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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143541/the-efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-chinese-people-a-meta-analysis
#1
Ting Kin Ng, Daniel Fu Keung Wong
OBJECTIVE: Over the past decade, cognitive behavioral therapy has been applied to an increasingly wider range of disorders and problems in Chinese societies. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the studies on cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese clients. The purpose of this meta-analytic study was to examine the overall efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese people. METHOD: A literature search was conducted using electronic databases, including Web of Science, PsycINFO and PubMed...
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138217/effectiveness-of-interprofessional-education-in-renal-physiology-curricula-for-health-sciences-graduate-students
#2
Lisa M Harrison-Bernard, Mihran V Naljayan, Jane M Eason, Donald E Mercante, Tina P Gunaldo
The primary purpose of conducting an interprofessional education (IPE) experience during the renal physiology block of a graduate-level course was to provide basic science, physical therapy, and physician assistant graduate students with an opportunity to work as a team in the diagnosis, treatment, and collaborative care of a patient with acute kidney injury. The secondary purpose was to enhance the understanding of basic renal physiology principles with a patient case presentation of renal pathophysiology...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137666/utilization-of-the-behavior-change-wheel-framework-to-develop-a-model-to-improve-cardiometabolic-screening-for-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#3
Christina Mangurian, Grace C Niu, Dean Schillinger, John W Newcomer, James Dilley, Margaret A Handley
BACKGROUND: Individuals with severe mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) die 10-25 years earlier than the general population, primarily from premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Contributing factors are complex, but include systemic-related factors of poorly integrated primary care and mental health services. Although evidence-based models exist for integrating mental health care into primary care settings, the evidence base for integrating medical care into specialty mental health settings is limited...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132631/success-or-failure-of-hospital-information-systems-of-public-hospitals-affiliated-with-zahedan-university-of-medical-sciences-a-cross-sectional-study-in-the-southeast-of-iran
#4
Jahanpour Alipour, Afsaneh Karimi, Saeid Ebrahimi, Fatemeh Ansari, Yousef Mehdipour
INTRODUCTION: After implementation, evaluation of hospital information systems (HISs) is critical to ensure the fulfillment of the system goals. This study aimed to assess the success or failure of HISs in public hospitals affiliated with Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study was performed in 2016. The study population comprised IT and HIS authorities and hospital information system users...
December 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130838/the-psychology-of-rituals-an-integrative-review-and-process-based-framework
#5
Nicholas M Hobson, Juliana Schroeder, Jane L Risen, Dimitris Xygalatas, Michael Inzlicht
Traditionally, ritual has been studied from broad sociocultural perspectives, with little consideration of the psychological processes at play. Recently, however, psychologists have begun turning their attention to the study of ritual, uncovering the causal mechanisms driving this universal aspect of human behavior. With growing interest in the psychology of ritual, this article provides an organizing framework to understand recent empirical work from social psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, behavioral economics, and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128777/a-systematic-review-of-heart-failure-dyadic-self-care-interventions-focusing-on-intervention-components-contexts-and-outcomes
#6
REVIEW
Harleah G Buck, Anna Stromberg, Misook L Chung, Kristine A Donovan, Karen Harkness, Allison M Howard, Naoko Kato, Randall Polo, Lorraine S Evangelista
BACKGROUND: Having support from an informal carer is important for heart failure patients. Carers have the potential to improve patient self-care. At the same time, it should be acknowledged that caregiving could affect the carer negatively and cause emotional reactions of burden and stress. Dyadic (patient and informal carer) heart failure self-care interventions seek to improve patient self-care such as adherence to medical treatment, exercise training, symptom monitoring and symptom management when needed...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128146/exposure-therapy-augmentation-a-review-and-extension-of-techniques-informed-by-an-inhibitory-learning-approach
#7
REVIEW
Jaclyn S Weisman, Thomas L Rodebaugh
Although exposure therapy is often considered a gold standard behavioral intervention for pathological anxiety, questions remain surrounding the mechanisms underlying exposure interventions, and some individuals are characterized by suboptimal treatment outcomes. Recently, a formulation known as the inhibitory learning theory, which is grounded in basic science principles of extinction learning and memory, has been proposed to provide a more parsimonious mechanistic explanation for the effects of exposure than previous, habituation-based models [Craske, M...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127696/inspiring-hope-a-physician-s-responsibility-translating-the-science-into-clinical-practice
#8
REVIEW
Walley J Temple
Giving hope to patients is our responsibility. It is the essence of a meaningful practice in medicine. Science now allows us to understand this complex and multidimensional human dynamic, and translate it into clinical practice. Quantitative research has shown hope is strong even in terminal illness. Through qualitative methodology hope fostering strategies and hope hindering behaviors have been identified. This exciting new knowledge facilitates the challenging task of disclosure of bad news while enabling hope...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127672/responsible-conduct-of-human-subjects-research-in-islamic-communities
#9
Aceil Al-Khatib, Michael Kalichman
In order to increase understanding of the ethical implications of biomedical, behavioral and clinical research, the Fogarty International Center, part of the United States National Institutes of Health, established an International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Award (R25) to support programs in low- and middle-income countries. To develop research ethics expertise in Jordan, the University of California San Diego fellowship program in collaboration with Jordan University of Science and Technology provides courses that enable participants to develop skills in varied research ethics topics, including research with human subjects...
