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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223395/a-novel-mouse-model-for-tracking-the-fate-of-cxcr5-expressing-t-cells
#1
Tomo Takebe, Kazuki Sakamoto, Yoshikazu Higami, Yohsuke Harada
The germinal center (GC) reaction, a critical process in the humoral immune response, requires follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. Tfh cells express the master transcription factor Bcl6 and chemokine receptor CXCR5, which enable them to migrate from the T cell zone to B cell follicles and interact with GC B cells. However, CXCR5 is downregulated when Tfh cells become memory cells. Therefore, it is difficult to track Tfh cells continuously in vivo. In this study, we generated a mouse strain, Cxcr5CreERT2R26Tomato, in which the fluorescent protein tdTomato is inducibly expressed in CXCR5+ cells by tamoxifen administration...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222527/the-chemokines-cxcl12-and-cxcl14-differentially-regulate-connective-tissue-markers-during-limb-development
#2
Sonya Nassari, Cédrine Blavet, Marie-Ange Bonnin, Sigmar Stricker, Delphine Duprez, Claire Fournier-Thibault
Connective tissues (CT) support and connect organs together. Understanding the formation of CT is important, as CT deregulation leads to fibrosis. The identification of CT specific markers has contributed to a better understanding of CT function during development. In developing limbs, Osr1 transcription factor is involved in the differentiation of irregular CT while the transcription factor Scx labels tendon. In this study, we show that the CXCL12 and CXCL14 chemokines display distinct expression pattern in limb CT during chick development...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222347/pioglitazone-inhibits-periprostatic-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-obese-mice
#3
Miki Miyazawa, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Priya Bhardwaj, Xi K Zhou, Hanhan Wang, Domenick J Falcone, Dilip D Giri, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of high-grade prostate cancer (PC) and poor prognosis for PC patients. Recently, we showed that obesity-related periprostatic white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead or dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages, was associated with high-grade PC. It's possible, therefore, that agents that suppress periprostatic WAT inflammation will alter the development or progression of PC. Pioglitazone, a ligand of PPARγ is used to treat diabetes and possesses anti-inflammatory properties...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222072/heparan-sulfate-potentiates-leukocyte-adhesion-on-cardiac-fibroblast-by-enhantcing-vcam-1-and-icam-1-expression
#4
Francisco Olivares-Silva, Rodolfo Landaeta, Pablo Aránguiz, Samir Bolivar, Claudio Humeres, Renatto Anfossi, Raúl Vivar, Pía Boza, Claudia Muñoz, Viviana Pardo-Jiménez, Concepción Peiró, Carlos F Sánchez-Ferrer, Guillermo Díaz-Araya
Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) act as sentinel cells responding to chemokines, cytokines and growth factors released in cardiac tissue in cardiac injury events, such as myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac injury involves the release of various damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) including heparan sulfate (HS), a constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM), through the TLR4 receptor activation triggering a strong inflammatory response, inducing leukocytes recruitment. This latter cells are responsible of clearing cell debris and releasing cytokines that promote CF differentiation to myofibroblast (CMF), thus initiating scar formation...
December 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221851/ccr5-chemokine-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-in-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#5
Geraldo M de Faria, Christiane M Ayo, Amanda P de Oliveira, Alessandro G Lopes, Fábio B Frederico, Aparecida P Silveira-Carvalho, Mariana Previato, Amanda P Barbosa, Fernando H A Murata, Gildásio Castello de Almeida, Rubens Camargo Siqueira, Luiz C de Mattos, Cinara C Brandão de Mattos
C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor that influences the immune response to infectious and parasitic diseases. This study aimed to determine whether the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms are associated with the development of ocular toxoplasmosis in humans. Patients with positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii were analyzed and grouped as 'with ocular toxoplasmosis' (G1: n=160) or 'without ocular toxoplasmosis' (G2: n=160). A control group (G3) consisted of 160 individuals with negative serology...
December 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221117/inhibition-of-chemerin-cmklr1-axis-in-neuroblastoma-cells-reduces-clonogenicity-and-cell-viability-in-vitro-and-impairs-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#6
Conny Tümmler, Igor Snapkov, Malin Wickström, Ugo Moens, Linda Ljungblad, Lotta Helena Maria Elfman, Jan-Olof Winberg, Per Kogner, John Inge Johnsen, Baldur Sveinbjørnsson
Pro-inflammatory cells, cytokines, and chemokines are essential in promoting a tumor supporting microenvironment. Chemerin is a chemotactic protein and a natural ligand for the receptors CMKLR1, GPR1, and CCRL2. The chemerin/CMKLR1 axis is involved in immunity and inflammation, and it has also been implicated in obesity and cancer. In neuroblastoma, a childhood tumor of the peripheral nervous system we identified correlations between high CMKLR1 and GPR1 expression and reduced overall survival probability. CMKLR1, GPR1, and chemerin RNA and protein were detected in neuroblastoma cell lines and neuroblastoma primary tumor tissue...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220594/modification-of-immunological-features-in-human-platelets-during-sepsis
#7
Valle-Jiménez Xareni Raque, Sánchez-García Juan Carlos, Revilla-Rodríguez Eduardo, Baltierrez-Hoyos Rafael, Romero-Tlalolini María de Los Ángeles, Ramírez-Cosmes Adriana, Torres-Aguilar Honorio, Bustos-Arriaga José, Aguilar-Ruiz Sergio Roberto
Sepsis is an organic dysfunction that puts at risk the life of patients suffering this disorder due to an exacerbated immunological response to the infection mediated by the host. Platelets have been largely researched on sepsis owing to its role in Disseminated Intracellular Coagulation (DIC) and because thrombocytopenia is an important clinical feature of these patients. Nevertheless, a great number of evidence shows that platelets have also an important role in immunological response since they have pattern recognition receptors, chemokine receptors and granules with stored soluble mediators...
