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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691378/blockade-of-the-c5a-c5ar-axis-alleviates-lung-damage-in-hdpp4-transgenic-mice-infected-with-mers-cov
#1
Yuting Jiang, Guangyu Zhao, Nianping Song, Pei Li, Yuehong Chen, Yan Guo, Junfeng Li, Lanying Du, Shibo Jiang, Renfeng Guo, Shihui Sun, Yusen Zhou
The pathogenesis of highly pathogenic Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remains poorly understood. In a previous study, we established an hDPP4-transgenic (hDPP4-Tg) mouse model in which MERS-CoV infection causes severe acute respiratory failure and high mortality accompanied by an elevated secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Since excessive complement activation is an important factor that contributes to acute lung injury after viral infection, in this study, we investigated the role of complement in MERS-CoV-induced lung damage...
April 24, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690903/ccl20-is-up-regulated-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-fibrosis-and-is-produced-by-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-response-to-fatty-acid-loading
#2
Xin Chu, Qunyan Jin, Hui Chen, G Craig Wood, Anthony Petrick, William Strodel, Jon Gabrielsen, Peter Benotti, Tooraj Mirshahi, David J Carey, Christopher D Still, Johanna K DiStefano, Glenn S Gerhard
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent complication of extreme obesity. Loading of the liver with fat can progress to inflammation and fibrosis including cirrhosis. The molecular factors involved in the progression from simple steatosis to fibrosis remain poorly understood. METHODS: Gene expression profiling using microarray, PCR array, and RNA sequencing was performed on RNA from liver biopsy tissue from patients with extreme obesity...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689537/hiv-infection-advances-toward-a-cure
#3
Daniel C Douek
Achieving cure of HIV infection requires eliminating all replication-competent virus from the reservoir of latently infected cells or completely inhibiting infected cells from emerging from latency. Strategies include very early use of antiretroviral therapy; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; "shock-and-kill" approaches; immune therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors; gene therapy, including use of CC chemokine receptor 5-modified CD4+ T cells; and broadly neutralizing antibody therapy. Success is likely to require a combination of approaches...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688810/sustained-spatiotemporal-release-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-confers-enhanced-very-early-chondrogenic-differentiation-during-osteochondral-repair-in-specific-topographic-patterns
#4
Ann-Kathrin Asen, Lars Goebel, Ana Rey-Rico, Jerome Sohier, David Zurakowski, Magali Cucchiarini, Henning Madry
The continuous presence of TGF-β is critically important to induce effective chondrogenesis. To investigate chondrogenesis in a cartilage defect, we tested the hypothesis that the implantation of TGF-β1-releasing scaffolds improves very early cartilage repair in vivo. Spatiotemporal controlled release of TGF-β1 was achieved from multiblock scaffolds that were implanted in osteochondral defects in the medial femoral condyles of adult minipigs. We observed a sustained presence of TGF-β1 at 4 wk in vivo, which significantly promoted structural aspects of early overall cartilage repair, especially cellularity, cellular morphology, and safranin O staining intensity...
April 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688269/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-possible-involvement-of-androgen-induced-chemerin-mediated-ovarian-recruitment-of-monocytes-macrophages
#5
Patricia D A Lima, Anne-Laure Nivet, Qi Wang, Yi-An Chen, Arthur Leader, Annie Cheung, Chii-Ruey Tzeng, Benjamin K Tsang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a continuum of endocrine and reproductive disorders characterized by hyperandrogenism, antral follicle growth arrest and chronic inflammation. Macrophages play key role in inflammation and the balance between M1 (inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) macrophages determines physiological/pathological outcomes. Here, we investigated if hyperandrogenism increases ovarian chemerin altering the balance of M1 and M2 macrophages and the granulosa cell death. Ovarian chemerin was up-regulated by 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in lean and overweight rats; while increased serum chemerin levels were only evident in overweight rats, suggesting that the serum chemerin may be reflective of a systemic response and associated with obesity, whereas increased ovarian chemerin expression is a localized response independent of the metabolic status...
April 24, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687634/ccl21-as-a-potential-serum-biomarker-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-systemic-sclerosis
#6
Anna-Maria Hoffmann-Vold, Roger Hesselstrand, Håvard Fretheim, Thor Ueland, Arne K Andreassen, Cathrine Brunborg, Vyacheslav Palchevskiy, Øyvind Midtvedt, Torhild Garen, Pål Aukrust, John A Belperio, Øyvind Molberg
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a major cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Murine models indicate key roles of chemokines CCL19/21 and their receptor CCR7 in lung inflammation leading to PAH. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the chemokine CCL19/21 axis in SSc-PAH. METHODS: Sera from two independent prospective SSc cohorts (n=326), idiopathic PAH (n=12) and controls (n=100) were analysed for CCL19/CCL21 by ELISA. Levels were defined as high or low using [mean + 2SD] in controls as cut-off...
