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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214857/epigenetic-alterations-in-cellular-immunity-new-insights-into-autoimmune-diseases
#1
Zijun Wang, Qianjin Lu, Zhihui Wang
Epigenetic modification is an additional regulator in immune responses as the genome-wide profiling somehow fails to explain the sophisticated mechanisms in autoimmune diseases. The effect of epigenetic modifications on adaptive immunity derives from their regulations to induce a permissive or negative gene expression. Epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs) are often found in T cell activation, differentiation and commitment which are the major parts in cellular immunity...
February 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212305/epigenetic-landscape-during-coronavirus-infection
#2
Alexandra Schäfer, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoV) comprise a large group of emerging human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains. The molecular mechanisms regulating emerging coronavirus pathogenesis are complex and include virus-host interactions associated with entry, replication, egress and innate immune control. Epigenetics research investigates the genetic and non-genetic factors that regulate phenotypic variation, usually caused by external and environmental factors that alter host expression patterns and performance without any change in the underlying genotype...
February 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#3
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198392/coffee-consumption-is-associated-with-dna-methylation-levels-of-human-blood
#4
Yu-Hsuan Chuang, Austin Quach, Devin Absher, Themistocles Assimes, Steve Horvath, Beate Ritz
Beneficial health effects have been attributed to coffee consumption, but it is not yet known whether epigenetics may have a role in this process. Here we associate epigenome-wide DNA methylation levels to habitual coffee consumption from two studies with blood (2100 and 215 participants), and one with saliva samples (256 participants). Adjusting for age, gender, and blood cell composition, one CpG (cg21566642 near ALPPL2) surpassed genome-wide significance (P=3.7 × 10(-10)) and from among 10 additional CpGs significant at P≤5...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193841/dual-roles-of-akirin2-during-xenopus-neural-development
#5
Xiaoliang Liu, Yingjie Xia, Jixin Tang, Li Ma, Chaocui Li, Pengcheng Ma, Bingyu Mao
To ensure correct spatial and temporal patterning, embryos must maintain pluripotent cell populations and control when cells undergo commitment. The newly identified nucleoprotein Akirin has been shown to modulate the innate immune response through epigenetic regulation and to play important roles in other physiological processes, but its role in neural development remains unknown. Here, we show that Akirin2 is required for neural development in Xenopus and knockdown of Akirin2 expands the expression of the neural progenitor marker Sox2 and inhibits expression of the differentiated neuronal marker N-tubulin...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188297/alternative-splicing-in-the-cytochrome-p450-superfamily-expands-protein-diversity-to-augment-gene-function-and-redirect-human-drug-metabolism
#6
Andrew J Annalora, Craig B Marcus, Patrick L Iversen
The human genome encodes 57 cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes whose enzyme products metabolize hundreds of drugs, thousands of xenobiotics and unknown numbers of endogenous compounds including steroids, retinoids and icosinoids. Indeed, CYP genes are the first line of defense against daily environmental chemical challenges in a manner that parallels the immune system. Several databases, including PubMed, AceView, and Ensembl, were queried to establish a comprehensive analysis of the full human CYP transcriptome. This review describes a remarkable diversification of the 57 human CYP genes, which may be alternatively processed into nearly 1000 distinct mRNA transcripts to shape an individual's CYP proteome...
February 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185067/new-programmers-in-tissue-macrophage-activation
#7
REVIEW
Anna C Aschenbrenner, Joachim L Schultze
Tissue macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages are under continuous influence from environmental signals that define their activation status. Along these lines, macrophages integrate tissue and stress signals and are specifically programmed by these signals towards a spectrum of functions necessary to fulfill their duty within their particular microenvironment, be it homeostatic tissue function, response to inflammatory pathophysiology, or even resolution of an inflammation. Recent years have seen tremendous progress in our understanding how macrophages at different sites are transcriptionally and epigenetically programmed to execute their diverse tasks throughout the body...
