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Gavin M Bidelman, Mary Katherine Davis, Megan H Pridgen
Everyday speech perception is challenged by external acoustic interferences that hinder verbal communication. Here, we directly compared how different levels of the auditory system (brainstem vs. cortex) code speech and how their neural representations are affected by two acoustic stressors: noise and reverberation. We recorded multichannel (64 ch) brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) and cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) simultaneously in normal hearing individuals to speech sounds presented in mild and moderate levels of noise and reverb...
May 26, 2018: Hearing Research
Rianne van der Spek, Eric Fliers, Susanne E la Fleur, Andries Kalsbeek
White adipose tissue (WAT) is present in different depots throughout the body. Although all depots are exposed to systemic humoral signals, they are not functionally identical. Studies in clock gene knockout animals and in shift workers suggest that daily rhythmicity may play an important role in lipid metabolism. Differences in rhythmicity between fat depots might explain differences in depot function; therefore, we measured mRNA expression of clock genes and metabolic genes on a 3-h interval over a 24-h period in the subcutaneous inguinal depot and in the intra-abdominal perirenal, epididymal, and mesenteric depots of male Wistar rats...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
William S Baldwin, W Tyler Boswell, Gautam Ginjupalli, Elizabeth J Litoff
The nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that respond to various internal as well as external cues such as nutrients, pheromones, and steroid hormones that play crucial roles in regulation and maintenance of homeostasis and orchestrating the physiological and stress responses of an organism. We annotated the Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog; Atlantic killifish) nuclear receptors. Mummichog are a non-migratory, estuarine fish with a limited home range often used in environmental research as a field model for studying ecological and evolutionary responses to variable environmental conditions such as salinity, oxygen, temperature, pH, and toxic compounds because of their hardiness...
2017: Nuclear Receptor Research
Yumiko Oishi, Shinichiro Hayashi, Takayuki Isagawa, Motohiko Oshima, Atsushi Iwama, Shigeki Shimba, Hitoshi Okamura, Ichiro Manabe
Bmal1 (encoded by Arntl gene) is a core circadian clock gene that regulates various genes involved in circadian rhythm. Although Bmal1 is expressed rhythmically in macrophages, the role of Bmal1 in the regulation of their cellular function remains insufficiently understood. Here, we report that Bmal1 regulates time-dependent inflammatory responses following Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation by modulating enhancer activity. Global transcriptome analysis indicated that deletion of Arntl perturbed the time-dependent inflammatory responses elicited by TLR4 activation by Kdo2-lipid A (KLA)...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Isabel Martins, Isaura Tavares
The involvement of the reticular formation (RF) in the transmission and modulation of nociceptive information has been extensively studied. The brainstem RF contains several areas which are targeted by spinal cord afferents conveying nociceptive input. The arrival of nociceptive input to the RF may trigger alert reactions which generate a protective/defense reaction to pain. RF neurons located at the medulla oblongata and targeted by ascending nociceptive information are also involved in the control of vital functions that can be affected by pain, namely cardiovascular control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Elizabeth Teret, M Torben Pastore, Jonas Braasch
Currently, architectural room acoustic metrics make no real distinction between a room impulse response and the auditory system's internal representation of a room. These metrics are generally based on impulse responses, and indirectly assume that the internal representation of the acoustic features of a room is independent of the sound source. However, while a room can be approximated as a linear, time-invariant system, auditory processing is highly non-linear and varies a great deal over time in response to different acoustic inputs...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Pauline Traynard, Céline Feillet, Sylvain Soliman, Franck Delaunay, François Fages
Experimental observations have put in evidence autonomous self-sustained circadian oscillators in most mammalian cells, and proved the existence of molecular links between the circadian clock and the cell cycle. Some mathematical models have also been built to assess conditions of control of the cell cycle by the circadian clock. However, recent studies in individual NIH3T3 fibroblasts have shown an unexpected acceleration of the circadian clock together with the cell cycle when the culture medium is enriched with growth factors, and the absence of such acceleration in confluent cells...
