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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922687/immature-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-a-bridge-between-inflammation-and-cancer-review
#1
Caterina Musolino, Alessandro Allegra, Govanni Pioggia, Sebastiano Gangemi
Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the hallmarks of tumor initiation and progression. Changes occurring in the microenvironment of progressing tumors resemble the process of chronic inflammation, which begins with ischemia followed by interstitial and cellular edema, appearance of immune cells, growth of blood vessels and tissue repair, and development of inflammatory infiltrates. Moreover, long‑term production and accumulation of inflammatory factors lead to local and systemic immunosuppression associated with cancer progression...
December 5, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922620/relevance-of-necroptosis-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Najoua Lalaoui, Gabriela Brumatti
Resistance to caspase-dependent apoptosis is often responsible for treatment failures in cancer. Finding novel therapeutic strategies that can activate alternative cell death programs appears to be appealing. Necroptosis is a form of programmed necrosis that occurs under caspase deficient conditions. This alternative form of cell death has recently emerged as a potential anti-cancer therapy that could overcome apoptosis resistance. A growing understanding of the molecular events triggering necroptosis helped to examine its implication in cancer development and to define new therapeutic strategies...
December 6, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922503/myasthenia-gravis-and-lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome
#3
Michael W Nicolle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). RECENT FINDINGS: Recognition of new antigenic targets and improved diagnostic methods promise to improve the diagnosis of MG, although the clinical phenotypes associated with newer antibodies have not yet been defined. Future therapies might specifically target the aberrant immune response. The apparent increase in the prevalence of MG is not fully explained...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920704/autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-as-a-complication-of-nivolumab-therapy
#4
Amruth R Palla, Devin Kennedy, Hossain Mosharraf, Donald Doll
Recently, immunotherapeutic drugs, including PD-1 inhibitors (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), PD-L1 inhibitors (atezolizumab, avelumab), and CTLA4 inhibitors (ipiliumumab), have emerged as important additions to the armamentarium against certain malignancies and have been incorporated into therapeutic protocols for first-, second-, or third-line agents for these metastatic cancers. Immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab is currently FDA approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma [Redman et al...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920468/immune-checkpoint-therapy-for-pancreatic-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Henrik Johansson, Roland Andersson, Monika Bauden, Sarah Hammes, Stefan Holdenrieder, Daniel Ansari
Novel treatment modalities are necessary for pancreatic cancer. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibition has shown effect in other solid tumors, and could have a place in pancreatic cancer treatment. Most available clinical studies on immune checkpoint inhibitors for pancreatic cancer are not yet completed and are still recruiting patients. Among the completed trials, there have been findings of a preliminary nature such as delayed disease progression and enhanced overall survival after treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors in mono- or combination therapy...
November 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920143/targeting-immune-suppression-in-cancer
#6
(no author information available yet)
Researchers have figured out a way to switch the immunosuppressive phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages to one that's immunostimulatory. By inhibiting PI3Kγ in these macrophages, they significantly suppressed tumor growth in mice; when anti-PD-1 therapy was added to PI3Kγ inhibition, complete and sustained tumor eradication was observed in many cases.
December 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917371/hijacker-of-the-antitumor-immune-response-autophagy-is-showing-its-worst-facet
#7
REVIEW
Elodie Viry, Muhammad Zaeem Noman, Tsolère Arakelian, Audrey Lequeux, Salem Chouaib, Guy Berchem, Etienne Moussay, Jérôme Paggetti, Bassam Janji
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is a housekeeping process constitutively executed at basal level in all cells to promote cellular homeostasis by regulating organelle and protein turnover. However, autophagy deregulation caused by several stress factors, such as hypoxia, is prevalent in many cancers. It is now well established that autophagy can act as tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on tumor type, stage, and genetic context. In developed tumors, autophagy promotes the survival of cancer cells and therefore operates as a cell resistance mechanism...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917363/future-therapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus-role-of-immunomodulators
#8
REVIEW
Edward A Pham, Ryan B Perumpail, Benjamin J Fram, Jeffrey S Glenn, Aijaz Ahmed, Robert G Gish
Although currently available therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus infection can suppress viremia and provide long-term benefits for patients, they do not lead to a functional cure for most patients. Advances in our understanding of the virus-host interaction and the recent remarkable success of immunotherapy in cancer offer new and promising strategies for developing immune modulators that may become important components of a total therapeutic approach to hepatitis B, some of which are now in clinical development...
