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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137219/functional-characterization-of-lysine-specific-demethylase-2-lsd2-kdm1b-in-breast-cancer-progression
#1
Lin Chen, Shauna N Vasilatos, Ye Qin, Tiffany A Katz, Chunyu Cao, Hao Wu, Nilgun Tasdemir, Kevin M Levine, Steffi Oesterreich, Nancy E Davidson, Yi Huang
Flavin-dependent histone demethylases govern histone H3K4 methylation and act as important chromatin modulators that are extensively involved in regulation of DNA replication, gene transcription, DNA repair, and heterochromatin gene silencing. While the activities of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) in facilitating breast cancer progression have been well characterized, the roles of its homolog LSD2 (KDM1B) in breast oncogenesis are relatively less understood. In this study, we showed that LSD2 protein level was significantly elevated in malignant breast cell lines compared with normal breast epithelial cell line...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134693/microglia-from-offspring-of-dams-with-allergic-asthma-exhibit-epigenomic-alterations-in-genes-dysregulated-in-autism
#2
Annie Vogel Ciernia, Milo Careaga, Janine M LaSalle, Paul Ashwood
Dysregulation in immune responses during pregnancy increases the risk of a having a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among pregnant women, and symptoms often worsen during pregnancy. We recently developed a mouse model of maternal allergic asthma (MAA) that induces changes in sociability, repetitive, and perseverative behaviors in the offspring. Since epigenetic changes help a static genome adapt to the maternal environment, activation of the immune system may epigenetically alter fetal microglia, the brain's resident immune cells...
November 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133290/cd137-4-1bb-costimulation-modifies-dna-methylation-in-cd8-t-cell-relevant-genes
#3
M Angela Aznar, Sara Labiano, Angel Diaz-Lagares, Carmen Molina, Saray Garasa, Arantza Azpilicueta, Inaki Etxeberria, Alfonso R Sanchez-Paulete, Alan J Korman, Manel Esteller, Juan Sandoval, Ignacio Melero
CD137 (4-1BB) costimulation imprints long-term changes that instruct the ultimate behavior of T cells that have previously experienced CD137 ligation. Epigenetic changes could provide a suitable mechanism for these long-term consequences. Genome-wide DNA-methylation arrays were carried out on human peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes stimulated with agonist monoclonal antibody to CD137, including urelumab, which is in phase I/II clinical trials for cancer immunotherapy. Several genes showed consistent methylation patterns in response to CD137 costimulation, which were confirmed by pyrosequencing in a series of healthy donors...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131380/upregulation-of-prmt6-by-lps-suppresses-klotho-expression-through-interaction-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-glomerular-mesangial-cells
#4
Kuen-Daw Tsai, Wen-Xi Lee, Wei Chen, Bo-Yu Chen, Kuan-Lin Chen, Tzu-Chia Hsiao, Sue-Hong Wang, Yi-Ju Lee, Shan-Yuan Liang, Jia-Ching Shieh, Ting-Hui Lin
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) released from gram-negative bacteria stimulates immune responses in infected cells. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and protein methylation modulate LPS-induced innate immune gene expressions. Expression of the Klotho protein decreased with LPS treatment in rats. In a cellular model, information regarding the effect of LPS on Klotho expression was meager. In the present study, we demonstrated that LPS triggered global DNA and protein methylation in glomerular mesangial MES-13 cells...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130506/animal-models-of-acquired-epilepsy-insights-into-mechanisms-of-human-epileptogenesis
#5
Albert J Becker
In many patients who suffer from epilepsies, recurrent epileptic seizures do not start at birth but develop later in life. This holds particularly true for epilepsies with a focal seizure origin including focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). TLE most frequently has its seizure onset in the hippocampal formation. Hippocampal biopsies of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for seizure control most frequently reveal the damage pattern of hippocampal sclerosis, i...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128937/epigenetics-in-diabetic-nephropathy-immunity-and-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Samuel T Keating, Janna A van Diepen, Niels P Riksen, Assam El-Osta
When it comes to the epigenome, there is a fine line between clarity and confusion-walk that line and you will discover another fascinating level of transcription control. With the genetic code representing the cornerstone of rules for information that is encoded to proteins somewhere above the genome level there is a set of rules by which chemical information is also read. These epigenetic modifications show a different side of the genetic code that is diverse and regulated, hence modifying genetic transcription transiently, ranging from short- to long-term alterations...
