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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718888/assessing-lung-function-using-contrast-enhanced-dual-energy-computed-tomography-for-potential-applications-in-radiation-therapy
#1
Andréanne Lapointe, Houda Bahig, Danis Blais, Hugo Bouchard, Édith Filion, Jean-François Carrier, Stéphane Bedwani
PURPOSE: There is an increasing interest in the evaluation of lung function from physiological images in radiation therapy treatment planning to reduce the extent of post-radiation toxicities. The purpose of this work is to retrieve reliable functional information from contrast-enhanced dualenergy computed tomography (DECT) for new applications in radiation therapy. The functional information obtained by DECT is also compared with other methods using single energy CT (SECT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with CT...
July 18, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711211/advanced-tissue-characterization-and-texture-analysis-using-dual-energy-computed-tomography-horizons-and-emerging-applications
#2
REVIEW
Reza Forghani, Ashok Srinivasan, Behzad Forghani
In the last article of this issue, advanced analysis capabilities of DECT is reviewed, including spectral Hounsfield unit attenuation curves, virtual monochromatic images, material decomposition maps, tissue effective Z determination, and other advanced post-processing DECT tools, followed by different methods of analysis of the attenuation curves generated using DECT. The article concludes with exciting future horizons and potential applications, such as the use of the rich quantitative data in dual energy CT scans for texture or radiomic analysis and the use of machine learning methods for generation of prediction models using spectral data...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711210/routine-dual-energy-computed-tomography-scanning-of-the-neck-in-clinical-practice-a-single-institution-experience
#3
REVIEW
Almudena Pérez-Lara, Mark Levental, Lorne Rosenbloom, Gary Wing, Reza Forghani
There is increasing use and popularity of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in many subspecialties in radiology. This article reviews the practical workflow implications of routine DECT scanning based on the experience at a single institution where a large percentage of elective neck CTs are acquired in DECT mode. The article reviews factors both on the production (technologist) and on the interpretation (radiologist) side, focusing on challenges posed and potential solutions for seamless workflow implementation...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711209/dual-energy-computed-tomography-of-the-neck-a-pictorial-review-of-normal-anatomy-variants-and-pathologic-entities-using-different-energy-reconstructions-and-material-decomposition-maps
#4
REVIEW
Almudena Pérez-Lara, Reza Forghani
There is increasing use of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for the evaluation of head and neck pathologic entities. Optimal DECT utilization requires familiarity with the appearance of normal tissues variants, and pathologic entities on different DECT reconstructions that may be used in clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to provide a practical, pictorial review of the appearance of normal anatomic structures and different neoplastic and nonneoplastic head and neck pathologic entities on commonly used DECT reconstructions...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711206/miscellaneous-and-emerging-applications-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-for-the-evaluation-of-pathologies-in-the-head-and-neck
#5
REVIEW
Tommaso D'Angelo, Silvio Mazziotti, Giorgio Ascenti, Julian L Wichmann
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and its specific algorithms and applications have been increasingly recognized in clinical practice as a valuable advance in technology beyond what is possible with the established postprocessing capabilities of single-energy multidetector computed tomography, mainly because of its potential benefits regarding image quality and contrast. DECT may represent an alternative approach to purely attenuation-based imaging of the head and neck, because it provides a material-specific visualization based on spectral information...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711204/applications-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-for-the-evaluation-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
REVIEW
Reza Forghani, Hillary R Kelly, Hugh D Curtin
There are multiple emerging applications of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for the evaluation of pathology in the head and neck, in particular head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Studies suggest that DECT image sets reconstructed as supplements to routine diagnostic images may improve lesion visualization, determination of tumor extent, and identification of invasion of critical anatomic structures. This article reviews the evidence for the use and potential advantages of supplementary DECT reconstructions for the evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711203/dual-energy-computed-tomography-angiography-of-the-head-and-neck-and-related-applications
#7
REVIEW
Shahmir Kamalian, Michael H Lev, Stuart R Pomerantz
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has become an increasingly widespread and useful component of the neuroimaging armamentarium, offering automated bone removal, metallic artifact reduction, and improved characterization of iodinated contrast enhancement. The application of these techniques to CT neuroangiography enables a number of benefits including more efficient 3D post-processing, contrast dose reduction opportunities, successful differentiation of hemorrhage from contrast staining following thromboembolic recanalization therapy, improved detection of active contrast extravasation in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage, and more precise characterization of atheromatous steno-occlusive disease...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711200/dual-energy-computed-tomography-physical-principles-approaches-to-scanning-usage-and-implementation-part-2
#8
REVIEW
Reza Forghani, Bruno De Man, Rajiv Gupta
There are increasing applications and use of spectral computed tomography or dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in neuroradiology and head and neck imaging in routine clinical practice. Part 1 of this 2-part review covered fundamental physical principles underlying DECT scanning and the different approaches for scanning. Part 2 focuses on important and practical considerations for implementing and using DECT in clinical practice, including a review of different images and reconstructions produced by these scanners and important and practical issues, ranging from image quality and radiation dose to workflow-related aspects of DECT scanning, that routinely come up during operationalization of DECT...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711189/effective-atomic-number-estimation-using-kv-mv-dual-energy-source-in-linac
#9
Dousatsu Sakata, Akihiro Haga, Satoshi Kida, Toshikazu Imae, Shigeharu Takenaka, Keiichi Nakagawa
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) imaging can measure the effective atomic number (EAN) as well as the electron density, and thus its adoption may improve dose calculations in brachytherapy and external photon/particle therapy. An expanded energy gap in dual-energy sources is expected to yield more accurate EAN estimations than conventional DECT systems, which typically span less than 100kV. The aim of this paper is to assess a larger energy gap DECT by using a linear accelerator (LINAC) radiotherapy system with a kV X-ray imaging device, which are combined to provide X-rays in both the kV- and MV-energy ranges...