April 24, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687228/gene-expression-profiles-in-chemokine-c-c-motif-ligand-21-overexpressing-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#7
Kai Cui, Hongsheng Zou, Mingliang Shi, Yang Ou, Lu Han, Bo Zhang, Dawei Hu, Sheng Li
Chemokine (C-C Motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) plays an important role in tumor immunity. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CCL21 regulates tumor immunity remain largely unknown. In this study, we successfully generated a lentiviral vector expressing human CCL21 (Lenti-hCCL21), which was confirmed by biological assays. The Lenti-hCCL21 was transduced into PANC-1 cells, a chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7)-positive human pancreatic cancer cell line. We used the scratch wound and transwell assays to measure cell migration of the CCL21-overexpressing PANC-1 cells...
April 23, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686974/sirt6-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-in-dengue-virus-induced-inflammatory-response-by-targeting-the-dna-binding-domain-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65
#8
Pengcheng Li, Yufei Jin, Fei Qi, Fangyi Wu, Susu Luo, Yuanjiu Cheng, Ruth R Montgomery, Feng Qian
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA virus causing human disease with variable severity. The production of massive inflammatory cytokines in dengue patients has been associated with dengue disease severity. However, the regulation of these inflammatory responses remains unclear. In this study, we report that SIRT6 is a negative regulator of innate immune responses during DENV infection. Silencing of Sirt6 enhances DENV-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Overexpression of SIRT6 inhibits RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mediated NF-κB activation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686833/natural-products-with-toll-like-receptor-4-antagonist-activity
#9
REVIEW
Monica Molteni, Annalisa Bosi, Carlo Rossetti
Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are the innate immunity receptors that play an activating role when interacting with molecules released by bacteria and viruses (PAMPs, pathogen-associated molecular patterns) or with molecules released by injured cells and tissues (DAMPs, danger-associated molecular patterns). TLR triggering leads to the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, driving the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. In particular, Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) has been described to be involved in the inflammatory processes observed in several pathologies (such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, neuropathic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer)...
2018: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686687/coreceptors-and-their-ligands-in-epithelial-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-biology
#10
REVIEW
Deborah A Witherden, Margarete D Johnson, Wendy L Havran
Epithelial tissues line the body providing a protective barrier from the external environment. Maintenance of these epithelial barrier tissues critically relies on the presence of a functional resident T cell population. In some tissues, the resident T cell population is exclusively comprised of γδ T cells, while in others γδ T cells are found together with αβ T cells and other lymphocyte populations. Epithelial-resident γδ T cells function not only in the maintenance of the epithelium, but are also central to the repair process following damage from environmental and pathogenic insults...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685422/circulating-soluble-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-ligand-and-c-c-motif-ligand-3-correlate-with-survival-in-patients-with-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-macroglobulinemia
#11
Evangelos Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, Efstathios Kastritis, Maria Gavriatopoulou, Dimitrios Christoulas, Maria Roussou, Ioannis Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Nikolaos Kanellias, Athanasios Papatheodorou, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Evangelos Terpos
BACKGROUND: Serum receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (sRANKL) and chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 3 (CCL-3) have been reported to be elevated in Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) patients. However, there are no published data regarding the prognostic value of these molecules in WM regarding progression-free and overall survival. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of these markers of bone remodeling on survival parameters, we prospectively evaluated serum cytokines and biological markers in 55 patients with symptomatic WM before they received any kind of treatment...
March 31, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684635/sulfatase-1-mediates-the-attenuation-of-ang-ii-induced-hypertensive-effects-by-ccl5-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-from-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#12
Hye Ju Cha, Hye Young Kim, Hee Sun Kim
Extracellular sulfatases, sulfatase 1 (Sulf1) and sulfatase 2 (Sulf2), play a pivotal role in cell signaling and carcinogenesis. Chemokine CCL5 inhibits Ang II-induced hypertensive mediators via angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2 R) pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In this study, we investigated the effect of Sulfs on anti-hypertensive effects of CCL5 in SHR VSMCs. CCL5 attenuated Ang II-induced inhibition of sulfatase activity in SHR VSMCs...