December 8, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220536/cd36-deficiency-attenuates-immune-mediated-hepatitis-in-mice-by-modulating-the-proapoptotic-effects-of-cxcl10
#8
Che Xu, Chen Zhang, Jie Ji, Chao Wang, Jing Yang, Biao Geng, Ting Zhao, Hong Zhou, Xianmin Mu, Jinshun Pan, Shi Hu, Yuanfang Lv, Xingguo Chen, Hao Wen, Qiang You
The scavenger receptor, CD36, recognizes a diverse set of ligands, and has been implicated in a wide variety of normal and pathological processes, including lipid metabolism, angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, and phagocytosis. In particular, recent findings have demonstrated its crucial functions in sterile inflammation and tumor metastasis. However, the role of CD36 in immune-mediated hepatitis remains unclear. Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury is a well-established experimental T cell-mediated hepatitis...
December 8, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220092/dose-rectification-of-an-unbalance-between-dpp4-and-glp-1-ameliorates-chronic-stress-related-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerosis
#9
Xian Wu Cheng, Megumi Narisawa, Enze Jin, Chenglin Yu, Wenhu Xu, Limei Piao
Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including vascular aging and regeneration. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) exerts many physiological and pharmacological functions by regulating its extremely abundant substrates [e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), stromal cell-derived factor-1α/ C-X-C chemokine receptor type-4, etc.]. Over the past decade, emerging data revealed unexpected roles for DPP-4 and GLP-1 in intracellular signaling, oxidative stress production, lipid metabolism, cell apoptosis, immune activation, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
December 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218724/genetic-disruption-of-fractalkine-signaling-leads-to-enhanced-loss-of-cochlear-afferents-following-ototoxic-or-acoustic-injury
#10
Tejbeer Kaur, Kevin K Ohlemiller, Mark E Warchol
Cochlear hair cells are vulnerable to a variety of insults like acoustic trauma and ototoxic drugs. Such injury can also lead to degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), but this occurs over a period of months to years. Neuronal survival is necessary for the proper function of cochlear prosthetics, therefore it is of great interest to understand the mechanisms that regulate neuronal survival in deaf ears. We have recently demonstrated that selective hair cell ablation is sufficient to attract leukocytes into the spiral ganglion (SG), and that fractalkine signaling plays a role in macrophage recruitment and in the survival of auditory neurons...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218607/-chemokines-in-ophthalmology
#11
REVIEW
T Bleul, G Schlunck, T Reinhard, T Lapp
Chemokines are chemotactically active cytokines, which coordinate the distribution of immune cells within the body and also regulate the migration of leukocytes in malignant and inflammatory processes. Chemokines are a heterogeneous group of short-chain proteins that are divided into different subgroups on the basis of their structure. In addition to the chemokines (ligands) various chemokine receptors also exist. The chemokine system is given its complexity by the high redundancy of ligand-receptor interactions: one single ligand can bind to different receptors and a single receptor can interact with different ligands...
December 7, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218605/oxymatrine-sensitizes-the-hacat-cells-to-the-ifn-%C3%AE-pathway-and-downregulates-mdc-icam-1-and-socs1-by-activating-p38-jnk-and-akt
#12
Chun-Jie Gao, Pei-Jun Ding, Li-Li Yang, Xu-Feng He, Meng-Jiao Chen, Dong-Ming Wang, Yan-Xin Tian, Hui-Min Zhang
Decreased interferon (IFN)-γ levels and increased levels of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 are known to be involved in allergic skin diseases, such as eczema and atopic dermatitis. Activation of the IFN-γ and its downstream interleukin-12 (IL-12) pathway can correct these diseases. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a cytokine signaling inhibitor that blocks downstream pathways of IFN-γ by blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways...
