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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145693/early-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-in-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#1
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Sanjay M Aher
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early (before eight days after birth) compared with placebo or no intervention in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, adverse neurological outcomes, and feeding intolerance including necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm and/or low birth weight infants...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128420/neoadjuvant-treatment-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-the-past-the-present-and-the-future
#2
REVIEW
Tom J N Hermans, Charlotte S Voskuilen, Michiel S van der Heijden, Bernd J Schmitz-Dräger, Wassim Kassouf, Roland Seiler, Ashish M Kamat, Petros Grivas, Anne E Kiltie, Peter C Black, Bas W G van Rhijn
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of patients who undergo radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) will succumb to metastatic disease. We summarize the evidence for neoadjuvant radiation (NAR), chemo (NAC), and immunotherapy (checkpoint inhibition) prior to RC for MIBC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained by a search of PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane databases for English language articles published from 1925 up to 2017. RESULTS: NAC usage has increased over the last decade, while NAR is rarely administered...
November 8, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114778/long-term-sustainability-of-diabetes-prevention-approaches-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#3
J Sonya Haw, Karla I Galaviz, Audrey N Straus, Alysse J Kowalski, Matthew J Magee, Mary Beth Weber, Jingkai Wei, K M Venkat Narayan, Mohammed K Ali
Importance: Diabetes prevention is imperative to slow worldwide growth of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. Yet the long-term efficacy of prevention strategies remains unknown. Objective: To estimate aggregate long-term effects of different diabetes prevention strategies on diabetes incidence. Data Sources: Systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. The initial search was conducted on January 14, 2014, and was updated on February 20, 2015...
November 6, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101186/bp-reduction-kidney-function-decline-and-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-without-ckd
#4
Rita Magriço, Miguel Bigotte Vieira, Catarina Viegas Dias, Lia Leitão, João Sérgio Neves
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), intensive systolic BP treatment (target <120 mm Hg) was associated with fewer cardiovascular events and higher incidence of kidney function decline compared with standard treatment (target <140 mm Hg). We evaluated the association between mean arterial pressure reduction, kidney function decline, and cardiovascular events in patients without CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We categorized patients in the intensive treatment group of the SPRINT according to mean arterial pressure reduction throughout follow-up: <20, 20 to <40, and ≥40 mm Hg...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098976/pimavanserin-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis-number-needed-to-treat-number-needed-to-harm-and-likelihood-to-be-helped-or-harmed
#5
Leslie Citrome, James C Norton, Kathy Chi-Burris, George Demos
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the efficacy and tolerability of pimavanserin, a highly selective serotonin 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist/antagonist indicated for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP), using the metrics of number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH). METHODS: Categorical efficacy and tolerability data were extracted from the clinical trial databases of the double-blind placebo-controlled studies of pimavanserin in persons with PDP...
November 3, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096777/efficacy-and-safety-of-pediatric-prolonged-release-melatonin-for-insomnia-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Paul Gringras, Tali Nir, John Breddy, Anat Frydman-Marom, Robert L Findling
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of novel pediatric-appropriate, prolonged-release melatonin minitablets (PedPRM) versus placebo for insomnia in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with or without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity, and neurogenetic disorders (NGD). METHOD: A total of 125 children and adolescents (2-17.5 years of age; 96.8% ASD, 3.2% Smith-Magenis syndrome [SMS]) whose sleep failed to improve on behavioral intervention alone were randomized (1:1 ratio), double-blind, to receive PedPRM (2 mg escalated to 5 mg) or placebo for 13 weeks...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092853/prophylactic-effect-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-rheumatic-diseases-exposed-to-prolonged-high-dose-glucocorticoids
#7
Jun Won Park, Jeffrey R Curtis, Jinyoung Moon, Yeong Wook Song, Suhnggwon Kim, Eun Bong Lee
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and safety of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) as primary prophylaxis for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients with rheumatic diseases receiving high-dose steroids. METHODS: The study included 1522 treatment episodes with prolonged (≥4 weeks) high-dose (≥30 mg/day prednisone) steroids in 1092 patients over a 12-year period. Of these, 262 treatment episodes involved TMP-SMX (prophylaxis group) while other episodes involved no prophylaxis (control group)...
