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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221829/the-evolutionary-economics-of-embryonic-sac-fluids-in-squamate-reptiles
#1
Xavier Bonnet, Guy Naulleau, Richard Shine
The parchment-shelled eggs of squamate reptiles take up substantial water from the nest environment, enabling the conversion of yolk into neonatal tissue and buffering the embryo against the possibility of subsequent dry weather. During development, increasing amounts of water are stored in the embryonic sacs (i.e., membranes around the embryo: amnion, allantois, and chorion). The evolution of viviparity (prolonged uterine retention of developing embryos) means that embryonic-sac fluid storage now imposes a cost (increased maternal burdening), confers less benefit (because the mother buffers fetal water balance), and introduces a potential conflict among uterine siblings (for access to finite water supplies)...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216382/the-physical-basis-of-coordinated-tissue-spreading-in-zebrafish-gastrulation
#2
Hitoshi Morita, Silvia Grigolon, Martin Bock, S F Gabriel Krens, Guillaume Salbreux, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
Embryo morphogenesis relies on highly coordinated movements of different tissues. However, remarkably little is known about how tissues coordinate their movements to shape the embryo. In zebrafish embryogenesis, coordinated tissue movements first become apparent during "doming," when the blastoderm begins to spread over the yolk sac, a process involving coordinated epithelial surface cell layer expansion and mesenchymal deep cell intercalations. Here, we find that active surface cell expansion represents the key process coordinating tissue movements during doming...
February 12, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215183/yolk-sac-tumor-in-the-abdominal-wall-of-an-18-month-old-girl-a-case-report
#3
Machiel van den Akker, Dirk Vervloessem, An Huybrechs, Sabine Declercq, Jutte van der Werff Ten Bosch
BACKGROUND: Pediatric germ cell tumors account for approximately 3.5 % of all childhood cancers for children under the age of 15 years. Up to one-third are extragonadal neoplasms. Germ cell tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors with a wide variety of histopathological features. Yolk sac tumor is the predominant variant in newborns and younger children. We report for the first time, the presentation of a primary yolk sac tumor in the abdominal wall of a small child. CASE PRESENTATION: An 18-month-old white girl underwent resection of a small, round subcutaneous lump (1...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202048/chemotherapy-for-primary-mediastinal-yolk-sac-tumor-in-a-patient-undergoing-chronic-hemodialysis-a-case-report
#4
Haruki Hirakawa, Chiho Nakashima, Tomomi Nakamura, Masanori Masuda, Taro Funakoshi, Shunsaku Nakagawa, Takahiro Horimatsu, Kazuo Matsubara, Manabu Muto, Shinya Kimura, Naoko Sueoka-Aragane
BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of chemotherapy for patients undergoing concomitant hemodialysis have not been fully established and optimal doses of anti-cancer drugs and best timing of hemodialysis remains unclear. Although chemosensitive cancers, such as germ cell tumors, treated with chemotherapy should have sufficient dose intensity maintained to achieve the desired effect, many patients with cancer undergoing hemodialysis might be under-treated because the pharmacokinetics of anti-cancer drugs in such patients remains unknown...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199040/isotopic-half-life-and-enrichment-factor-in-two-species-of-european-freshwater-fish-larvae-an-experimental-approach
#5
Adrien Latli, Nicolas Sturaro, Nelson Desjardin, Loïc N Michel, William Otjacques, Gilles Lepoint, Patrick Kestemont
RATIONALE: Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen are valuable tools for field ecologists to use to analyse animal diets. However, the application of these tools requires knowledge of the tissue enrichment factor (TEF) and half-life (HL). We experimentally compared TEF and HL in 2 freshwater fish larvae. We hypothesised that chub had a better growth/tissue replacement ratio than roach, due to the use of a food closer to their natural diet. METHODS: We determined the isotopic HL, the TEF and the contribution of growth or metabolic tissue replacement to dynamic isotopic incorporation...
February 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195383/the-morphological-ultrasound-types-known-as-blob-and-bagel-signs-should-be-reclassified-from-probable-to-definite-ectopic-pregnancy
#6
Batool Nadim, Fernando Infante, Lu Chuan, Nalayini Sathasivam, George Condous
OBJECTIVES: In a recent consensus statement on early pregnancy nomenclature by Barnhart 2011, a definite ectopic pregnancy(EP) was defined morphologically on transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) as an extra-uterine gestational sac(GS) with yolk sac and/or embryo(with or without cardiac activity) whilst a probable EP defined as an inhomogeneous adnexal mass("blob" sign) or extra-uterine sac-like structure("bagel" sign). This study aims to determine whether the ultrasound markers used to define probable EP can be used to predict a definite tubal EP...
