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Yolk sac

Kurt A Zimmerman, Cheng Jack Song, Nancy Gonzalez-Mize, Zhang Li, Bradley K Yoder
Hepatorenal fibrocystic disease (HRFCD) is characterized by cysts in the kidney and liver with associated fibrosis and is the result of defects in proteins required for cilia function or assembly. Previous reports indicate that macrophages, mainly M2-like macrophages, contribute to HRFCD, although the origin (yolk-sac derived resident macrophages vs bone-marrow derived infiltrating macrophages) and contribution of these cells to the observed phenotypes is unknown. Herein, we utilize a congenital model of cilia dysfunction (IFT88Orpk ) to study the importance of macrophages in HRFCD...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Zhen Yuan, Dongyan Cao, Jiaxin Yang, Shen Keng, Huifang Huang
OBJECTIVE: Vaginal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare malignant germ cell tumors largely affecting children younger than 3 years. Because of their low incidence, there is no consensus regarding diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we describe the presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of 16 patients with vaginal YSTs diagnosed and managed at our center. METHODS: Diagnoses of YST of the vagina were confirmed by 2 experienced pathologists. All patients were treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (PEB) combination chemotherapy alone...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Santa Mammana, Paolo Fagone, Eugenio Cavalli, Maria Sofia Basile, Maria Cristina Petralia, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
In physiological conditions, different types of macrophages can be found within the central nervous system (CNS), i.e., microglia, meningeal macrophages, and perivascular (blood-brain barrier) and choroid plexus (blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier) macrophages. Microglia and tissue-resident macrophages, as well as blood-borne monocytes, have different origins, as the former derive from yolk sac erythromyeloid precursors and the latter from the fetal liver or bone marrow. Accordingly, specific phenotypic patterns characterize each population...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Karilyn E Sant, Paul P Sinno, Haydee M Jacobs, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
The glutathione redox system undergoes precise and dynamic changes during embryonic development, protecting against and mitigating oxidative insults. The antioxidant response is coordinately largely by the transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf2), an endogenous sensor for cellular oxidative stress. We have previously demonstrated that impaired Nrf family signaling disrupts the glutathione redox system in the zebrafish embryo, and that impaired Nrf2 function increases embryonic sensitivity to environmental toxicants...
February 20, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
S Tasharofi, F Mohammadi, N Amiri, M N Nazem
This study carried out to investigate the effects of intra-yolk-sac injection (IYSI) of some solutions including 1 ml of distilled water, dextrose 20% and albumin 20% on hatch percentage, performance traits, jejunum morphology, glycogen content of liver and breast and serum metabolites in broilers (Ross 308). Fertile eggs were injected into the yolk sac at day 8 of incubation period. Results showed that hatchability, absolute body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at day 7 and 14 of growing period were not different among treatments, but in comparison with control group, BW and FCR were numerally better by IYSI of albumin...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Áine B Collins, John F Mee, Peter D Kirkland
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and Akabane virus (AKAV) are teratogenic Simbu serogroup Orthobunyaviruses. Embryonated chicken egg models (ECE) have been used to study the pathogenicity and teratogenicity of Simbu viruses previously, however to date no such studies have been reported for SBV. Hence, the aims of this study were to investigate if ECE are susceptible to experimental SBV infection, and to evaluate the pathogenicity and teratogenicity of SBV and AKAV in ECE models. Two studies were conducted. In Study A, SBV (106...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Danping Huang, Hanmin Li, Qidi He, Weiqu Yuan, Zuanguang Chen, Hongzhi Yang
Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is present in food, water, and daily supplies and is regarded as a toxicant of carcinogenicity. The developmental toxicity of DEN has been rarely reported as yet. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of DEN at 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) to access embryonic toxicity of the compound. The results show that DEN resulted in negative effects of hatching rate, heartbeat, body length, and spontaneous movement. Deformities, including notochord malformation, pericardium edema, embryonic membrane turbidity, tail hypoplasia, yolk sac deformity, and growth retardation, happened during exposure period...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Nicholas Isom, Aniket S Rali, Ivan Damjanov, Kevin Hubbard, Joel Grigsby, Kamal Gupta