February 9, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183450/the-role-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-kidney-injury-induced-by-gut-derived-inflammatory-response
#8
REVIEW
Wei Huang, Luping Zhou, Hengli Guo, Youhua Xu, Yong Xu
It has been found that several circulating metabolites derived from gut microbiota fermentation associate with a systemic immuno-inflammatory response and kidney injury, which has been coined the gut-kidney axis. Recent evidence has suggested that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are primarily originated from fermentation of dietary fiber in the gut, play an important role in regulation of immunity, blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism, and seem to be the link between microbiota and host homeostasis...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176650/is-there-a-role-for-epigenetic-enhancement-of-immunomodulatory-approaches-to-cancer-treatment
#9
Kirsty J Flower, Sadaf Ghaem-Maghami, Robert Brown
The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy relies on the ability of the host immune system to recognise the cancer as non-self and eliminate it from the body. Whilst this is an extremely fertile area of medical research, with positive clinical trials showing durable responses, attention must be paid to the subset of patients that do not respond to these treatments. Immune surveillance and immunoediting by the host could itself select for immune-evasive tumour cells during tumour development leading to immunotherapy resistance...
February 5, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174608/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profile-identified-a-unique-set-of-differentially-methylated-immune-genes-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients-in-india
#10
Baidehi Basu, Joyeeta Chakraborty, Aditi Chandra, Atul Katarkar, Jadav Ritesh Kumar Baldevbhai, Debjit Dhar Chowdhury, Jay Gopal Ray, Keya Chaudhuri, Raghunath Chatterjee
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the common malignancies in Southeast Asia. Epigenetic changes, mainly the altered DNA methylation, have been implicated in many cancers. Considering the varied environmental and genotoxic exposures among the Indian population, we conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation study on paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues of ten well-differentiated OSCC patients and validated in an additional 53 well-differentiated OSCC and adjacent normal samples...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173760/grandparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#11
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic changes in response to environmental influences can persist from one generation into the next. In many systems parental parasite experience influences offspring immune responses, known as transgenerational immune priming (TGIP). TGIP in vertebrates is mainly maternal and short-term, supporting the adaptive immune system of the offspring during its maturation. However, if fathers and offspring have a close physical connection, evolution of additional paternal immune priming can be adaptive...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173625/bet-proteins-an-approach-to-future-therapies-in-transplantation
#12
Beatriz Suarez-Álvarez, Ramón M Rodríguez, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Carlos López-Larrea
In order to develop new efficient therapies for organ transplantation it is essential to acquire a comprehensive knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and processes, such as immune activation, chronic inflammation and fibrosis that lead to rejection and long-term graft loss. Recent efforts have shed some light on the epigenetic regulation associated with these processes. In this context, the bromo and extraterminal (BET) family of bromodomain proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) have emerged as major epigenetic players, connecting chromatin structure with gene expression changes...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168424/characterization-of-dysregulated-mirna-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-ischemic-stroke-patients
#13
Marpe Bam, Xiaoming Yang, Souvik Sen, Elizabeth E Zumbrun, Lauren Dennis, Jiajia Zhang, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
Epigenetic modification may play an important role in pathophysiology of ischemic stroke (IS) risk. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which constitute one of the modes of epigenetic regulation, have been shown to be associated with a number of clinical disorders including IS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the miRNA profile in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of IS patients and compare it with stroke-free controls. Blood samples were obtained from 19 healthy age-gender-race matched individuals who served as controls to 20 IS patients...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167670/salmonella-typhi-lipopolysaccharide-o-antigen-modifications-impact-on-serum-resistance-and-antibody-recognition
#14
Erica Kintz, Christian Heiss, Ian Black, Nicholas Donohue, Naj Brown, Mark R Davies, Parastoo Azadi, Stephen Baker, Paul M Kaye, Marjan van der Woude
Salmonella Typhi is a human restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, responsible for causing an estimated 27 million cases of typhoid fever annually leading to 217,000 deaths, and current vaccines do not offer full protection. The O-antigen side chain of the lipopolysaccharide is an immunodominant antigen, can define host-pathogen interactions, and is under consideration as a vaccine target for some Gram-negative species. The composition of the O-antigen can be modified by activity of glycosyltransferase (gtr) operons acquired by horizontal gene transfer...