February 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187362/6-2-chlorinated-polyfluorinated-ether-sulfonate-a-pfos-alternative-induces-embryotoxicity-and-disrupts-cardiac-development-in-zebrafish-embryos
#7
Guohui Shi, Qianqian Cui, Yitao Pan, Nan Sheng, Sujie Sun, Yong Guo, Jiayin Dai
As an alternative to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (commercial name: F-53B) has been used as a mist suppressant in Chinese electroplating industries for over 30 years. It has been found in the environment and fish, and one acute assay indicated F-53B was moderately toxic. However, the toxicological information on this compound was incomplete and insufficient for assessment of their environment impact. The object of this study was to examine the developmental toxicity of F-53B using zebrafish embryos...
February 3, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185068/physiological-roles-of-macrophages
#8
REVIEW
Siamon Gordon, Luisa Martinez-Pomares
Macrophages are present in mammals from midgestation, contributing to physiologic homeostasis throughout life. Macrophages arise from yolk sac and foetal liver progenitors during embryonic development in the mouse and persist in different organs as heterogeneous, self-renewing tissue-resident populations. Bone marrow-derived blood monocytes are recruited after birth to replenish tissue-resident populations and to meet further demands during inflammation, infection and metabolic perturbations. Macrophages of mixed origin and different locations vary in replication and turnover, but are all active in mRNA and protein synthesis, fulfilling organ-specific and systemic trophic functions, in addition to host defence...
February 9, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182295/development-of-cranial-muscles-in-the-actinopterygian-fish-senegal-bichir-polypterus-senegalus-cuvier-1829
#9
Masatsugu Noda, Tsutomu Miyake, Masataka Okabe
Polypterus senegalus Cuvier, 1829 is one of the most basal living actinopterygian fish and a member of the Actinopterygii. We analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of cranial muscle development of P. senegalus using whole-mount immunostaining and serial sectioning. We described the detailed structure of the external gill muscles which divided into dorsal and ventral parts after yolk exhaustion. The pattern of the division is similar to that of urodeles. We suggest that, the external gill muscles of P. senegalus are involved in spreading and folding of the external gill stem and the branches...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168721/yolk-sac-development-in-lizards-lacertilia-scincidae-new-perspectives-on-the-egg-of-amniotes
#10
James R Stewart, Michael B Thompson
Embryos of oviparous reptiles develop on the surface of a large mass of yolk, which they metabolize to become relatively large hatchlings. Access to the yolk is provided by tissues growing outward from the embryo to cover the surface of the yolk. A key feature of yolk sac development is a dedicated blood vascular system to communicate with the embryo. The best known model for yolk sac development and function of oviparous amniotes is based on numerous studies of birds, primarily domestic chickens. In this model, the vascular yolk sac forms the perimeter of the large yolk mass and is lined by a specialized epithelium, which takes up, processes and transports yolk nutrients to the yolk sac blood vessels...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166424/lectin-histochemistry-for-detecting-cadmium-induced-changes-in-the-glycosylation-pattern-of-rat-placenta
#11
M C Díaz, N V González, C N Zanuzzi, R Najle, C G Barbeito
Cadmium (Cd) is an industrial and environmental pollutant that produces toxic effects on gametogenesis, pre- and post-implantation embryos, and the placenta. Because the effects of acute Cd intoxication on the placenta are not well understood, we investigated changes in its glycosylated components in Cd treated dams at days 4, 7, 10 and 15 of gestation using lectin histochemistry. CdCl2 was administered to pregnant rats; control animals received sterile normal saline. Placentas were processed for DBA, Con A, SBA, PNA, UEA-I, RCA-I and WGA lectin histochemistry to evaluate changes in the carbohydrate pattern of the placenta that might modify cell interactions and contribute to embryonic alterations...
February 6, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166073/ovarian-tumors-pattern-of-histomorphological-types-a-10-years-study-in-a-tertiary-referral-center-and-review-of-literature
#12
A Ghosh, D Ghartimagar, S Thapa, B Sathian, R Narasimhan, O P Talwar
Background Ovarian cancer accounts for 6% of all cancers in females. Among cancers of female genital tract, the incidence of ovarian cancers ranks below only carcinoma of the cervix and the endometrium. Objective To find the frequency of different types of histomorphological types and their association with age, side and size distribution. Method This study is a hospital based retrospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology, Manipal Teaching Hospital over a time period from Jan. 2006 to Sep. 2015...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155572/exploring-the-role-of-microglia-in-cortical-spreading-depression-in-neurological-disease
#13
Mamoru Shibata, Norihiro Suzuki
Microglia play a pivotal role in innate immunity in the brain. During development, they mature from myeloerythroid progenitor cells in the yolk sac and colonize the brain to establish a resident population of tissue macrophages. In the postnatal brain, they exert phagocytosis and induce inflammatory response against invading pathogens. Microglia also act as guardians of brain homeostasis by surveying the microenvironment using motile processes. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a slowly propagating (2-5 mm/min) wave of rapid, near-complete depolarization of neurons and astrocytes followed by a period of electrical suppression of a distinct population of cortical neurons...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145572/placentation-in-watersnakes-i-placental-histology-and-development-in-north-american-nerodia-colubridae-natricinae