July 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708725/dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-stroke-imaging-technical-and-clinical-considerations-of-virtual-noncontrast-images-for-detection-of-the-hyperdense-artery-sign
#10
Sebastian Winklhofer, Ilaria Vittoria De Martini, Chrisitian Nern, Iris Blume, Susanne Wegener, Athina Pangalu, Antonios Valavanis, Hatem Alkadhi, Roman Guggenberger
OBJECTIVE: The technical feasibility of virtual noncontrast (VNC) images from dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for the detection of the hyperdense artery sign (HAS) in ischemic stroke patients was investigated. METHODS: True noncontrast (TNC) scans of 60 patients either with or without HAS (n = 30 each) were investigated. Clot presence and characteristics were assessed on VNC images from DECT angiography and compared with TNC images. Clot characterization included the level of confidence for diagnosing HAS, a qualitative clot burden score, and quantitative attenuation (Hounsfield unit [HU]) measurements...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708723/preliminary-results-can-dual-energy-computed-tomography-help-distinguish-cardiogenic-pulmonary-edema-and-acute-interstitial-lung-disease
#11
Hitoshi Takeuchi, Shigeru Suzuki, Haruhiko Machida, Takuya Ishikawa, Eiko Ueno
OBJECTIVE: We compared iodine concentration in pulmonary ground-glass opacity on iodine density images of contrast-enhanced chest dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) between patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) and acute interstitial lung disease (AILD). METHODS: Five of 12 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced chest DECT to exclude pulmonary embolism were clinically diagnosed with CPE and 7, with AILD. We compared the mean CT value on monochromatic images at 65 keV and iodine concentration on iodine density images between the affected and normal areas...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703886/dual-energy-ct-a-possible-new-method-to-assess-regression-of-rectal-cancers-after-neoadjuvant-treatment
#12
Issam Al-Najami, Henrik C Drue, Robert Steele, Gunnar Baatrup
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The measurement of tumor regression after neoadjuvant oncological treatment has gained increasing interest because it has a prognostic value and because it may influence the method of treatment in rectal cancer. The assessment of tumor regression remains difficult and inaccurate with existing methods. Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) enables qualitative tissue differentiation by simultaneous scanning with different levels of energy. We aimed to assess the feasibility of DECT in quantifying tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in loco-advanced rectal cancer...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697731/texture-analysis-of-pulmonary-parenchymateous-changes-related-to-pulmonary-thromboembolism-in-dogs-a-novel-approach-using-quantitative-methods
#13
C B Marschner, M Kokla, J M Amigo, E A Rozanski, B Wiinberg, F J McEvoy
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in dogs relies on computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), but detailed interpretation of CTPA images is demanding for the radiologist and only large vessels may be evaluated. New approaches for better detection of smaller thrombi include dual energy computed tomography (DECT) as well as computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of quantitative texture analysis for detecting dogs with PTE using grey-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) and multivariate statistical classification analyses...
July 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681117/-dual-energy-computed-tomography-diagnostics-for-gout
#14
H J Rech, A Cavallaro
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive imaging modalities are used for the morphological and functional evaluation and diagnosis of gout; however, none of these methods are sufficiently sensitive or specific for the diagnosis of gout. By the use of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) the direct visualization of sodium urate deposition is now possible. Moreover, it is possible to show the different pathological situations, disease activity and monitoring of tophaceous gout. The positive DECT scan became one of the 2015 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for gout 2 years ago...