November 2016: Bio Systems
M Soták, J Bryndová, P Ergang, K Vagnerová, P Kvapilová, M Vodička, J Pácha, A Sumová
Glucocorticoids are considered to synchronize the rhythmicity of clock genes in peripheral tissues; however, the role of circadian variations of endogenous glucocorticoids is not well defined. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral circadian clocks were impaired by adrenalectomy. To achieve this, we tested the circadian rhythmicity of core clock genes (Bmal1, Per1-3, Cry1, RevErbα, Rora), clock-output genes (Dbp, E4bp4) and a glucocorticoid- and clock-controlled gene (Gilz) in liver, jejunum, kidney cortex, splenocytes and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)...
2016: Chronobiology International
Francesca Calabrese, Elisa Savino, Mariusz Papp, Raffaella Molteni, Marco A Riva
Disruptions of biological rhythms are known to be associated with depressive disorders, suggesting that abnormalities in the molecular clock may contribute to the development of these disorders. These mechanisms have been extensively characterized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but little is know about the role exerted by individual clock genes in brain structures that are important for depressive disorders. Using the chronic mild stress model we found a significant reduction of BMAL1 and CLOCK protein levels in the nuclear compartment of the prefrontal cortex of CMS rats, which was paralleled by a down-regulation of the expression of several target genes, including Pers and Crys but also Reverbβ and Pparα...
February 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Atish Mukherji, Ahmad Kobiita, Pierre Chambon
The molecular mechanisms underlying the events through which alterations in diurnal activities impinge on peripheral circadian clocks (PCCs), and reciprocally how the PCCs affect metabolism, thereby generating pathologies, are still poorly understood. Here, we deciphered how switching the diurnal feeding from the active to the rest phase, i.e., restricted feeding (RF), immediately creates a hypoinsulinemia during the active phase, which initiates a metabolic reprogramming by increasing FFA and glucagon levels...
December 1, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
R Kopp, N Billecke, J Legradi, M den Broeder, S H Parekh, J Legler
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have led to an expansion of potential factors capable of stimulating obesity. Increasing evidence indicates that environmental factors, including disturbance of circadian rhythms, also contribute to its etiology. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of altered circadian rhythms on adipogenesis and to better understand how circadian and adipogenic regulatory pathways are linked, zebrafish larvae were exposed to various light/dark cycles or hypercaloric feeding (HCF)...
May 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Géraldine M Mang, Francesco La Spada, Yann Emmenegger, Sylvie Chappuis, Jürgen A Ripperger, Urs Albrecht, Paul Franken
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is a potent, constitutive transcriptional repressor critical for the regulation of key circadian and metabolic genes. Recently, REV-ERBα's involvement in learning, neurogenesis, mood, and dopamine turnover was demonstrated suggesting a specific role in central nervous system functioning. We have previously shown that the brain expression of several core clock genes, including Rev-erbα, is modulated by sleep loss. We here test the consequences of a loss of REV-ERBα on the homeostatic regulation of sleep...
March 1, 2016: Sleep
Jason P DeBruyne, Julie E Baggs, Trey K Sato, John B Hogenesch
Regulated degradation of proteins by the proteasome is often critical to their function in dynamic cellular pathways. The molecular clock underlying mammalian circadian rhythms relies on the rhythmic expression and degradation of its core components. However, because the tools available for identifying the mechanisms underlying the degradation of a specific protein are limited, the mechanisms regulating clock protein degradation are only beginning to be elucidated. Here we describe a cell-based functional screening approach designed to quickly identify the ubiquitin E3 ligases that induce the degradation of potentially any protein of interest...
October 6, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shari Salzhauer Berkowitz
High airflow hand dryers are found in many public restrooms today. These dryers offer quick and clean hand drying, and are seen as being an environment-friendly alternative to paper towels. However, many new hand dryers are loud, exposing individuals using the facilities as well as those employees who clean the facilities to potentially dangerous noise. Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea, resulting in varying degrees of noise-induced hearing loss...