2016: Current Hepatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917296/stat1-associated-intratumoural-th1-immunity-predicts-chemotherapy-resistance-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#9
Katrina K Au, Cécile Le Page, Runhan Ren, Liliane Meunier, Isabelle Clément, Kathrin Tyrishkin, Nichole Peterson, Jennifer Kendall-Dupont, Timothy Childs, Julie-Ann Francis, Charles H Graham, Andrew W Craig, Jeremy A Squire, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, Madhuri Koti
High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) accounts for 70% of all epithelial ovarian cancers but clinical management is challenged by a lack of accurate prognostic and predictive biomarkers of chemotherapy response. This study evaluated the role of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) as an independent prognostic and predictive biomarker and its correlation with intratumoural CD8(+) T cells in a second independent biomarker validation study. Tumour STAT1 expression and intratumoural CD8(+) T cell infiltration were assessed by immunohistochemistry as a multicentre validation study conducted on 734 chemotherapy-naïve HGSCs...
October 2016: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917281/gene-therapy-based-on-interleukin-12-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-a-mouse-model-of-fibrosarcoma
#10
Saiedeh Razi Soofiyani, Somayeh Hallaj-Nezhadi, Farzaneh Lotfipour, Akbar Mohammad Hosseini, Behzad Baradaran
OBJECTIVES: Interleukin-12 (IL-12) as a cytokine has been proved to have a critical role in stimulating the immune system and has been used as immunotherapeutic agents in cancer gene therapy. Chitosan as a polymer, with high ability of binding to nucleic acids is a good candidate for gene delivery since it is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-allergenic polysaccharide. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of cells transfected with IL-12 loaded chitosan nanoparticles on the regression of fibrosarcoma tumor cells (WEHI-164) in vivo...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916651/pharmacological-and-immunological-targeting-of-tumor-mesenchymalization
#11
REVIEW
Justin M David, Charli Dominguez, Claudia Palena
Controlling the spread of carcinoma cells to distant organs is the foremost challenge in cancer treatment, as metastatic disease is generally resistant to therapy and is ultimately incurable for the majority of patients. The plasticity of tumor cell phenotype, in which the behaviors and functions of individual tumor cells differ markedly depending upon intrinsic and extrinsic factors, is now known to be a central mechanism in cancer progression. Our expanding knowledge of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypic states in tumor cells, and the dynamic nature of the transitions between these phenotypes has created new opportunities to intervene to better control the behavior of tumor cells...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916584/immunological-and-infectious-risk-factors-for-lung-cancer-in-us-veterans-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#12
Keith Sigel, Juan Wisnivesky, Kristina Crothers, Kirsha Gordon, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Roger Bedimo, Lesley S Park, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is independently associated with risk of lung cancer, but few data exist for the relation between longitudinal measurements of immune function and lung-cancer risk in people living with HIV. METHODS: We followed up participants with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study for a minimum of 3 years between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2012, and used cancer registry data to identify incident cases of lung cancer. The index date for each patient was the later of the date HIV care began or Jan 1, 1998...