November 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127067/understanding-the-structural-drivers-governing-glass-water-interactions-in-borosilicate-based-model-bioactive-glasses
#10
Nicholas Stone-Weiss, Eric M Pierce, Randall E Youngman, Ozgur Gulbiten, Nicholas J Smith, Jincheng Du, Ashutosh Goel
The past decade has witnessed a significant upsurge in the development of borate and borosilicate based resorbable bioactive glasses owing to their faster degradation rate in comparison to their silicate counterparts. However, due to our lack of understanding about the fundamental science governing the aqueous corrosion of these glasses, most of the borate/borosilicate based bioactive glasses reported in the literature have been designed by "trial-and-error" approach. With an ever-increasing demand for their application in treating a broad spectrum of non-skeletal health problems, it is becoming increasingly difficult to design advanced glass formulations using the same conventional approach...
November 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124717/semantic-ambiguity-effects-on-traditional-chinese-character-naming-a-corpus-based-approach
#11
Ya-Ning Chang, Chia-Ying Lee
Words are considered semantically ambiguous if they have more than one meaning and can be used in multiple contexts. A number of recent studies have provided objective ambiguity measures by using a corpus-based approach and have demonstrated ambiguity advantages in both naming and lexical decision tasks. Although the predictive power of objective ambiguity measures has been examined in several alphabetic language systems, the effects in logographic languages remain unclear. Moreover, most ambiguity measures do not explicitly address how the various contexts associated with a given word relate to each other...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124679/fear-of-fat-and-restrained-eating-negative-body-talk-between-female-friends-as-a-moderator
#12
Chong Man Chow, Holly Ruhl, Cin Cin Tan, Lilian Ellis
PURPOSE: This study examined whether engagement in negative body talk would moderate the association between fear of fat and restrained eating among female friend dyads. METHODS: Female friends (N pairs = 130) were recruited from a Midwestern university in the United States. The dyadic data were examined with an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). RESULTS: Results showed that women's fear of fat was significantly related to their own restrained eating behaviors...
November 9, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123213/detecting-abnormality-in-heart-dynamics-from-multifractal-analysis-of-ecg-signals
#13
Snehal M Shekatkar, Yamini Kotriwar, K P Harikrishnan, G Ambika
The characterization of heart dynamics with a view to distinguish abnormal from normal behavior is an interesting topic in clinical sciences. Here we present an analysis of the Electro-cardiogram (ECG) signals from several healthy and unhealthy subjects using the framework of dynamical systems approach to multifractal analysis. Our analysis differs from the conventional nonlinear analysis in that the information contained in the amplitude variations of the signal is being extracted and quantified. The results thus obtained reveal that the attractor underlying the dynamics of the heart has multifractal structure and the variations in the resultant multifractal spectra can clearly separate healthy subjects from unhealthy ones...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123108/depleted-depletion-drives-polymer-swelling-in-poor-solvent-mixtures
#14
Debashish Mukherji, Carlos M Marques, Torsten Stuehn, Kurt Kremer
Establishing a link between macromolecular conformation and microscopic interaction is a key to understand properties of polymer solutions and for designing technologically relevant "smart" polymers. Here, polymer solvation in solvent mixtures strike as paradoxical phenomena. For example, when adding polymers to a solvent, such that all particle interactions are repulsive, polymer chains can collapse due to increased monomer-solvent repulsion. This depletion induced monomer-monomer attraction is well known from colloidal stability...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123069/a-neural-algorithm-for-a-fundamental-computing-problem
#15
Sanjoy Dasgupta, Charles F Stevens, Saket Navlakha
Similarity search-for example, identifying similar images in a database or similar documents on the web-is a fundamental computing problem faced by large-scale information retrieval systems. We discovered that the fruit fly olfactory circuit solves this problem with a variant of a computer science algorithm (called locality-sensitive hashing). The fly circuit assigns similar neural activity patterns to similar odors, so that behaviors learned from one odor can be applied when a similar odor is experienced. The fly algorithm, however, uses three computational strategies that depart from traditional approaches...
