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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924210/kinase-inhibitor-screening-using-artificial-neural-networks-and-engineered-cardiac-biowires
#1
Genevieve Conant, Samad Ahadian, Yimu Zhao, Milica Radisic
Kinase inhibitors are often used as cancer targeting agents for their ability to prevent the activation of cell growth and proliferation signals. Cardiotoxic effects have been identified for some marketed kinase inhibitors that were not detected during clinical trials. We hypothesize that more predictive cardiac functional assessments of kinase inhibitors on human myocardium can be established by combining a high-throughput two-dimensional (2D) screening assay and a high-content three-dimensional (3D) engineered cardiac tissue (Biowire(TM)) based assay, and using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs (hiPSC-CMs)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922555/laser-micro-ablation-of-fibrocartilage-tissue-effects-of-tissue-processing-on-porosity-modification-and-mechanics
#2
A M Matuska, P S McFetridge
The temporomandibular joint disk (TMJd) is an extremely dense and avascular fibrocartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) resulting in a limited regenerative capacity. The use of decellularized TMJd as a biocompatible scaffold to guide tissue regeneration is restricted by innate subcellular porosity of the ECM that hinders cellular infiltration and regenerative events. Incorporation of an artificial microporosity through laser micro-ablation (LMA) can alleviate these cell and diffusion based limitations. In this study, LMA was performed either before or after decellularization to assess to effect of surfactant treatment on porosity modification as well as the resultant mechanical and physical scaffold properties...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921946/biomimetic-magnetosomes-as-versatile-artificial-antigen-presenting-cells-to-potentiate-t-cell-based-anticancer-therapy
#3
Qianmei Zhang, Wei Wei, Peiling Wang, Liping Zuo, Feng Li, Jin Xu, Xiaobo Xi, Xiaoyong Gao, Guanghui Ma, Hai-Yan Xie
Adoptive T-cell transfer for cancer therapy relies on both effective ex vivo T cell expansion and in vivo targeting performance. One promising but challenging method for accomplishing this purpose is to construct multifunctional artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs). We herein developed biomimetic magnetosomes as versatile aAPCs, wherein magnetic nanoclusters were coated with azide-engineered leucocyte membranes and then decorated with T-cell stimuli through copper-free click chemistry. These novel nano aAPCs not only exhibited high performance for antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) expansion and stimulation but also visually and effectively guided reinfused CTLs to tumor tissues through magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic control...
September 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921822/construction-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-oriented-bone-matrix-microstructure-by-using-in-vitro-engineered-anisotropic-culture-model
#4
Ryosuke Ozasa, Aira Matsugaki, Yoshihiro Isobe, Taro Saku, Hui-Suk Yun, Takayoshi Nakano
Bone tissue has anisotropic microstructure based on collagen/biological apatite orientation, which plays essential roles in the mechanical and biological functions of bone. However, obtaining an appropriate anisotropic microstructure during the bone regeneration process remains a great challenging. A powerful strategy for the control of both differentiation and structural development of newly-formed bone is required in bone tissue engineering, in order to realize functional bone tissue regeneration. In this study, we developed a novel anisotropic culture model by combining human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and artificially-controlled oriented collagen scaffold...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912069/generation-of-a-novel-human-cytomegalovirus-bacterial-artificial-chromosome-tailored-for-transduction-of-exogenous-sequences
#5
William L Close, Amit Bhandari, Marwa Hojeij, Philip E Pellett
The study of herpesviruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), is complicated by viral genome complexity and inefficient methods for genetic manipulation in tissue culture. Reverse genetics of herpesviruses has been facilitated by propagating their genomes in E. coli as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), which enables complex and precise genetic manipulation using bacterial recombinational systems. Internal capsid volume imposes a strict limit on the length of genome that can be packaged efficiently...