BACKGROUND Cardiac involvement by a malignant tumor is rare. However, this is a case of right heart failure due to cardiac metastasis from a yolk sac tumor. Although a few case reports of cardiac metastasis from yolk sac tumors have been published, to our knowledge this is the first instance of multiple metastases to the right ventricular of yolk sac tumor in an adult male. CASE REPORT The patient is a 46-year-old male with a history of testicular cancer that presented with dyspnea on exertion. He was found to have two large right sided intracardiac masses on echocardiography...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Kenneth S Chen, Nicholas J Fustino, Abhay A Shukla, Emily K Stroup, Albert Budhipramono, Christina Ateek, Sarai H Stuart, Kiyoshi Yamaguchi, Payal Kapur, A Lindsay Frazier, Lawrence Lum, Leendert H J Looijenga, Theodore W Laetsch, Dinesh Rakheja, James F Amatruda
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are malignant tumors that arise from pluripotent embryonic germ cells and occur in children and young adults. GCTs are treated with cisplatin-based regimens which, while overall effective, fail to cure all patients and cause significant adverse late effects. The seminoma and non-seminoma forms of GCT exhibit distinct differentiation states, clinical behavior and response to treatment, however the molecular mechanisms of GCT differentiation are not fully understood. We tested whether the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were differentially active in the two classes of GCT...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Safdar Shah, Muhammad Danial Ali Shah, Abeer Fatima, Fawad Nasrullah, Wajid Ali, Irfan Ahmed Gorya
We describe a case of a 26-year man with complaints of suprapubic pain and burning micturition for two weeks and intermittent hematuria for two months. On physical examination, there was palpable mobile pelvic mass measuring 10x10 cm. Both testes were palpable in the scrotum. CT scan abdomen revealed well-defined, soft tissue mass, about 11x10 cm between rectum and urinary bladder. Mass showed internal necrotic changes and enhancement along the walls. No calcification was seen. Exploratory laparotomy was done...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Bangeppagari Manjunatha, Sung Ho Park, Kiwoong Kim, Rajesh R Kundapur, Sang Joon Lee
Graphene has been used in several fields covering from electronics to biomedicine, especially exhibiting a widespread variety of promising biological and biomedical applications. In the past decade, the biomedical applications of graphene have attracted much interest. However, the effect of pristine graphene (pG) toxicity in aquatic vertebrates has not been fully studied. Thus, in this study, the toxicity of pG was experimentally evaluated using developing zebrafish embryos as in vivo model system. To determine this, 4-hpf embryos were exposed to different concentrations of pG (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 μg/L) and different early life-stage parameters were observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hpf...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guillaume Hoeffel, Florent Ginhoux
Tissue-resident macrophages have pivotal functions for tissue defense and homeostasis. Two main discoveries have changed our current understanding of macrophage development: Their embryonic origin and their ability to self-renew throughout the lifespan. It is now well accepted that most tissue-resident macrophages are long-lived cells derived from a transient hematopoietic wave of erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) emerging in the yolk sac. At least two distinct pathways derived from EMPs have been implicated in macrophage development...
January 12, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Feyza Icoglu Aksakal, Abdulkadir Ciltas
Penconazole is a widely used fungicide that is toxic to a variety of organisms including fish. In the present study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of penconazole on zebrafish embryos by exposing to different concentrations of penconazole (0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 mg/L) from 4-h post-fertilization (hpf). Hatching, survival, and heart rates, body length, malformation and expression of several genes were detected. The results showed that penconazole exposure induced developmental toxicity, including delayed hatching, reduced survival, and heart rate...
February 17, 2018: Chemosphere
Mariela Giacchino, Pablo I F Inserra, Fernando D Lange, María C Gariboldi, Sergio R Ferraris, Alfredo D Vitullo
The South American hystricognathe Lagostomus maximus is a fossorial rodent whose females show unique reproductive characteristics. They have a 155-day long gestation, show massive polyovulation and a selective process of embryonic resorption in the first half of gestation. In order to explore and perform an in-situ characterization of the reproductive tract, we visualized internal structures through ultrasonography and video-endoscopy in pregnant and non-pregnant females. We describe the finding of protruding structures that lie on the yolk sac and their histological and ultrastructural characterization...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
Xiaomin Su, Chenglei Wu, Xiaoying Ye, Ming Zeng, Zhujun Zhang, Yongzhe Che, Yuan Zhang, Lin Liu, Yushuang Lin, Rongcun Yang
TRIM family members have been implicated in a variety of biological processes such as differentiation and development. We here found that Trim59 plays a critical role in early embryo development from blastocyst stage to gastrula. There existed delayed development and empty yolk sacs from embryonic day (E) 8.5 in Trim59-/- embryos. No viable Trim59-/- embryos were observed beyond E9.5. Trim59 deficiency affected primary germ layer formation at the beginning of gastrulation. At E6.5 and E7.5, the expression of primary germ layer formation-associated genes including Brachyury, lefty2, Cer1, Otx2, Wnt3, and BMP4 was reduced in Trim59-/- embryos...