December 7, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218051/sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-c-c-chemokine-receptor-2-dependent-activation-of-cd4-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-contributes-to-signs-of-sepsis-induced-immunosuppression
#13
Anna Smirnov, Stephanie Pohlmann, Melanie Nehring, Shafaqat Ali, Ritu Mann-Nüttel, Stefanie Scheu, Anne-Charlotte Antoni, Wiebke Hansen, Manuela Büettner, Miriam J Gardiasch, Astrid M Westendorf, Florian Wirsdörfer, Eva Pastille, Marcel Dudda, Stefanie B Flohé
Sepsis is the dysregulated response of the host to systemic, mostly bacterial infection, and is associated with an enhanced susceptibility to life-threatening opportunistic infections. During polymicrobial sepsis, dendritic cells (DCs) secrete enhanced levels of interleukin (IL) 10 due to an altered differentiation in the bone marrow and contribute to the development of immunosuppression. We investigated the origin of the altered DC differentiation using murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model for human polymicrobial sepsis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218043/development-of-novel-promiscuous-anti-chemokine-peptibodies-for-treating-autoimmunity-and-inflammation
#14
Michal Abraham, Hanna Wald, Dalit Vaizel-Ohayon, Valentin Grabovsky, Zohar Oren, Arnon Karni, Lola Weiss, Eithan Galun, Amnon Peled, Orly Eizenberg
Chemokines and their receptors play critical roles in the progression of autoimmunity and inflammation. Typically, multiple chemokines are involved in the development of these pathologies. Indeed, targeting single chemokines or chemokine receptors has failed to achieve significant clinical benefits in treating autoimmunity and inflammation. Moreover, the binding of host atypical chemokine receptors to multiple chemokines as well as the binding of chemokine-binding proteins secreted by various pathogens can serve as a strategy for controlling inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217668/induced-global-deletion-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-impairs-fracture-healing
#15
Anna E Rapp, Yasmine Hachemi, Julia Kemmler, Mascha Koenen, Jan Tuckermann, Anita Ignatius
Although endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) are important regulators of bone integrity and the immune system, their role in bone repair after fracture-a process highly dependent on inflammation and bone formation-is unclear. Because most effects of GCs are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), we used an inducible global GR knockout (GRgtROSACreERT2) mouse model to eliminate endogenous GC action in all cells contributing to bone repair. The healing process was analyzed by cytokine/chemokine multiplex analysis, flow cytometry, histology, gene-expression analysis, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical analysis...
December 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216437/epha2-modulation-associates-with-protective-effect-of-prone-position-in-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#16
Byung Hoon Park, Mi Hwa Shin, Ivor S Douglas, Kyung Soo Chung, Joo Han Song, Song Yee Kim, Eun Young Kim, Ji Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Joon Chang, Young Sam Kim, Moo Suk Park
The erythropoietin-producing hepatoma receptor tyrosine kinase A2 (EphA2) and its ligand ephrinA1 play a pivotal role in inflammation and tissue injury by modulating the epithelial and endothelial barrier integrity. Therefore, EphA2 receptor may be a potential therapeutic target for modulating ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). To support this hypothesis, here we analyzed EphA2/ephrinA1 signaling in the process of VILI and determined the role of EphA2/ephrinA1 signaling in the protective mechanism of prone positioning in a VILI model...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215041/crispr-cas9-delivery-with-one-single-adenoviral-vector-devoid-of-all-viral-genes
#17
Eric Ehrke-Schulz, Maren Schiwon, Theo Leitner, Stephan Dávid, Thorsten Bergmann, Jing Liu, Anja Ehrhardt
The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system revolutionized the field of gene editing but viral delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has not been fully explored. Here we adapted clinically relevant high-capacity adenoviral vectors (HCAdV) devoid of all viral genes for the delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 machinery using a single viral vector. We present a platform enabling fast transfer of the Cas9 gene and gRNA expression units into the HCAdV genome including the option to choose between constitutive or inducible Cas9 expression and gRNA multiplexing...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#18
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213079/human-cd26high-t-cells-elicit-tumor-immunity-against-multiple-malignancies-via-enhanced-migration-and-persistence
#19
Stefanie R Bailey, Michelle H Nelson, Kinga Majchrzak, Jacob S Bowers, Megan M Wyatt, Aubrey S Smith, Lillian R Neal, Keisuke Shirai, Carmine Carpenito, Carl H June, Michael J Zilliox, Chrystal M Paulos
CD8+ T lymphocytes mediate potent immune responses against tumor, but the role of human CD4+ T cell subsets in cancer immunotherapy remains ill-defined. Herein, we exhibit that CD26 identifies three T helper subsets with distinct immunological properties in both healthy individuals and cancer patients. Although CD26neg T cells possess a regulatory phenotype, CD26int T cells are mainly naive and CD26high T cells appear terminally differentiated and exhausted. Paradoxically, CD26high T cells persist in and regress multiple solid tumors following adoptive cell transfer...
December 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212252/c-c-motif-chemokine-receptor-1-ccr1-is-a-target-of-the-egf-akt-mtor-stat3-signaling-axis-in-breast-cancer-cells
#20
Soon Young Shin, Da Hyun Lee, Jishin Lee, Chan Choi, Ji-Young Kim, Jeong-Seok Nam, Yoongho Lim, Young Han Lee
The CC motif chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis in numerous cancers. However, the detailed mechanism of CCR1 upregulation in metastatic tumor cells is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the regulatory mechanism underlying transcriptional activation of the CCR1 gene in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation in breast cancer cells. CCR1 was highly expressed in human breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared to adjacent normal tissues...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
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