November 1, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084318/dose-content-and-mediators-of-family-based-treatment-for-childhood-obesity-a-multisite-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Denise E Wilfley, Brian E Saelens, Richard I Stein, John R Best, Rachel P Kolko, Kenneth B Schechtman, Michael Wallendorf, R Robinson Welch, Michael G Perri, Leonard H Epstein
Importance: Elucidation of optimal dosing and treatment content is critical for health care providers, payers, and policy makers, as well as mechanisms of change to inform intervention delivery and training initiatives for childhood obesity. Objectives: To evaluate effects, following a 4-month family-based behavioral weight loss treatment (FBT), of 2 doses (HIGH or LOW) of a weight-control intervention (enhanced social facilitation maintenance [SFM+]) vs a weight-control education condition (CONTROL; matched for dose with LOW), on child anthropometrics, and to explore putative mediators of weight loss outcomes...
October 30, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082858/an-internet-based-intervention-for-chronic-pain
#9
Jiaxi Lin, Sarah Paganini, Lasse Sander, Marianne Lüking, David Daniel Ebert, Monica Buhrman, Gerhard Andersson, Harald Baumeister
BACKGROUND: Persons with chronic pain can be treated effectively with acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). In this trial, we examined the effectiveness of guided and unguided ACT-based online treatment (ACTonPain) for chronic pain patients. METHODS: 302 individuals were randomly assigned to ACTonPain with or without guidance (n = 100/101) or to a waiting-list control group (n=101). The primary outcome was pain interference as measured by the Multidimensional Pain Inventory...
October 13, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078242/-drug-coated-balloon-angioplasty-in-femoropopliteal-arteries-is-there-a-class-effect
#10
Ulf Karl-Martin Teichgräber, Christof Klumb
Aim Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is a well-accepted method to re-establish patency in stenotic and reoccluded vessels. One tool to improve results may be to use paclitaxel drug-coated balloon (DCB) catheters. This systematic review investigates whether there is a class effect among different DCBs. Methods The primary endpoint was "Freedom from Target Lesion Revascularisation" (FfTLR) after 12 months. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and risk of bias was assessed of the included trials...
October 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073212/statins-and-new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-hypertension-analysis-of-electronic-health-records-2006-2015
#11
Lia Alves-Cabratosa, Maria García-Gil, Marc Comas-Cufí, Anna Ponjoan, Ruth Martí-Lluch, Dídac Parramon, Jordi Blanch, Marc Elosua-Bayes, Rafel Ramos
Hypertension is the most prevalent risk factor for new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). But few studies have addressed the effect of statins on the incidence of this arrhythmia in patients with hypertension. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of statins on new-onset of this arrhythmia in a hypertensive population, accounting for AF risk. Data from the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care was used to recruit a retrospective cohort of ≥55-year-old hypertensive individuals with no ischemic vascular disease, in 2006-2007, followed up through 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071136/medical-expulsive-therapy-for-ureteric-stones-analysing-the-evidence-from-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analysis-of-powered-double-blinded-randomised-controlled-trials
#12
REVIEW
Tarik Amer, Banan Osman, Allan Johnstone, Martin Mariappan, Ameet Gupta, Nikolaos Brattis, Gareth Jones, Bhaskar K Somani, Francis X Keeley, Omar M Aboumarzouk
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the efficacy and safety of medical expulsive therapy (MET) in low risk of bias (RoB) randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: A Cochrane style systematic review was conducted on published literature from 1990 to 2016, to include low RoB and a power calculation. A pooled meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The MET group included 1387 vs 1381 patients in the control group...
June 2017: Arab Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059367/nicotine-metabolism-informed-care-for-smoking-cessation-a-pilot-precision-rct
#13
Quinn S Wells, Matthew S Freiberg, Robert A Greevy, Rachel F Tyndale, Suman Kundu, Meredith S Duncan, Stephen King, Elizabeth Scoville, Dawn Beaulieu, Vanessa Gatskie, Hilary A Tindle
Introduction: Varenicline doubles cessation over nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch for "normal," but not "slow," nicotine metabolizers, as assessed by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR). Metabolism-informed care (MIC) could improve outcomes by matching normal metabolizers with non-nicotine medication (e.g., varenicline) and slow metabolizers with NRT patch. Methods: We conducted a feasibility randomized controlled trial of MIC vs. guideline based care (GBC) among 81 outpatient adult daily smokers with medical comorbidity...