February 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167050/changing-mutational-and-adaptive-landscapes-and-the-genesis-of-cancer
#15
L Alexander Liggett, James DeGregori
By the time the process of oncogenesis has produced an advanced cancer, tumor cells have undergone extensive evolution. The cellular phenotypes resulting from this evolution have been well studied, and include accelerated growth rates, apoptosis resistance, immortality, invasiveness, and immune evasion. Yet with all of our current knowledge of tumor biology, the details of early oncogenesis have been difficult to observe and understand. Where different oncogenic mutations may work together to enhance the survival of a tumor cell, in isolation they are often pro-apoptotic, pro-differentiative or pro-senescent, and therefore often, somewhat paradoxically, disadvantageous to a cell...
February 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158393/partitioning-the-heritability-of-coronary-artery-disease-highlights-the-importance-of-immune-mediated-processes-and-epigenetic-sites-associated-with-transcriptional-activity
#16
Majid Nikpay, Alexandre F R Stewart, Ruth McPherson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158250/potential-roles-of-dna-methylation-in-the-initiation-and-establishment-of-replicative-senescence-revealed-by-array-based-methylome-and-transcriptome-analyses
#17
Mizuho Sakaki, Yukiko Ebihara, Kohji Okamura, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Arisa Igarashi, Kenji Matsumoto, Kenichiro Hata, Yoshiro Kobayashi, Kayoko Maehara
Cellular senescence is classified into two groups: replicative and premature senescence. Gene expression and epigenetic changes are reported to differ between these two groups and cell types. Normal human diploid fibroblast TIG-3 cells have often been used in cellular senescence research; however, their epigenetic profiles are still not fully understood. To elucidate how cellular senescence is epigenetically regulated in TIG-3 cells, we analyzed the gene expression and DNA methylation profiles of three types of senescent cells, namely, replicatively senescent, ras-induced senescent (RIS), and non-permissive temperature-induced senescent SVts8 cells, using gene expression and DNA methylation microarrays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157211/platelet-activating-factor-induced-expression-of-p21-is-correlated-with-histone-acetylation
#18
Elisabetta Damiani, Nahum Puebla-Osorio, Bree M Lege, Jingwei Liu, Sattva S Neelapu, Stephen E Ullrich
Ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated keratinocytes secrete the lipid mediator of inflammation, platelet-activating factor (PAF). PAF plays an essential role in UV-induced immune suppression and skin cancer induction. Dermal mast cell migration from the skin to the draining lymph nodes plays a prominent role in activating systemic immune suppression. UV-induced PAF activates mast cell migration by up-regulating mast cell CXCR4 surface expression. Recent findings indicate that PAF up-regulates CXCR4 expression via histone acetylation...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154780/human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-cancer
#19
María Gonzalez-Cao, Paola Iduma, Niki Karachaliou, Mariacarmela Santarpia, Julià Blanco, Rafael Rosell
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are retroviruses that infected human genome millions of years ago and have persisted throughout human evolution. About 8% of our genome is composed of HERVs, most of which are nonfunctional because of epigenetic control or deactivating mutations. However, a correlation between HERVs and human cancer has been described and many tumors, such as melanoma, breast cancer, germ cell tumors, renal cancer or ovarian cancer, express HERV proteins, mainly HERV-K (HML6) and HERV-K (HML2)...
December 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151579/mediator-cyclin-dependent-kinases-upregulate-transcription-of-inflammatory-genes-in-cooperation-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-c-ebp%C3%AE-on-stimulation-of-toll-like-receptor-9
#20
Seiji Yamamoto, Tomoko Hagihara, Yoshiyuki Horiuchi, Akira Okui, Shotaro Wani, Tokuyuki Yoshida, Takao Inoue, Aki Tanaka, Takashi Ito, Yutaka Hirose, Yoshiaki Ohkuma
In eukaryotes, the Mediator complex has important roles in regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II. Mediator is a large complex with more than 20 subunits that form head, middle, tail and CDK/cyclin modules. Among them, CDK8 and/or CDK19 (CDK8/19), and their counterpart cyclin C, form the CDK/cyclin module together with Mediator subunits MED12 and MED13. Despite evidences of both activation and repression, the precise functional roles of CDK8/19 in transcription are still elusive. Our previous results indicate that CDK8/19 recruits epigenetic regulators to repress immunoresponse genes...
February 2, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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