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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730377/influence-of-vitamin-d-and-cotinine-on-t-regulatory-cells-and-asthma-severity-in-children
#1
Bolesław Kalicki, Agata Wawrzyniak, Agnieszka Lipińska-Opałka, Sławomir Lewicki, Robert Zdanowski
Asthma is a common chronic respiratory diseases in children. Understanding the immune mechanisms of epigenetic factors may contribute to a better control of asthma. This study seeks to determine the effects of serum vitamin D and urine cotinine on asthma severity and on T regulatory cells (Tregs) and other immune-related factors such as CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16/56, and anti-CD3 HLA-DR3. The study involved 34 children with asthma. Disease severity was assessed with the Asthma Control Test, spirometry, and the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)...
July 21, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727206/the-mother-offspring-dyad-microbial-transmission-immune-interactions-and-allergy-development
#2
REVIEW
Maria C Jenmalm
The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726153/immunological-issues-after-stem-cell-based-%C3%AE-cell-replacement
#3
REVIEW
Valeria Sordi, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Islet and pancreas transplantation prove that β cell replacement can cure the glycemic derangements in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells, able to restore normoglycemia in diabetic animal models. iPSCs in particular can be derived from the somatic cells of a person with T1D. This review aims to clarify if it is possible to transplant autologous iPSC-derived β cells without immunosuppression or which are the alternative approaches...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721820/epigenetic-regulations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-periodontitis
#4
Yu Luo, Xian Peng, Dingyu Duan, Chengcheng Liu, Xin Xu, Xuedong Zhou
Periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease that affects a large population worldwide. It involves progressive alveolar bone loss, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Oral microorganisms and susceptible host have been proposed to be the prerequisite for the development of periodontitis. Aberrant host immune response is the key factor that leads to the destruction of periodontal tissues. Recently, the involvement of epigenetic modifications in the development of periodontitis has attracted increasing attentions...
July 18, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720596/elongator-regulates-hypocotyl-growth-in-darkness-and-during-photomorphogenesis
#5
Magdalena Woloszynska, Olimpia Gagliardi, Filip Vandenbussche, Steven De Groeve, Luis Alonso Baez, Pia Neyt, Sabine Le Gall, Jorge Fung, Paloma Mas, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Mieke Van Lijsebettens
Elongator promotes RNA polymerase II-mediated transcript elongation through epigenetic activities such as histone acetylation. Elongator regulates growth, development, immune response, sensitivity to drought and abscisic acid. We demonstrate that elo mutants exhibit defective hypocotyl elongation but have a normal apical hook in darkness and are hyposensitive to light during photomorphogenesis. These elo phenotypes are supported by transcriptome changes, i.e. downregulation of circadian clock components, positive regulators of skoto- or photomorphogenesis, hormonal pathways and cell wall biogenesis-related factors...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718331/entinostat-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#6
Dario Trapani, Angela Esposito, Carmen Criscitiello, Luca Mazzarella, Marzia Locatelli, Ida Minchella, Saverio Minucci, Giuseppe Curigliano
Breast cancer accounts for 29% of malignant tumors. It is an heterogenous disease covering a spectrum of different molecular subtypes. Epigenetic aberrations may affect gene expression through DNA and histone proteins modifications thus promoting tumor progression and resistance to anti- tumor treatment. Area covered: This article explores the potential role of entinostat in the treatment of breast cancer. The clinical trials evaluating entinostat are discussed, highlighting preclinical data and early-phase clinical studies results...
July 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717181/discovery-of-novel-human-gene-regulatory-modules-from-gene-co-expression-and-promoter-motif-analysis
#7
Shisong Ma, Michael Snyder, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar
Deciphering gene regulatory networks requires identification of gene expression modules. We describe a novel bottom-up approach to identify gene modules regulated by cis-regulatory motifs from a human gene co-expression network. Target genes of a cis-regulatory motif were identified from the network via the motif's enrichment or biased distribution towards transcription start sites in the promoters of co-expressed genes. A gene sub-network containing the target genes was extracted and used to derive gene modules...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716899/hdac1-upregulation-by-nanog-promotes-multidrug-resistance-and-a-stem-like-phenotype-in-immune-edited-tumor-cells
#8
Kwon-Ho Song, Chel Hun Choi, Hyo-Jung Lee, Se Jin Oh, Seon Rang Woo, Soon-Oh Hong, Kyung Hee Noh, Hanbyoul Cho, Eun Joo Chung, Jae-Hoon Kim, Joon-Yong Chung, Stephen M Hewitt, Seungki Baek, Kyung-Mi Lee, Cassian Yee, Minjoo Son, Chih-Ping Mao, T-C Wu, Tae Woo Kim
Cancer immunoediting drives the adaptation of tumor cells to host immune surveillance. Immunoediting driven by antigen (Ag)-specific T cells enriches NANOG expression in tumor cells, resulting in a stem-like phenotype and immune resistance. Here we identify HDAC1 as a key mediator of the NANOG-associated phenotype. NANOG upregulated HDAC1 through promoter occupancy, thereby decreasing histone H3 acetylation on K14 and K27. NANOG-dependent, HDAC1-driven epigenetic silencing of cell cycle inhibitor CDKN2D and CDKN1B induced stem-like features...