#14
Daniel G Blackburn, Kristie E Anderson, Kera W Aronson, Mary K Burket, Jessica F Chin, Susan K San-Francisco, Ian P Callard
As part of a broad survey of placental structure, function, and evolution in reptilian sauropsids paraffin-section histology was used to study microscopic anatomy of the uterus and fetal membranes of three species of North American watersnakes (Nerodia: Colubridae). The pre-ovulatory uterus is poorly vascularized with inactive shell glands. These shell glands are activated during vitellogenesis but regress during pregnancy. Two placentas develop through apposition of the uterine lining to the chorioallantois and the yolk sac omphalopleure...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145561/placentation-in-watersnakes-ii-placental-ultrastructure-in-nerodia-erythrogaster-colubridae-natricinae
#15
Daniel G Blackburn, Kristie E Anderson, Amy R Lo, Emily C Marquez, Ian P Callard
Ultrastructure of the placental tissues from redbelly watersnakes (Nerodia erythrogaster) was analyzed during late pregnancy to provide insight into placental development and function. Examination of the chorioallantoic placenta with transmission electron microscopy reveals that chorionic and uterine epithelia are extremely attenuated but intact and that the eggshell membrane is vestigial and lacks a calcareous layer. These features minimize the interhemal diffusion distance across the placenta. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that fetal and maternal components of the placentas are richly vascularized by dense networks of capillaries...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144979/organization-of-glomerular-territories-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-post-embryonic-wild-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#16
Cory L Ochs, Tina Suntres, Alexandra Zygowska, Trevor Pitcher, Barbara S Zielinski
The post-embryonic odor imprinting paradigm suggests Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acquire memory to stream-specific amino acid olfactory odors prior to emergence as fry. Because effects of olfactory experience on development can be examined by mapping olfactory sensory neurons extending into distinct territories of glomerular neuropil in the olfactory bulb, glomerular patterning from early yolk-sac larva to fry was documented in wild salmonids, a temporal scale not yet thoroughly explored. Labeling olfactory sensory neurons with anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (anti-KLH) revealed seven spatially conserved glomerular territories visible at hatch and well established by the late yolk-sac larva developmental stage...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143732/microglia-in-cns-development-shaping-the-brain-for-the-future
#17
REVIEW
Coralie-Anne Mosser, Sofia Baptista, Isabelle Arnoux, Etienne Audinat
Microglial cells are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) and are mainly known for their roles in neuropathologies. However, major recent developments have revealed that these immune cells actively interact with neurons in physiological conditions and can modulate the fate and functions of synapses. Originating from myeloid precursors born in the yolk sac, microglial cells invade the CNS during early embryonic development. As a consequence they can potentially influence neuronal proliferation, migration and differentiation as well as the formation and maturation of neuronal networks, thereby contributing to the entire shaping of the CNS...
January 28, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131605/physiological-changes-and-reproductive-performance-of-sterlet-sturgeon-acipenser-ruthenus-injected-with-thiamine
#18
Sareh Ghiasi, Bahram Falahatkar, Murat Arslan, Konrad Dabrowski
To evaluate the effects of thiamine on physiological changes and spawning performance of Sterlet sturgeon Acipenser ruthenus, 45 farmed female fish (698.6±8.9g) were randomly distributed in 9 tanks (1000L) and fed a diet with 1g/kg of an anti-thiamine drug. This was provided for 5 months prior to spawning. Thiamine hydrochloride was intraperitoneally injected to fish at three different doses: 0 (T0, as control), 5 (T5) and 50 (T50) mg/kg body weight at days 30, 90 and 150 after the experiment started. After five months, the results showed no significant differences in weight gain and hemoglobin level, but hematocrit significantly increased in T5 group...
January 15, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130795/clinical-morphological-and-immunohistochemical-evidence-that-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-ovary-of-hypercalcaemic-type-sccoht-may-be-a-primitive-germ-cell-neoplasm
#19
W Glenn McCluggage, Leora Witkowski, Blaise A Clarke, William D Foulkes
AIMS: The histogenesis and cell lineage of small cell carcinoma of the ovary of hypercalcaemic type (SCCOHT) is unknown. We aim to provide evidence that this may be a primitive germ cell neoplasm arising from a teratoma. METHODS/ RESULTS: Following the identification of two cases of SCCOHT associated with germ cell tumours (one dermoid cyst, one immature teratoma with a focus of yolk sac tumour), we undertook a literature review to look for any prior reports of SCCOHT in association with other neoplasms or elements...
January 28, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124545/robot-assisted-laparoscopic-retroperitoneal-lymph-node-dissection-in-testicular-tumor
#20
Fabio C M Torricelli, Denis Jardim, Giuliano B Guglielmetti, Vipul Patel, Rafael F Coelho
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is indicated for patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) with residual disease after chemotherapy. Although the gold standard approach is still the open surgery, few cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND have been described. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND. PATIENT AND METHOD: A 30 year-old asymptomatic man presented with left testicular swelling for 2 months...
January 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
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