October 14, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050397/the-antimyotonic-effect-of-lamotrigine-in-non-dystrophic-myotonias-a-double-blind-randomized-study
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Grete Andersen, Gitte Hedermann, Nanna Witting, Morten Duno, Henning Andersen, John Vissing
Mexiletine is the only drug with proven effect for treatment of non-dystrophic myotonia, but mexiletine is expensive, has limited availability and several side effects. There is therefore a need to identify other pharmacological compounds that can alleviate myotonia in non-dystrophic myotonias. Like mexiletine, lamotrigine is a sodium channel blocker, but unlike mexiletine, lamotrigine is available, inexpensive, and well tolerated. We investigated the potential of using lamotrigine for treatment of myotonia in patients with non-dystrophic myotonias...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046364/randomized-study-of-iv-prochlorperazine-plus-diphenhydramine-vs-iv-hydromorphone-for-migraine
#15
Benjamin W Friedman, Eddie Irizarry, Clemencia Solorzano, Alexander Latev, Karolyn Rosa, Eleftheria Zias, David R Vinson, Polly E Bijur, E John Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: To determine outcomes among patients with migraine in the emergency department (ED) who receive IV hydromorphone vs IV prochlorperazine + diphenhydramine. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2 EDs in New York City. Patients who met international criteria for migraine were eligible for participation if they had not used an opioid within the previous month. Clinicians, participants, investigators, and research personnel were blinded to treatment. Patients were randomized in blocks of 4...
October 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040268/benefit-and-harm-of-intensive-blood-pressure-treatment-derivation-and-validation-of-risk-models-using-data-from-the-sprint-and-accord-trials
#16
Sanjay Basu, Jeremy B Sussman, Joseph Rigdon, Lauren Steimle, Brian T Denton, Rodney A Hayward
BACKGROUND: Intensive blood pressure (BP) treatment can avert cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but can cause some serious adverse events. We sought to develop and validate risk models for predicting absolute risk difference (increased risk or decreased risk) for CVD events and serious adverse events from intensive BP therapy. A secondary aim was to test if the statistical method of elastic net regularization would improve the estimation of risk models for predicting absolute risk difference, as compared to a traditional backwards variable selection approach...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039160/influenza-vaccines-for-preventing-acute-otitis-media-in-infants-and-children
#17
REVIEW
Mohd N Norhayati, Jacqueline J Ho, Mohd Y Azman
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children. It has been reported that 64% of infants have an episode of AOM by the age of six months and 86% by one year. Although most cases of AOM are due to bacterial infection, it is commonly triggered by a viral infection. In most children AOM is self limiting, but it does carry a risk of complications. Since antibiotic treatment increases the risk of antibiotic resistance, influenza vaccines might be an effective way of reducing this risk by preventing the development of AOM...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037266/is-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-more-effective-than-relaxation-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#18
Jesus Montero-Marin, Javier Garcia-Campayo, Alba López-Montoyo, Edurne Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Pim Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether relaxation therapies are more or less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of relaxation techniques compared to cognitive and behavioural therapies in reducing anxiety symptoms, and whether they have comparable efficacy across disorders. METHOD: We conducted a meta-analysis of 50 studies (2801 patients) comparing relaxation training with cognitive and behavioural treatments of anxiety...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028741/fundamental-epidemiology-terminology-and-measures-it-really-is-all-in-the-name
#19
Thomas R Vetter, Christine A Jesser
Epidemiology is the study of how disease is distributed in populations and the factors that influence or determine this distribution. Clinical epidemiology denotes the application of epidemiologic methods to questions relevant to patient care and provides a highly useful set of principles and methods for the design and conduct of quantitative clinical research. Validly analyzing, correctly reporting, and successfully interpreting the findings of a clinical research study often require an understanding of the epidemiologic terms and measures that describe the patterns of association between the exposure of interest (treatment or intervention) and a health outcome (disease)...
October 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024264/deutetrabenazine-for-tardive-dyskinesia-a-systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-profile-for-this-newly-approved-novel-medication-what-is-the-number-needed-to-treat-number-needed-to-harm-and-likelihood-to-be-helped-or-harmed
#20
REVIEW
Leslie Citrome
OBJECTIVE: Deutetrabenazine is a deuterated formulation of tetrabenazine. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the efficacy, tolerability and safety of deutetrabenazine for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD). DATA SOURCES: The pivotal registration trials were accessed by querying http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, for the search terms 'deutetrabenazine' OR 'SD-809', and by also querying the EMBASE (Elsevier) commercial database for clinical poster abstracts, and by asking the manufacturer for copies of posters presented at congresses...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
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