July 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715973/the-molecular-basis-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-latency
#9
Uri Mbonye, Jonathan Karn
Although potent combination antiretroviral therapy can effectively block viral replication in the host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists due to the existence of latent but replication-competent proviruses residing primarily in a very small population of resting memory CD4(+) T cells. Viral latency is established when the expression of the autoregulatory viral trans-activating factor Tat is reduced to subthreshold levels. The absence of Tat reduces HIV transcription and protein production to levels that make the host cell invisible to the immune system and refractory to antiretroviral treatment...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714978/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-orchestrates-macrophage-activation-through-metabolic-and-epigenetic-reprogramming
#10
Pu-Ste Liu, Haiping Wang, Xiaoyun Li, Tung Chao, Tony Teav, Stefan Christen, Giusy Di Conza, Wan-Chen Cheng, Chih-Hung Chou, Magdalena Vavakova, Charlotte Muret, Koen Debackere, Massimiliano Mazzone, Hsien-Da Huang, Sarah-Maria Fendt, Julijana Ivanisevic, Ping-Chih Ho
Glutamine metabolism provides synergistic support for macrophage activation and elicitation of desirable immune responses; however, the underlying mechanisms regulated by glutamine metabolism to orchestrate macrophage activation remain unclear. Here we show that the production of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) via glutaminolysis is important for alternative (M2) activation of macrophages, including engagement of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and Jmjd3-dependent epigenetic reprogramming of M2 genes. This M2-promoting mechanism is further modulated by a high αKG/succinate ratio, whereas a low ratio strengthens the proinflammatory phenotype in classically activated (M1) macrophages...
July 17, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714605/epigenetic-alterations-and-prenatal-maternal-depression
#11
REVIEW
Zsofia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf
Major depressive disorder of the mother affects 6 to 17% of pregnancies worldwide and can lead to negative outcomes, such as preterm delivery and later mental health problems of the child. It has been proposed that developmental programming has long-lasting effects in the offspring that might be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. Altered stress regulation or impaired immunological function of the mother can potentially affect DNA methylation processes of the fetus, changing gene expression levels in utero...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713342/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAbp50-and-hdac1-interaction-is-implicated-in-the-host-tolerance-to-infection-mediated-by-the-bacterial-quorum-sensing-signal-2-aminoacetophenone
#12
Arunava Bandyopadhaya, Amy Tsurumi, Laurence G Rahme
Some bacterial quorum sensing (QS) small molecules are important mediators of inter-kingdom signaling and impact host immunity. The QS regulated small volatile molecule 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AA), which has been proposed as a biomarker of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in chronically infected human tissues, is critically involved in "host tolerance training" that involves a distinct molecular mechanism of host chromatin regulation through histone deacetylase (HDAC)1. 2-AA's epigenetic reprogramming action enables host tolerance to high bacterial burden and permits long-term presence of P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709726/induction-and-maintenance-of-regulatory-t-cells-by-transcription-factors-and-epigenetic-modifications
#13
REVIEW
Mana Iizuka-Koga, Hiroko Nakatsukasa, Minako Ito, Takashi Akanuma, Qianjin Lu, Akihiko Yoshimura
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are an essential cell subset for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Foxp3 (Forkhead box P3) is the Treg master gene which is essential for immune suppressing activity. In addition, Tregs are characterized by a distinct pattern of gene expression, including upregulation of immune-suppressive genes and silencing of inflammatory genes. The molecular mechanisms of Treg development and maintenance have been intensively investigated. Tregs are characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708104/fruit-and-juice-epigenetic-signatures-are-associated-with-independent-immunoregulatory-pathways
#14
Jessie Nicodemus-Johnson, Robert A Sinnott
Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that fruit consumption promotes many health benefits. Despite the general consensus that fruit and juice are nutritionally similar, epidemiological results for juice consumption are conflicting. Our objective was to use DNA methylation marks to characterize fruit and juice epigenetic signatures within PBMCs and identify shared and independent signatures associated with these groups. Genome-wide DNA methylation marks (Illumina Human Methylation 450k chip) for 2,148 individuals that participated in the Framingham Offspring exam 8 were analyzed for correlations between fruit or juice consumption using standard linear regression...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706011/increased-ifn-%C3%AE-t-cells-are-responsible-for-the-clinical-responses-of-low-dose-dna-demethylating-agent-decitabine-anti-tumor-therapy
#15