November 11, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127885/summary-of-the-2016-alcohol-and-immunology-research-interest-group-airig-meeting
#7
REVIEW
Lisbeth A Boule, Cynthia Ju, Marisela Agudelo, Tiyash Parira, Abigail Cannon, Booker Davis, Jonathan Eby, Gail Cresci, Derrick R Samuelson, Pradeep Shukla, Waddah A Alrefai, Suhas Sureshchandra, Subhash C Pandey, Bernd Schnabl, Brenda J Curtis, Todd A Wyatt, Mashkoor A Choudhry, Elizabeth J Kovacs
On November 18, 2016 the 21st annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Center for Translational Research and Education at Loyola University Chicago's Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, IL. The 2016 meeting focused broadly on alcohol and inflammation, epigenetics, and the microbiome. The four plenary sessions of the meeting were Alcohol, Inflammation, and Immunity; Alcohol and Epigenetics; Alcohol, Transcriptional Regulation, and Epigenetics; and Alcohol, Intestinal Mucosa, and the Gut Microbiome...
September 23, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124315/the-class-i-iv-hdac-inhibitor-mocetinostat-increases-tumor-antigen-presentation-decreases-immune-suppressive-cell-types-and-augments-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#8
David Briere, Niranjan Sudhakar, David M Woods, Jill Hallin, Lars D Engstrom, Ruth Aranda, Harrah Chiang, Andressa L Sodré, Peter Olson, Jeffrey S Weber, James G Christensen
Checkpoint inhibitor therapy has led to major treatment advances for several cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite this, a significant percentage of patients do not respond or develop resistance. Potential mechanisms of resistance include lack of expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), decreased capacity to present tumor antigens, and the presence of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Mocetinostat is a spectrum-selective inhibitor of class I/IV histone deacetylases (HDACs), a family of proteins implicated in epigenetic silencing of immune regulatory genes in tumor and immune cells...
November 9, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123948/no-patient-left-behind-the-promise-of-immune-priming-with-epigenetic-agents
#9
REVIEW
Corey A Carter, Bryan T Oronsky, Joseph Roswarski, Arnold L Oronsky, Neil Oronsky, Jan Scicinski, Harry Lybeck, Michelle M Kim, Michelle Lybeck, Tony R Reid
Checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies that inhibit PD-1 or CTLA-4, have revolutionized the treatment of multiple cancers. Despite the enthusiasm for the clinical successes of checkpoint inhibitors, and immunotherapy, in general, only a minority of patients with specific tumor types actually benefit from treatment. Emerging evidence implicates epigenetic alterations as a mechanism of clinical resistance to immunotherapy. This review presents evidence for that association, summarizes the epi-based mechanisms by which tumors evade immunogenic cell death, discusses epigenetic modulation as a component of an integrated strategy to boost anticancer T cell effector function in relation to a tumor immunosuppression cycle and, finally, makes the case that the success of this no-patient-left-behind strategy critically depends on the toxicity profile of the epigenetic agent(s)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123172/transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-short-term-nutrient-exercise-stress-in-humans
#10
R C Laker, C Garde, D M Camera, W J Smiles, J R Zierath, J A Hawley, R Barrès
High fat feeding impairs skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility and induces insulin resistance, whereas exercise training exerts positive effects on substrate handling and improves insulin sensitivity. To identify the genomic mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious effects of high fat feeding, we investigated the transcriptional and epigenetic response of human skeletal muscle to 9 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) alone (Sed-HFD) or in combination with resistance exercise (Ex-HFD), using genome-wide profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113750/epigenetic-regulation-of-astrocyte-function-in-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#11
REVIEW
Matthew Neal, Jason R Richardson
Epigenetic mechanisms control various functions throughout the body, from cell fate determination in development to immune responses and inflammation. Neuroinflammation is one of the prime contributors to the initiation and progression of neurodegeneration in a variety of diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Because astrocytes are the largest population of glial cells, they represent an important regulator of CNS function, both in health and disease. Only recently have studies begun to identify the epigenetic mechanisms regulating astrocyte responses in neurodegenerative diseases...
November 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111351/chemoprevention-with-isothiocyanates-from-bench-to-bedside
#12
Carsten Gründemann, Roman Huber
Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are naturally occurring hydrolization products from glucosinolates (GLSs) in brassicaceae and in epidemiological studies their intake has been weakly to moderately inversely correlated with the risk of colorectal cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. Numerous preclinical studies demonstrate chemopreventive mode of actions of ITCs, mainly related to a.) detoxification (induction of phase II enzymes), b.) anti-inflammatory properties by down-regulation of NFkappaB activity, c.) cyclin-mediated cell cycle arrest and d...