July 5, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678019/comprehensive-analysis-of-proton-range-uncertainties-related-to-stopping-power-ratio-estimation-using-dual-energy-ct-imaging
#15
Bin Li, Heui Chang Lee, Xinhui Duan, Chenyang Shen, Linghong Zhou, Xun Jia, Ming Yang
The dual-energy CT-based (DECT) approach holds promise in reducing the overall uncertainty in proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimation as compared to the conventional stoichiometric calibration approach. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors contributing to uncertainty in SPR estimation using the DECT-based approach and to derive a comprehensive estimate of the range uncertainty associated with SPR estimation in treatment planning. Two state-of-the-art DECT-based methods, the Hünemohr-Saito method (2014, 2012) and the Bourque method (2014), were selected and implemented on a Siemens SOMATOM Force DECT scanner...
July 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675582/optimization-of-dual-energy-ct-acquisitions-for-proton-therapy-using-projection-based-decomposition
#16
Gloria Vilches-Freixas, Jean Michel Létang, Nicolas Ducros, Simon Rit
PURPOSE: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been presented as a valid alternative to single-energy CT to reduce the uncertainty of the conversion of patient CT numbers to proton stopping power ratio (SPR) of tissues relative to water. The aim of this work was to optimize DECT acquisition protocols from simulations of X-ray images for the treatment planning of proton therapy using a projection-based dual-energy decomposition algorithm. METHODS: We have investigated the effect of various voltages and tin filtration combinations on the SPR map accuracy and precision, and the influence of the dose allocation between the low energy (LE) and the high energy (HE) acquisitions...
July 4, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675378/application-of-dual-energy-ct-to-suppression-of-metal-artefact-caused-by-pedicle-screw-fixation-in-radiotherapy-a-feasibility-study-using-original-phantom
#17
Tianyuan Wang, Takeaki Ishihara, Atsushi Kono, Naoki Yoshida, Hiroaki Akasaka, Naritoshi Mukumoto, Ryuichi Yada, Yasuo Ejima, Kenji Yoshida, Daisuke Miyawaki, Kenichiro Kakutani, Kotaro Nishida, Noriyuki Negi, Toshiaki Minami, Yuuichi Aoyama, Satoru Takahashi, Ryohei Sasaki
The objective of the present study was the determination of the potential dosimetric benefits of using metal-artefact-suppressed dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) images for cases involving pedicle screw implants in spinal sites. A heterogeneous spinal phantom was designed for the investigation of the dosimetric effect of the pedicle-screw-related artefacts. The dosimetric comparisons were first performed using a conventional two-directional opposed (AP-PA) plan, and then a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan, which are both used for the treatment of spinal metastases in our institution...
July 4, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674965/dual-energy-ct-iodine-map-for-delineating-inflammation-of-inflammatory-arthritis
#18
Takeshi Fukuda, Yoshinori Umezawa, Akihiko Asahina, Hidemi Nakagawa, Kazuhiro Furuya, Kunihiko Fukuda
Iodine mapping is an image-processing technique used with dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) to improve iodine contrast resolution. CT, because of its high spatial resolution and thin slice reconstruction, is well suited to the evaluation of the peripheral joints. Recent developments in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis that require early diagnosis and precise therapeutic assessment encourage radiological evaluation. To facilitate such assessment, we describe DECT iodine mapping as a novel modality for evaluating rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis of the hands and feet...
July 3, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672916/diagnostic-accuracy-of-coronary-ct-angiography-combined-with-dual-energy-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-for-detection-of-myocardial-infarction
#19
Ruijuan Han, Kai Sun, Bin Lu, Ruiping Zhao, Kuncheng Li, Xinchun Yang
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of second generation dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) myocardial perfusion imaging for the detection of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with suspected MI. In total, 56 patients underwent DECT. Among those, 40 patients had MI that was detected by catheter coronary angiography and cardiac troponin I elevation and evolution of acute MI detected by electrocardiogram changes. The diagnostic accuracy, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the detection of MI were evaluated, as well as the coronary image quality of coronary artery and radiation dose...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672224/assessment-of-myocardial-viability-based-on-dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-chronic-myocardial-infarction-comparison-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Sang Jin Ha, Yeonggul Jang, Byoung Kwon Lee, In-Jeong Cho, Chi Young Shim, Geu-Ru Hong, Namsik Chung, Hyuk-Jae Chang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for the assessment of myocardial viability compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic myocardial infarction (CMI). METHODS AND MATERIAL: Twenty-six patients were prospectively enrolled, who underwent DECT and MRI at delayed phase. The infarct volumes for DECT and MRI were measured. RESULTS: In per-segment and per-vessel analysis, DECT showed excellent diagnostic performance compared with MRI (diagnostic accuracy: 86...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Imaging
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