December 1, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916138/alcohol-exposure-differentially-effects-anti-tumor-immunity-in-females-by-altering-dendritic-cell-function
#13
Matthew G Thompson, Flor Navarro, Lennox Chitsike, Luis Ramirez, Elizabeth J Kovacs, Stephanie K Watkins
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a critical component of anti-tumor immunity due to their ability to induce a robust immune response to antigen (Ag). Alcohol was previously shown to reduce DC ability to present foreign Ag and promote pro-inflammatory responses in situations of infection and trauma. However the impact of alcohol exposure on generation of an anti-tumor response, especially in the context of generation of an immune vaccine has not been examined. In the clinic, DC vaccines are typically generated from autologous blood, therefore prior exposure to substances such as alcohol may be a critical factor to consider regarding the effectiveness in generating an immune response...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916137/cancer-mutational-load-the-more-the-merrier-for-immune-checkpoint-blockade-therapies
#14
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915991/control-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer-by-synthetic-vitamin-d-receptor-ligands
#15
Ichiro Takada, Makoto Makishima
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are associated with an increased risk of cancer, autoimmune disease, inflammation, infection, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease, as well as bone and mineral disorders. The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a receptor for the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], and mediates vitamin D regulation of specific target gene expression. The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, which is produced by intestinal bacteria, is another natural VDR ligand...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915988/vitamin-d-vdr-probiotics-and-gastrointestinal-diseases
#16
Mei Shang, Jun Sun
Vitamin D is an important factor in regulating inflammation, immune responses, and carcinoma inhibition via action of its receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent studies have demonstrated the role of vitamin D/VDR in regulating host-bacterial interactions. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria with the power of supporting or favoring life on the host. In the current review, we will discuss the recent progress on the roles of vitamin D/VDR in gut microbiome and inflammation. We will summarize evidence of probiotics in modulating vitamin D/VDR and balancing gut microbiota in health and gastrointestinal diseases...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915971/the-iap-protein-family-smac-mimetics-and-cancer-treatment
#17
Alex Philchenkov, Koh Miura
Since the acquired resistance of cells to apoptosis is one of the major hallmarks of cancer, the endogenous inhibitors of apoptosis can be regarded as promising targets in the design of anticancer therapeutics. In addition to their antiapoptotic activity, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are able to regulate numerous other cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, as well as proinflammatory and immune responses. Study of the IAP family as target molecules in targeted therapies has recently focused on SMAC mimetics as synthetic IAP antagonists that have been under development as promising therapeutics...
2016: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914453/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-as-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
K-S N Atretkhany, M S Drutskaya
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells represent a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells. Under normal conditions, these cells differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. However, in pathological states such as inflammation, infection, or tumor growth, there is an arrest of their differentiation that results in the accumulation of immature myeloid cells in the organism. In addition, these cells acquire a suppressor phenotype, expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and suppress T-cell immune response...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913998/immunotherapy-for-breast-cancer-past-present-and-future
#19
Alison Spellman, Shou-Ching Tang
Immunotherapy has shown promise in many solid tumors including melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer with an evolving role in breast cancer. Immunotherapy encompasses a wide range of therapies including immune checkpoint inhibition, monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies, vaccinations, antibody-drug conjugates, and identifying other emerging interventions targeting the tumor microenvironment. Increasing efficacy of these treatments in breast cancer patients requires identification of better biomarkers to guide patient selection; recognizing when to initiate these therapies in multi-modality treatment plans; establishing novel assays to monitor immune-mediated responses; and creating combined systemic therapy options incorporating conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and endocrine therapy...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913861/cxcl12-expression-and-pd-l1-expression-serve-as-prognostic-biomarkers-in-hcc-and-are-induced-by-hypoxia
#20
Alexander Semaan, Dimo Dietrich, Dominik Bergheim, Jörn Dietrich, Jörg C Kalff, Vittorio Branchi, Hanno Matthaei, Glen Kristiansen, Hans-Peter Fischer, Diane Goltz
Anti-PD-1 treatment increases anti-tumour immune responses in animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib, the mainstay of treatment of HCC patients, however, leads to tumour hypoxia and thereby abrogates the efficacy of anti-PD-1 treatment. This served as a rationale to implement CXCR4 inhibition as adjunct to sorafenib and anti-PD-1 treatment in murine HCC models. We studied the relationship between tumour hypoxia, PD-L1 and CXCL12 expression in human HCC, aiming to test the rationale for triple therapy combining sorafenib, PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors and CXCR4 inhibitors...
December 2, 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
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