November 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121090/differences-between-racing-and-non-racing-drivers-a-simulator-study-using-eye-tracking
#16
Peter M van Leeuwen, Stefan de Groot, Riender Happee, Joost C F de Winter
Motorsport has developed into a professional international competition. However, limited research is available on the perceptual and cognitive skills of racing drivers. By means of a racing simulator, we compared the driving performance of seven racing drivers with ten non-racing drivers. Participants were tasked to drive the fastest possible lap time. Additionally, both groups completed a choice reaction time task and a tracking task. Results from the simulator showed faster lap times, higher steering activity, and a more optimal racing line for the racing drivers than for the non-racing drivers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118870/risk-factors-for-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-in-saudi-arabia
#17
Ali Mesfer Alkhathami, Abdulrahman Ahmad Alzahrani, Mohammed Abdullah Alzhrani, Obaidallah Buraykan Alsuwat, Mohammad Eid Mahmoud Mahfouz
Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal tract diseases worldwide. GERD has an effect on the patients' quality of life as well as the health care system that can be prevented by identifying its risk factors among the population. Hence, we applied this study to assess the GERD's risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the GERD's risk factors among the community of Saudi Arabia...
October 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118218/consciousness-regained-disentangling-mechanisms-brain-systems-and-behavioral-responses
#18
Johan F Storm, Mélanie Boly, Adenauer G Casali, Marcello Massimini, Umberto Olcese, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Melanie Wilke
How consciousness (experience) arises from and relates to material brain processes (the "mind-body problem") has been pondered by thinkers for centuries, and is regarded as among the deepest unsolved problems in science, with wide-ranging theoretical, clinical, and ethical implications. Until the last few decades, this was largely seen as a philosophical topic, but not widely accepted in mainstream neuroscience. Since the 1980s, however, novel methods and theoretical advances have yielded remarkable results, opening up the field for scientific and clinical progress...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118206/social-origins-of-developmental-risk-for-mental-and-physical-illness
#19
Judy L Cameron, Kathie L Eagleson, Nathan A Fox, Takao K Hensch, Pat Levitt
Adversity in early childhood exerts an enduring impact on mental and physical health, academic achievement, lifetime productivity, and the probability of interfacing with the criminal justice system. More science is needed to understand how the brain is affected by early life stress (ELS), which produces excessive activation of stress response systems broadly throughout the child's body (toxic stress). Our research examines the importance of sex, timing and type of stress exposure, and critical periods for intervention in various brain systems across species...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117450/nutrition-strategies-before-and-during-ultra-endurance-event-a-significant-gap-between-science-and-practice
#20
Soyzana K Papadopoulou, Eleni E Xyla, Spyridon Methenitis, Konstantinos G Feidantsis, Yiannis Kotsis, Ioannis G Pagkalos, Maria N Hassapidou
The purpose of the present study was to investigate and assess the nutritional practices of open-water swimmers, during the preparation period and the competition, as well as their implications on performance and anthropometric parameters according to their age. Twenty-four (n=24) men open-water swimmers, twelve young (26.3±4.9yrs) and twelve older athletes (45.8±9.7yrs), participated in the present study. Nutritional behavior - intake-energy consumption, and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated prior to the Toroneos Gulf crossing (26Km)...
November 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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