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Behavioral science

Bertine de Vries, Jooske T van Busschbach, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, André Aleman, Jan J M van Dijk, Paul H Lysaker, Johan Arends, Saskia A Nijman, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg
Psychotic disorders often have been linked with violence. However, studies have shown that people with a psychotic disorder are more often victim than perpetrator of violence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review prevalence rates for different types of victimization and to identify risk factors associated with victimization. Based on a search in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, 27 studies were found with samples consisting of adults with a psychotic disorder and possible victimization occurring during adulthood and data on "violent victimization," "sexual victimization," "non-violent victimization," and/or "victimization not otherwise specified...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Lu Dai, Ka-Di Zhu, Wenzhong Shen, Xiaojiang Huang, Li Zhang, Alain Goriely
Chiral structures play an important role in natural sciences due to their great variety and potential applications. A perversion connecting two helices with opposite chirality creates a dual-chirality helical structure. In this paper, we develop a novel model to explore quantitatively the mechanical behavior of normal, binormal and transversely isotropic helical structures with dual chirality and apply these ideas to known nanostructures. It is found that both direction and amplitude of rotation can be finely controlled by designing the cross-sectional shape...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Francine Golghetto Casemiro, Camila Tiome Baba, Diana Monteiro, Mariana Fornazieri, Natália Cerri, Daniele Frascá Martins Fernandes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes
BACKGROUND: Some studies have used the follow-up method to analyze real behavioral changes in research involving physical activity (PA) interventions. This has great scientific value; however, it is hard to apply without satisfactory resources and research funding. Little is known about how many studies have used this method to analyze PA interventions in low-income and middle-income countries, especially Brazil. PURPOSE: To describe Brazilian studies using follow-up analysis after PA interventions...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Jeffrey W Jordan, Carolyn A Stalgaitis, John Charles, Patrick A Madden, Anjana G Radhakrishnan, Daniel Saggese
PURPOSE: Peer crowds are macro-level subcultures that share similarities across geographic areas. Over the past decade, dozens of studies have explored the association between adolescent peer crowds and risk behaviors, and how they can inform public health efforts. However, despite the interest, researchers have not yet reported on crowd size and risk levels from a representative sample, making it difficult for practitioners to apply peer crowd science to interventions. The current study reports findings from the first statewide representative sample of adolescent peer crowd identification and health behaviors...
February 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Livio Provenzi, Sara Broso, Rosario Montirosso
Preterm infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and are precociously separated from their mothers. Although developmental care interventions are meant to facilitate mother-infant bonding, physical contact is not always possible. Maternal voice exposure has been proposed as a way to foster maternal closeness and support postnatal bonding. Here we present a systematic review on maternal voice effects on preterm infants' development. Literature search occurred on 4 databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL)...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
G Troiano, F Mastrangelo, V C A Caponio, L Laino, N Cirillo, L Lo Muzio
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common type of cancer characterized by a low survival rate, mostly due to local recurrence and metastasis. In view of the importance of predicting tumor behavior in the choice of treatment strategies for OSCC, several studies have attempted to investigate the prognostic value of tissue biomarkers, including microRNA (miRNA). The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between miRNA expression and survival of OSCC patients...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Michelle G Craske
The theme of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT) 50th Anniversary was to honor the past and envision the future. From the wisdom, foresight, and determination of the pioneers of our organization, and the continuous upholding of the scientific method over the last 50 years, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has become the most empirically supported psychological treatment for a wide array of mental health problems. Yet, we still have a long way to go. This address outlines a vision for the future of CBT, which involves greater collaborative science, with all minds working together on the same problem, and greater attention to the risk factors and critical processes that underlie psychopathology and explain treatment change...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Fisun Sözen, Yasemin Çetinel, Özdemir Efe Kul, Atilla Sezgin
OBJECTIVES: Smoking is an important risk factor for development of complications in heart transplant patients and plays an important role in the mortality of these patients. The aim of this study was to compare the survival of heart transplant patients after transplant versus their smoking status before transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had heart transplant procedures at the Baskent University Hospital Cardiovascular Surgery Department between 2005 and 2016 were analyzed retrospectively with regard to their smoking status and survival after transplant...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Johanna R Rochester, Ashley L Bolden, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased in prevalence in the past decade. Studies attempting to identify a specific genetic component have not been able to account for much of the heritability of ADHD, indicating there may be gene-environment interactions underlying the disorder, including early exposure to environmental chemicals. Based on several relevant studies, we chose to examine bisphenol A (BPA) as a possible contributor to ADHD in humans. BPA is a widespread environmental chemical that has been shown to disrupt neurodevelopment in rodents and humans...
March 3, 2018: Environment International
V Ayano Ogawa, Cecilia M Shah, James M Hughes, Lonnie J King
Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to global health security. While the global community has made recent advances to mitigate the threat of antimicrobial resistance, we continue to face challenges in creating solutions and concrete actions that will yield the greatest immediate impact. To examine the critical areas in human, animal and environmental health that contribute to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, the Forum on Microbial Threats of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine hosted a public workshop on June 20-21, 2017 in Washington, DC...