April 20, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684429/simultaneous-in-vitro-generation-of-human-cd34-derived-dendritic-cells-and-mast-cells-from-non-mobilized-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#13
Pavla Taborska, Jirina Bartunkova, Daniel Smrz
Dendritic cells (DCs) and mast cells (MCs) are key players of the immune system, often coming in close proximity in peripheral tissues. The interplay of these cells is, however, still poorly understood especially with regards to human cells. The reason for that is the absence of a well established in vitro human cell-based study system that would allow a simultaneous preparation of both cell types. In this study, we show a method for simultaneous generation of DCs and MCs from CD34+ stem cell progenitors that were isolated from the non-adherent fraction of non-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683844/circulating-inflammatory-monocytes-contribute-to-impaired-influenza-vaccine-responses-in-hiv-infected-participants
#14
Varghese K George, Suresh Pallikkuth, Rajendra Pahwa, Lesley de Armas, Stefano Rinaldi, Li Pan, Savita Pahwa
OBJECTIVE: Antibody responses are often impaired in old age and in HIV+ infection despite virologic control with antiretroviral therapy but innate immunologic determinants are not well understood. DESIGN: Monocytes and natural killer cells were examined for relationships to age, HIV infection and influenza vaccine responses. METHODS: Virologically suppressed HIV+ (n = 139) and HIV- (n = 137) participants classified by age as young (18-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years) and old (≥60 years) were evaluated preinfluenza and postinfluenza vaccination...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682201/molecular-signatures-associated-with-tumor-specific-immune-response-in-melanoma-patients-treated-with-dendritic-cell-based-immunotherapy
#15
Tamara García-Salum, Andrea Villablanca, Franziska Matthäus, Andrés Tittarelli, Mauricio Baeza, Cristián Pereda, M Alejandra Gleisner, Fermín E González, Mercedes N López, Jörg D Hoheisel, Johannes Norgauer, Peter J Gebicke-Haerter, Flavio Salazar-Onfray
Purpose: We previously showed that autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with an allogeneic heat shock (HS)-conditioned melanoma cell-derived lysate, called TRIMEL, induce T-cell-mediated immune responses in stage IV melanoma patients. Importantly, a positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction against TRIMEL after vaccination, correlated with patients prolonged survival. Furthermore, we observed that DTH reaction was associated with a differential response pattern reflected in the presence of distinct cell subpopulations in peripheral blood...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682200/small-molecule-cxcr4-antagonists-block-the-hiv-1-nef-cxcr4-axis-and-selectively-initiate-the-apoptotic-program-in-breast-cancer-cells
#16
Ming-Bo Huang, Kyle E Giesler, Brooke M Katzman, Anthony R Prosser, Valarie Truax, Dennis C Liotta, Lawrence J Wilson, Vincent C Bond
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an integral role in the development of highly metastatic breast cancer and in the pathogenesis of chronic HIV infection. In this study, we compared the effects of CXCR4 antagonists on apoptosis induction in hematopoietic cells and in tumor cells. We incubated cells expressing CXCR4 with a series of CXCR4 antagonists and subsequently exposed the cultures to a pro-apoptotic peptide derived from the HIV-1 Nef protein (NefM1). The NefM1 peptide contains residues 50-60 of Nef and was previously shown to be the sequence necessary for Nef to initiate the apoptotic program through CXCR4 signaling...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682177/chemerin-induces-endothelial-cell-inflammation-activation-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-beta-and-monocyte-endothelial-adhesion
#17
Georgios K Dimitriadis, Jaspreet Kaur, Raghu Adya, Alexander D Miras, Harman S Mattu, John G Hattersley, Gregory Kaltsas, Bee K Tan, Harpal S Randeva
Chemerin, a chemoattractant protein, acts via a G-protein coupled chemokine receptor, i.e. Chemokine like Receptor 1/ChemR23; levels of which are elevated in pro-inflammatory states such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and T2DM patients are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. We have reported that chemerin induces human endothelial cell angiogenesis and since dysregulated angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction are hallmarks of vascular disease; we sought to determine the effects of chemerin on monocyte-endothelial adhesion, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a critical pro-inflammatory transcription factor...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681802/expression-and-function-of-chemokines-cxcl9-11-in-micturition-pathways-in-cyclophosphamide-cyp-induced-cystitis-and-somatic-sensitivity-in-mice
#18
Michael Guo, Phat Chang, Eric Hauke, Beatrice M Girard, Katharine Tooke, Jacqueline Ojala, Susan M Malley, Harrison Hsiang, Margaret A Vizzard
Changes in urinary bladder function and somatic sensation may be mediated, in part, by inflammatory changes in the urinary bladder including the expression of chemokines. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP; 75 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce bladder inflammation (4 h, 48 h, chronic). We characterized the expression of CXC chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11) in the urinary bladder and determined the effects of blockade of their common receptor, CXCR3, at the level urinary bladder on bladder function and somatic (hindpaw and pelvic) sensation...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680839/decreased-migration-of-dendritic-cells-into-the-jugular-nodose-ganglia-by-the-cxcl12-neutraligand-chalcone-4-in-ovalbumin-sensitized-asthmatic-mice
#19
Sebastian Heck, François Daubeuf, Duc Dung Le, Martina Sester, Dominique Bonnet, Robert Bals, Nelly Frossard, Quoc Thai Dinh
OBJECTIVE: The chemokine CXCL12 interacting with the CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been reported to play a role in the development and progression of bronchial asthma, but its mechanism of action is still unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the CXCL12 neutraligand chalcone 4 on the migration of dendritic cells (DCs) in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. METHODS: A 21-day ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic-airway TH2 inflammation model in BALB/c mice was used...
April 20, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680500/cross-talk-between-egfr-and-il-6-drives-oncogenic-signaling-and-offers-therapeutic-opportunities-in-cancer
#20
Kriti Ray, Beata Ujvari, Venkata Ramana, John Donald
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a known target in cancer therapy and targeting the receptor has proven to be extremely successful in treating cancers that are dependent on EGFR signaling. To that effect, targeted therapies to EGFR such as Cetuximab, Panitumumab-monoclonal antibodies and Gefitinib, Erlotinib-tyrosine kinase inhibitors have had success in therapeutic scenarios. However, the development of resistance to these drugs makes it necessary to combine anti- EGFR therapies with other inhibitors, so that resistance can be overcome by the targeting of alternate signaling pathways...
April 7, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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