Xiang Li, Yan Zhang, Meixia Chen, Qian Mei, Yang Liu, Kai-Chao Feng, Hejin Jia, Liang Dong, Lu Shi, Lin Liu, Jing Nie, Weidong Han
Low-dose DNA demethylating agent decitabine therapy is effective in a subgroup of cancer patients. It remains largely elusive for the biomarker to predict therapeutic response and the underlying anti-tumor mechanisms, especially the impact on host anti-tumor immunity.<br />Experimental Design: The influence of low-dose decitabine on T cells was detected both in vitro and in vivo Moreover, a test cohort and a validation cohort of advanced solid tumor patients with low-dose decitabine-based treatment were involved...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704530/a-complex-association-between-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-in-human-placenta-at-first-and-third-trimesters
#16
Yen Ching Lim, Jie Li, Yiyun Ni, Qi Liang, Junjiao Zhang, George S H Yeo, Jianxin Lyu, Shengnan Jin, Chunming Ding
The human placenta is a maternal-fetal organ essential for normal fetal development and maternal health. During pregnancy, the placenta undergoes many structural and functional changes in response to fetal needs and environmental exposures. Previous studies have demonstrated widespread epigenetic and gene expression changes from early to late pregnancy. However, on the global level, how DNA methylation changes impact on gene expression in human placenta is not yet well understood. We performed DNA methylome analysis by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and gene expression analysis by RNA-Seq for both first and third trimester human placenta tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702031/alloantigen-induced-regulatory-t-cells-generated-in-presence-of-vitamin-c-display-enhanced-stability-of-foxp3-expression-and-promote-skin-allograft-acceptance
#17
Eirini Nikolouli, Matthias Hardtke-Wolenski, Martin Hapke, Michael Beckstette, Robert Geffers, Stefan Floess, Elmar Jaeckel, Jochen Huehn
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance and can be therapeutically used for prevention of unwanted immune responses such as allotransplant rejection. Tregs are characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, and recent work suggests that epigenetic imprinting of Foxp3 and other Treg-specific epigenetic signatures genes is crucial for the stabilization of both Foxp3 expression and immunosuppressive properties within Tregs. Lately, vitamin C was reported to enhance the activity of enzymes of the ten-eleven translocation family, thereby fostering the demethylation of Foxp3 and other Treg-specific epigenetic signatures genes in developing Tregs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699360/mir-34a-and-mir-9-are-overexpressed-and-sirt-genes-are-downregulated-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-aging-humans
#18
Magdalena Owczarz, Monika Budzinska, Anna Domaszewska-Szostek, Joanna Borkowska, Jacek Polosak, Magdalena Gewartowska, Przemyslaw Slusarczyk, Monika Puzianowska-Kuznicka
Increased expression of sirtuins lowers the risk of age-related diseases, while their role in the regulation of longevity is not firmly established. Since aging is associated with immunosenescence, we tested whether sirtuin expression was modified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in an age-related manner and whether this might result from altered expression of the selected miRNAs. The expression of seven SIRT genes and of SIRT1 mRNA-interacting miR-9, miR-34a, miR-132, and miR-199a-5p was evaluated by real-time PCR in PBMC originating from young (Y, n = 57, mean age 27 ± 4...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698603/identification-of-differentially-methylated-brca1-and-crisp2-dna-regions-as-blood-surrogate-markers-for-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Geoffrey Istas, Ken Declerck, Maria Pudenz, Katarzyna Szarc Vel Szic, Veronica Lendinez-Tortajada, Montserrat Leon-Latre, Karen Heyninck, Guy Haegeman, Jose A Casasnovas, Maria Tellez-Plaza, Clarissa Gerhauser, Christian Heiss, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Wim Vanden Berghe
Genome-wide Illumina InfiniumMethylation 450 K DNA methylation analysis was performed on blood samples from clinical atherosclerosis patients (n = 8) and healthy donors (n = 8) in the LVAD study (NCT02174133, NCT01799005). Multiple differentially methylated regions (DMR) could be identified in atherosclerosis patients, related to epigenetic control of cell adhesion, chemotaxis, cytoskeletal reorganisations, cell proliferation, cell death, estrogen receptor pathways and phagocytic immune responses...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698275/crispr-cas9-genome-editing-reveals-that-the-intron-is-not-essential-for-var2csa-gene-activation-or-silencing-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#20
Jessica M Bryant, Clément Regnault, Christine Scheidig-Benatar, Sebastian Baumgarten, Julien Guizetti, Artur Scherf
Plasmodium falciparum relies on monoallelic expression of 1 of 60 var virulence genes for antigenic variation and host immune evasion. Each var gene contains a conserved intron which has been implicated in previous studies in both activation and repression of transcription via several epigenetic mechanisms, including interaction with the var promoter, production of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and localization to repressive perinuclear sites. However, functional studies have relied primarily on artificial expression constructs...
July 11, 2017: MBio
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