February 21, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Nafiseh Sanjarani Vahed, Hamid Reza Esmaeili, Mojtaba Masoudi, Mehregan Ebrahimi
The embryonic and early larval development of laboratory reared Zagros tooth-carp, Aphanius vladykovi Coad, 1988, are described and illustrated. Development and embryogenesis start with the external fertilization of sticky, transparent and spherical telolecithal/macrolecithal eggs with a mean diameter of 1.61± 0.12 mm and it continues with meroblastic/radial cleavage, blastulation/blastula formation, epibolic cell migration during gastrulation and organogenesis resulting in a newly hatched larvae of 5.23 ± 0...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Richard W Smith, Richard D Moccia, Colin B Seymour, Carmel E Mothersill
Exposure to a single 0.5 Gy X-ray dose of eggs at 48 h after fertilisation (48 h egg), eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae (YSL) and first feeders induces a legacy effect in adult rainbow trout. This includes the transmission of a bystander effect to non-irradiated adult trout which had swam with the irradiated fish. The aim of this study was to investigate this legacy by analysing the gill proteome of these irradiated and bystander fish. Irradiation at all of the early life stages resulted in changes to proteins which play a key role in development but are also known to be anti-tumorigenic and anti-oxidant: upregulation of haemoglobin subunit beta (48 h egg), haemoglobin, serum albumin 1 precursor (eyed eggs), clathrin heavy chain 1 isoform X10 (eyed eggs and first feeders), and actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 (first feeders), downregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, histone 1 (48 h egg), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), collagen alpha-1(1) chain like proteins (YSL), pyruvate kinase PKM-like protein (YSL and first feeders), ubiquitin-40S ribosomal proteins S27 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 A isoform 1B (first feeders)...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Research
Wouter T'Jonck, Martin Guilliams, Johnny Bonnardel
Tissue-resident macrophages form an essential part of the first line of defense in all tissues of the body. Next to their immunological role, they play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Recently, it was shown that they are primarily of embryonic origin. During embryogenesis, precursors originating in the yolk sac and fetal liver colonize the embryonal tissues where they develop into mature tissue-resident macrophages. Their development is governed by two distinct sets of transcription factors...
February 13, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Jing Lu, Yvonne Kwun Yue Cheng, Yuen Ha Ting, Kwok Ming Law, Tak Yeung Leung
Accurate diagnosis of chorioamnionicity in multiple pregnancies is the key to appropriate clinical management of multiple gestation. Although prenatal ultrasound assessment of chorioamnionicity is well established and highly accurate if performed in early pregnancy, exceptions and artifacts arise from anatomic variations in multiple pregnancies and unusual sonographic features do exist. We have summarized our own experiences and reports from the literature on these pitfalls as follows: (1) Discordant fetal sex in monochorionic pregnancies due to sex chromosome abnormalities, genital malformation in one fetus, or dizygotic twins forming a monochorionic placenta; (2) Separate placental masses in monochorionic pregnancies due to bipartite placenta; (3) False negative and false positive λ sign can arise for various reasons, and in partial monochorionic / dichorionic placentas both T and λ sign may co-exist; (4) Intrauterine synechia appearing as a thick and echogenic intrauterine septum may lead to erroneous diagnosis of dichorionic twins; (5) Errors in ascertaining amnionicity by the visualization of thin inter-twin amniotic membranes and the number of yolk sacs...
February 17, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
A O Sokale, C J Williams, T S Cummings, P D Gerard, A Bello, E D Peebles
Inovocox EM1 vaccine (EM1) is hatchery-applied via in ovo injection for the control of coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Effects of 3 in ovo injection treatments (INT) and 2 turn-out times (TOT) on the hatching chick quality variables and 35 d posthatch performance of Ross × Ross 708 broilers were investigated. In a single-stage incubator, 1,440 hatching eggs were randomly distributed among 3 INT groups on each of 8 tray levels. At 19 d of incubation (doi), embryonated eggs were subjected to one of the following INT by in ovo injection: noninjected control; 1 × dose of EM1; 10 × dose of EM1...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
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