October 27, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109731/gm-csf-monocyte-derived-cells-and-langerhans-cells-as-part-of-the-dendritic-cell-family
#13
REVIEW
Manfred B Lutz, Herbert Strobl, Gerold Schuler, Nikolaus Romani
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Mph) share many characteristics as components of the innate immune system. The criteria to classify the multitude of subsets within the mononuclear phagocyte system are currently phenotype, ontogeny, transcription patterns, epigenetic adaptations, and function. More recently, ontogenetic, transcriptional, and proteomic research approaches uncovered major developmental differences between Flt3L-dependent conventional DCs as compared with Mphs and monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs), the latter mainly generated in vitro from murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) or human CD14(+) peripheral blood monocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106553/genome-wide-dna-methylation-changes-associated-with-intermittent-explosive-disorder-a-gene-based-functional-enrichment-analysis
#14
Janitza L Montalvo-Ortiz, Huiping Zhang, Chao Chen, Chunyu Liu, Emil F Coccaro
Background: Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is defined as a recurrent, problematic, and impulsive aggression that affects 3-4% of the U.S. population. While behavioral genetic studies report a substantial degree of genetic influence on aggression and impulsivity, epigenetic mechanisms underlying aggression and IED is not well known. Methods: The sample included 44 subjects (22 with a DSM-5 diagnosis of IED and 22 comparable subjects without IED). Peripheral blood DNA methylome was profiled using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100606/bh3-only-protein-bim-an-emerging-target-in-chemotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Shatrunajay Shukla, Sugandh Saxena, Brijesh Kumar Singh, Poonam Kakkar
BH3-only proteins constitute major proportion of pro-apoptotic members of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of apoptotic regulatory proteins and participate in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and immunity. Absence of BH3-only proteins contributes to autoimmune disorders and tumorigenesis. Bim (Bcl-2 Interacting Mediator of cell death), most important member of BH3-only proteins, shares a BH3-only domain (9-16 aa) among 4 domains (BH1-BH4) of Bcl-2 family proteins and highly pro-apoptotic in nature...
December 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100458/dna-methylation-hydroxymethylation-in-melanoma
#16
REVIEW
Siqi Fu, Haijing Wu, Huiming Zhang, Christine G Lian, Qianjin Lu
Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes and is considered to be the most aggressive cancer among all skin diseases. The pathogenesis of melanoma has not been well documented, which may restrict the research and development of biomarkers and therapies. To date, several genetic and epigenetic factors have been identified as contributing to the development and progression of melanoma. Besides the findings on genetic susceptibilities, the recent progress in epigenetic studies has revealed that loss of the DNA hydroxymethylation mark, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), along with high levels of DNA methylation at promoter regions of several tumor suppressor genes in melanoma, may serve as biomarkers for melanoma...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098608/novel-therapies-for-myelofibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Kristen Pettit, Olatoyosi Odenike
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review was to provide a contemporary update of novel agents and targets under investigation in myelofibrosis in the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor era. RECENT FINDINGS: Myelofibrosis (MF) is a clonal stem cell disease characterized by marrow fibrosis and a heterogeneous disease phenotype with a variable degree of splenomegaly, cytopenias, and constitutional symptoms that significantly impact quality of life and survival. Overactive JAK/STAT signaling is a hallmark of MF...
November 2, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093987/targeting-the-epitope-spreader-pep19-by-na%C3%A3-ve-human-cd45ra-regulatory-t-cells-dictates-a-distinct-suppressive-t-cell-fate-in-a-novel-form-of-immunotherapy
#18
Hyun-Joo Kim, Gil Sun Cha, Ji-Young Joo, Juyoun Lee, Sung-Jo Kim, Jeongae Lee, So Youn Park, Jeomil Choi
Purpose: Beyond the limited scope of non-specific polyclonal regulatory T cell (Treg)-based immunotherapy, which depends largely on serendipity, the present study explored a target Treg subset appropriate for the delivery of a novel epitope spreader Pep19 antigen as part of a sophisticated form of immunotherapy with defined antigen specificity that induces immune tolerance. Methods: Human polyclonal CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo-) Tregs (127-Tregs) and naïve CD4(+)CD25(+)CD45RA(+) Tregs (45RA-Tregs) were isolated and were stimulated with target peptide 19 (Pep19)-pulsed dendritic cells in a tolerogenic milieu followed by ex vivo expansion...
October 2017: Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093720/morc-proteins-novel-players-in-plant-and-animal-health
#19
REVIEW
Aline Koch, Hong-Gu Kang, Jens Steinbrenner, D'Maris A Dempsey, Daniel F Klessig, Karl-Heinz Kogel
Microrchidia (MORC) proteins comprise a family of proteins that have been identified in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are defined by two hallmark domains: a GHKL-type ATPase and an S5 fold. MORC proteins in plants were first discovered via a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants compromised for resistance to a viral pathogen. Subsequent studies expanded their role in plant immunity and revealed their involvement in gene silencing and transposable element repression. Emerging data suggest that MORC proteins also participate in pathogen-induced chromatin remodeling and epigenetic gene regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089947/natural-killer-cells-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection-spotlight-on-the-impact-of-human-cytomegalovirus
#20
REVIEW
Dimitra Peppa
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been closely associated with the human race across evolutionary time. HCMV co-infection is nearly universal in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals and remains an important cofactor in HIV-1 disease progression even in the era of effective antiretroviral treatment. HCMV infection has been shown to have a broad and potent influence on the human immune system and has been linked with the discovery and characterization of adaptive natural killer (NK) cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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