March 2015: Noise & Health
Jaclyn B Spitzer, Sharon A Sandridge, Craig W Newman, Sarah Sydlowski, Robert M Ghent
PURPOSE: This study developed new test materials by applying various reverberation treatments to sentences having high and low contextual redundancy. METHOD: The Speech Perception in Noise-Revised (SPIN-R; Bilger, Nuetzel, Rabinowitz, & Rzeczkowski, 1984; Kalikow, Stevens, & Elliott, 1977) sentences were modified (SPIN-Reverb) with reverberation times (RT60) from simulated environments: unprocessed, RevCond 1 (RT60 = 600 ms), RevCond 2 (RT60 = 1200 ms), and RevCond 3 (RT60 = 3600 ms)...
June 2015: American Journal of Audiology
Elizabeth Aspell, Erin Picou, Todd Ricketts
BACKGROUND: Past research demonstrates that as the speech recognition performance of listeners fitted with omnidirectional hearing aids approaches maximum (ceiling), the benefit afforded by directional microphones is necessarily lessened. This effect could potentially eliminate the benefit provided by directional microphones in easier listening situations, such as environments with visual cues and favorable signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate directional benefit using auditory-visual stimuli in SNRs commonly found in the real world (ranging from +3 to +12 dB)...
July 2014: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Thomas Brand, Anna Warzybok, Jan Rennies, Birger Kollmeier
Many models of speech intelligibility in rooms are based on monaural measures. However, the effect of binaural unmasking improves speech intelligibility substantially. The binaural speech intelligibility model (BSIM) uses multi-frequency-band equalization-cancellation (EC), which models human binaural noise reduction, and the Speech-Intelligibility-Index (SII), which calculates the resulting speech intelligibility. The model analyzes the signal-to-noise ratios at the left and the right ear (modeling better-ear-listening) and the interaural cross correlation of target speech and binaural interferer(s)...
April 2014: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Laura E Hand, Paola Usan, Garth J S Cooper, Lance Y Xu, Basil Ammori, Peter S Cunningham, Reza Aghamohammadzadeh, Handrean Soran, Adam Greenstein, Andrew S I Loudon, David A Bechtold, David W Ray
Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease, with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation emerging as a key underlying pathology. We detail that mice lacking Reverbα exhibit enhanced fat storage without the predicted increased WAT inflammation or loss of insulin sensitivity. In contrast to most animal models of obesity and obese human patients, Reverbα(-/-) mice exhibit elevated serum adiponectin levels and increased adiponectin secretion from WAT explants in vitro, highlighting a potential anti-inflammatory role of this adipokine in hypertrophic WAT...
January 2015: Diabetes
Michele Vacca, Simona D'Amore, Giusi Graziano, Andria D'Orazio, Marica Cariello, Vittoria Massafra, Lorena Salvatore, Nicola Martelli, Stefania Murzilli, Giuseppe Lo Sasso, Renato Mariani-Costantini, Antonio Moschetta
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver regeneration (LR) is a valuable model for studying mechanisms modulating hepatocyte proliferation. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are key players in the control of cellular functions, being ideal modulators of hepatic proliferation and carcinogenesis. METHODS & RESULTS: We used a previously validated RT-qPCR platform to profile modifications in the expression of all 49 members of the NR superfamily in mouse liver during LR. Twenty-nine NR transcripts were significantly modified in their expression during LR, including fatty acid (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PPARs) and oxysterol (liver X receptors, Lxrs) sensors, circadian masters RevErbα and RevErbβ, glucocorticoid receptor (Gr) and constitutive androxane receptor (Car)...
2014: PloS One
Ying-Hua Chung, Arjan van der Vaart
Using free-energy simulations, we have shown that RevErbα-induced DNA deformation preferentially occurs by induced fit rather than by conformational selection, even though the DNA is only slightly distorted in the complex. Our study shows that information on the sequence of binding events is needed to establish whether conformational selection or induced fit is operative, and that the presence of multiple apo-state structures might not be enough to distinguish between these binding models
March 21, 2014: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
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