apparent redundancy is post-translational modification (PTM) of chemokines and their receptors...
September 2018: Cytokine
K E Quinn, D I Mackie, K M Caron
The discovery that atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) can initiate alternative signaling pathways rather than classical G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling has changed the paradigm of chemokine receptors and their roles in modulating chemotactic responses. The ACKR family has grown over the years, with discovery of new functions and roles in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. However, the extent to which these receptors regulate normal physiology is still continuously expanding. In particular, atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3) has proven to be an important receptor in mediating normal biological functions, including cardiac development and migration of cortical neurons...
September 2018: Cytokine
Amnon Peled, Shiri Klein, Katia Beider, Jan A Burger, Michal Abraham
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) are important players in the cross-talk among lymphoma, myeloma and leukemia cells and their microenvironments. In hematological malignancies and solid tumors, the overexpression of CXCR4 on the cell surface has been shown to be responsible for disease progression, increasing tumor cell survival and chemoresistance and metastasis to organs with high CXCL12 levels (e.g., lymph nodes and bone marrow (BM)). Furthermore, the overexpression of CXCR4 has been found to have prognostic significance for disease progression in many type of tumors including lymphoma, leukemia, glioma, and prostate, breast, colorectal, renal, and hepatocellular carcinomas...
September 2018: Cytokine
Yingzhuan Zhan, Han Zhang, Bingling Dai, Yanmin Zhang, Jie Zhang, Langchong He
We recently reported that TPD7 suppressed tumor cell proliferation, and inhibited invasion, through the suppression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effect of TPD7 on apoptosis and invasion of cervical cancer HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that TPD7 decreased cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1 and cyclin D1 expression, and increased cyclin A expression, following S phase blockade. TPD7 induced chromatin condensation and significantly elevated the number of apoptotic cells, suggesting that its inhibitory effect on HeLa cells was due to the induction of cell cycle blockade and apoptosis...
June 4, 2018: Oncology Reports
Hong Wu, Pai Pang, Min-Da Liu, Song Wang, Shan Jin, Fa-Yu Liu, Chang-Fu Sun
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of proliferation, migration, and invasion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The present study assessed expression, functions and mechanisms of miR‑20a‑5p in the regulation of HNSCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. miR‑20a‑5p expression in HNSCC cell lines and tissues was detected using qRT‑PCR, while miR‑20a‑5p mimics and inhibitor were transfected into HNSCC cells for assessment of the effects using different assays (CCK‑8, wound healing and Transwell assays) and expression of miR‑20a‑5p‑targeting genes (using western blot and luciferase reporter assays)...
June 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
Ye Wu, Lei Tian, Yongle Xu, Minhong Zhang, Shengqing Xiang, Jianguo Zhao, Zhenxia Wang
C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR7) is reported to be overexpressed in tumor endothelial cells (TECs), which are the primary target cells of antivascular chemotherapy. However, the role of CXCR7 in TECs is not fully understood. In the present study, CXCR7 expression was inhibited in TECs derived from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using short hairpin (sh)RNA plasmids to investigate the role of CXCR7 in the regulation of migration and invasion of TECs as well as its underlying mechanisms. The data showed that the downregulation of CXCR7 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of TECs...
May 31, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Bongjun Kim, Jong-Ho Lee, Won Jong Jin, Hong-Hee Kim, Hyunil Ha, Zang Hee Lee
C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) is a G protein-coupled receptor for three ligands which are C-X-C motif chemokine 9 (CXCL9), CXCL10, and CXCL11 [1]. Previously we have reported that CXCL10 promotes pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and forms positive feedback loop [2], [3]. In the present study, we described mRNA expression of CXCL9 and CXCL11 under CXCL10 stimuli in the presence or absence of CXCR3 antagonist, JN-2 in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and CD4+ T cells. In addition, we examined pro-inflammatory cytokine expression under CXCL9 or CXCL11 stimuli in BMMs and CD4+ T cells...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Bouchra Edderkaoui, Liana Sargsyan, Alisa Hetrick, Hongzhe Li
Cochlear inflammatory response to various environmental insults, including acoustic and ototoxic overexposures, has been increasingly become a topic of interest. As the immune response is associated with both pathology and protection, targeting specific components of the immune response is expected to dissect the relationships between cellular damage and inflammation-associated protection and repair in the cochlea. Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is a member of a group of atypical chemokine receptors, and essential for chemokine-regulated leukocyte/neutrophil trafficking during inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Elizabeth J English, Sarah A Mahn, Adriano Marchese
Signaling activated by binding of the C-X-C motif chemokine ligand CXCL12 to its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 4 (CXCR4), is linked to metastatic disease. Yet the mechanisms governing CXCR4 signaling remain poorly understood. Here we show that endocytosis and early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1), which is part of the endosome fusion machinery, are required for CXCL12-mediated AKT Ser/Thr kinase (Akt) signaling selective for certain Akt substrates. Pharmacological inhibition of endocytosis partially attenuated CXCL12-induced phosphorylation of Akt, but not phosphorylation of ERK-1/2...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Lilli Arndt, Janine Dokas, Martin Gericke, Carl Elias Kutzner, Silvana Müller, Franziska Jeromin, Joachim Thiery, Ralph Burkhardt
Macrophages are essential for innate immunity and inflammatory responses and differentiate into various functional phenotypes. Tribbles homolog 1 ( Trib1 ), a member of the mammalian Tribbles homolog pseudokinase family, has been implicated in regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation and metabolism, but its role in macrophage biology has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the consequences of Trib1 deficiency on macrophage functions and M1/M2 polarization. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from Trib1 -deficient ( Trib1 -/- ) mice exhibited elevated phagocytic capacity, correlating with up-regulation of several scavenger receptors...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Scott Seitz, Penny Clarke, Kenneth L Tyler
Flaviviruses account for most arthropod-borne cases of human encephalitis in the world. However the exact mechanisms of injury to the central nervous system (CNS) during Flavivirus infections remain poorly understood. Microglia are the resident immune cell of the CNS and are important for multiple functions, including control of viral pathogenesis. Utilizing a pharmacologic method of microglia depletion (PLX5622, Plexxikon Inc, an inhibitor of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor) we sought to determine the role of microglia in Flaviviral pathogenesis...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
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