March 9, 2018: EcoHealth
Bryan D Loy, Michelle H Cameron, Patrick J O'Connor
Persistent fatigue is a common problem (∼20-45% of U.S. population), with higher prevalence and severity in people with medical conditions such as cancer, depression, fibromyalgia, heart failure, sleep apnea and multiple sclerosis. There are few FDA-approved treatments for fatigue and great disagreement on how to measure fatigue, with over 250 instruments used in research. Many instruments define fatigue as "a lack of energy", thus viewing energy and fatigue states as opposites on a single bipolar continuum...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
George A Bray, William E Heisel, Ashkan Afshin, Michael D Jensen, William H Dietz, Michael Long, Robert F Kushner, Stephen R Daniels, Thomas A Wadden, Adam G Tsai, Frank B Hu, John M Jakicic, Donna H Ryan, Bruce M Wolfe, Thomas H Inge
The prevalence of obesity, measured by body mass index, has risen to unacceptable levels in both men and women in the United States and worldwide with resultant hazardous health implications. Genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors influence the development of obesity, and both the general public and health professionals stigmatize those who suffer from the disease. Obesity is associated with and contributes to a shortened life span, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, gout, osteoarthritis, and hepatobiliary disease, among others...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Alejandro Bosch-Alcaraz, Anna Falcó-Pegueroles, Iolanda Jordan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the meaning of comfort and to contextualise it within the framework of paediatric critical care. BACKGROUND: The concept of comfort is closely linked to care in all health contexts. However, in specific settings such as the paediatric critical care unit it takes on particular importance. DESIGN: A literature review was conducted. METHODS: A literature search was performed of articles in English and Spanish in international health science databases, from 1992 to March 2017, applying the quality standards established by the PRISMA methodology and the Joanna Briggs Institute...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Eric K Layland, Brian H Calhoun, Michael A Russell, Jennifer L Maggs
College drinking and its negative consequences remain a major public health concern. Yet, many prevention efforts targeting college drinkers are expensive, are difficult to implement, use indicated approaches targeting only high-risk drinkers, and/or are only marginally effective. An alternative strategy taken explicitly or implicitly by many colleges is campus-led alcohol-free programming which provides students with attractive leisure alternatives to drinking on weekend nights. This study aimed to extend work by Patrick et al...
March 8, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Madison B Smith, Tamara G R Macieira, Michael D Bumbach, Susan J Garbutt, Sandra W Citty, Anita Stephen, Margaret Ansell, Toni L Glover, Gail Keenan
OBJECTIVES: To present the findings of a systematic review on the use of simulation-based learning experiences (SBLEs) to teach communication skills to nursing students and clinicians who provide palliative and end-of-life care to patients and their families. BACKGROUND: Palliative care communication skills are fundamental to providing holistic patient care. Since nurses have the greatest amount of direct exposure to patients, building such communication competencies is essential...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Felipe Vilaça Cavallari Machado, Fabio Pitta, Nidia Aparecida Hernandes, Gisele Lopes Bertolini
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent and progressive airflow obstruction that is associated with an abnormal chronic inflammatory response in the airways and lungs to noxious particles. COPD often leads to physical inactivity and deconditioning that added to inappropriate/excessive inflammatory responses leads to systemic consequences. Studies have shown that metabolic syndrome and manifested diabetes are more frequent in COPD than in healthy subjects; a possible explanation is that different pathophysiological aspects of COPD can lead to insulin resistance...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine
Viswas Chhapola, Soumya Tiwari, Bobbity Deepthi, Sandeep Kumar Kanwal
BACKGROUND: Citation analysis provides insights into the history and developmental trajectory of scientific fields. Our objective was to perform an analysis of citation classics in the journals of pediatric specialty and to examine their characteristics. METHODS: Initially, all the journals listed under the category of pediatrics (n = 120) were identified using Journal Citation Reports. Web of science database was then searched (1950-2016) to select the top-100 cited articles in the above identified pediatric journals...
March 6, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Jakub Jadwiszczak, Colin O'Callaghan, Yangbo Zhou, Daniel S Fox, Eamonn Weitz, Darragh Keane, Conor P Cullen, Ian O'Reilly, Clive Downing, Aleksey Shmeliov, Pierce Maguire, John J Gough, Cormac McGuinness, Mauro S Ferreira, A Louise Bradley, John J Boland, Georg S Duesberg, Valeria Nicolosi, Hongzhou Zhang
Precise tunability of electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials is a key goal of current research in this field of materials science. Chemical modification of layered transition metal dichalcogenides leads to the creation of heterostructures of low-dimensional variants of these materials. In particular, the effect of oxygen-containing plasma treatment on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) has long been thought to be detrimental to the electrical performance of the material. We show that the mobility and conductivity of MoS2 can be precisely controlled and improved by systematic exposure to oxygen/argon plasma and characterize the material using advanced spectroscopy and microscopy...
March 2018: Science Advances
Dan Luo, Feng Wang, Jianfa Chen, Fanghao Zhang, Luo Yu, Dezhi Wang, Richard C Willson, Zhaozhong Yang, Zhifeng Ren
Maintaining colloidal stability in unfriendly environments, while retaining surface chemical properties, is challenging for fundamental science and crucial for many applications. Here, we report for the first time, that by using a low concentration of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), graphene-based amphiphilic Janus nanosheets (AJNs) can be stabilized in high-salt brine (3 wt% NaCl and 0.5 wt% CaCl2 ), while the interfacial behavior of the nanosheets is not affected. The adsorption of PSS on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces of AJNs in brine was investigated experimentally and by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations...
March 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jessica Olson, Suzette Svoboda-Newman, Kristen Gardner-Volle, Mark McNally, Erin Fabian, Cheryl Maurana
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, up to 40% of annual deaths are due to preventable, modifiable risk factors (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2014). Evidence in the literature suggests that increased knowledge and engagement is a critical step in preventing disease and improving health behaviors (Health Promotion International 15(3):259-267, 2000; Risk Manag Healthc Policy 3:61-72, 2010; Urology 61(2):308-313, 2003). Educational seminars, titled Conversations with Scientists, are offered twice per year by the Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin Endowment with the goal of helping community members, patients, and families inform themselves and others about science and health...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
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