September 11, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905283/chrysotile-effects-on-the-expression-of-anti-oncogene-p53-and-p16-and-oncogene-c-jun-and-c-fos-in-wistar-rats-lung-tissues
#6
Yan Cui, Yuchan Wang, Jianjun Deng, Gongli Hu, Faqin Dong, Qingbi Zhang
Chrysotile is the most widely used form of asbestos worldwide. China is the world's largest consumer and second largest producer of chrysotile. The carcinogenicity of chrysotile has been extensively documented, and accumulative evidence has shown that chrysotile is capable of causing lung cancer and other forms of cancer. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the tumorigenic effects of chrysotile remained poorly understood. To explore the carcinogenicity of chrysotile, Wistar rats were administered by intratracheal instillation (by an artificial route of administration) for 0, 0...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904358/monitoring-osteoarthritis-progression-using-near-infrared-nir-spectroscopy
#7
Isaac O Afara, Indira Prasadam, Zohreh Arabshahi, Yin Xiao, Adekunle Oloyede
We demonstrate in this study the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring progression of cartilage degeneration in an animal model. Osteoarthritic degeneration was artificially induced in one joint in laboratory rats, and the animals were sacrificed at four time points: 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks (3 animals/week). NIR spectra were acquired from both (injured and intact) knees. Subsequently, the joint samples were subjected to histological evaluation and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content analysis, to assess disease severity based on the Mankin scoring system and to determine proteoglycan loss, respectively...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898773/increased-accumulation-of-pb-and-cd-from-contaminated-soil-with-scirpus-triqueter-by-the-combined-application-of-nta-and-apg
#8
Xiaoxin Hu, Xiaoyan Liu, Xinying Zhang, Liya Cao, Jing Chen, Hang Yu
Phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils shows many advantages and it can be improved by adding chelating agents and surfactants. In this study, pot culture experiments were set up to explore the effect of alone application of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and combined application of NTA and alkyl polyglucoside (APG) on changes in absorption and adsorption of heavy metals by root of Scirpus triqueter and bioaccumulation of metals in single or co-contamination. Different additives were added into the soils artificially after 10 d and heavy metals extracted from different plant tissues were analyzed after 60 d...
September 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894659/prevention-of-mandible-reconstruction-plate-exposure-by-costal-cartilage-wrapping
#9
Motonao Iwasawa, Yoshito Mishima, Miho Ohtsubo
After mandibulectomy in cancer surgery, reconstruction is often performed with a reconstruction plate covered with a soft-tissue free flap in patients in poor condition. However, the rate of complications for mandibular reconstruction is higher with a reconstruction plate than with vascularized bone grafts. We have developed a costal cartilage wrapping method to prevent exposure of the mandible reconstruction plate. The eighth costal cartilage was removed and split into 2 pieces to wrap around the reconstruction plate...
August 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894124/effects-of-purified-or-plant-produced-cry-proteins-on-drosophila-melanogaster-diptera-drosophilidae-larvae
#10
Simone Haller, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
Although genetically engineered crops producing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown worldwide, few studies cover effects of Bt crops or Cry proteins on dipteran species in an agricultural context. We tested the toxicity of six purified Cry proteins and of Bt cotton and Bt maize tissue on Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as a surrogate for decomposing Diptera. ELISA confirmed the presence of Cry proteins in plant material, artificial diet, and fly larvae, and concentrations were estimated...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892612/medium-chain-length-polyhydroxyalkanoate-copolymer-modified-by-bacterial-cellulose-for-medical-devices
#11
Denis Mihaela Panaitescu, Irina Lupescu, Adriana Nicoleta Frone, Ioana Chiulan, Cristian Andi Nicolae, Vlad Tofan, Amalia Stefaniu, Raluca Somoghi, Roxana Trusca
Medium chain-length PHAs (mPHAs) are flexible elastomeric biopolymers with valuable properties for biomedical applications like artificial arteries and other medical implants. However, an environmentally friendly and high productivity process together with the tuning of the mechanical and biological properties of mPHAs are mandatory for this purpose. Here, for the first time, a melt processing technique was applied for the preparation of bionanocomposites starting from poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO) and bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BC)...
September 11, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890781/thermo-responsive-cell-culture-carrier-effects-on-macrophage-functionality-and-detachment-efficiency
#12
Knut Rennert, Mirko Nitschke, Maria Wallert, Natalie Keune, Martin Raasch, Stefan Lorkowski, Alexander S Mosig
Harvesting cultivated macrophages for tissue engineering purposes by enzymatic digestion of cell adhesion molecules can potentially result in unintended activation, altered function, or behavior of these cells. Thermo-responsive polymer is a promising tool that allows for gentle macrophage detachment without artificial activation prior to subculture within engineered tissue constructs. We therefore characterized different species of thermo-responsive polymers for their suitability as cell substrate and to mediate gentle macrophage detachment by temperature shift...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887704/-indication-and-limitations-of-meniscus-replacement
#13
REVIEW
C Stärke, S Kopf, R Becker
BACKGROUND: Meniscal lesions are among the most important musculoskeletal disorders and are the most common indication for knee joint arthroplasty. However, the structural integrity and function is rarely retained, and a loss of tissue results. Thus, there is a huge demand for meniscal replacement options. CURRENT PROCEDURES: Autografts were used in the past but did not fulfill expectations. Meniscus allografts have been developed to be a viable treatment option...
September 8, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885872/teaching-tip-simulated-tumors-as-an-aid-to-teaching-principles-of-surgical-oncology
#14
Christopher Tan, Rachel Basa, Peter Bennett, Neil Hannan, William R Walsh, Christopher Bellenger
Tumors of the skin and subcutaneous tissues are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in small animals. In many cases, surgical excision is an essential component of successful therapy and it should be performed in a specific way based on the type and grade of the tumor. Students require adequate training to develop both clinical decision-making skills and technical surgical skills, which we believe contribute to optimal clinical results. We have developed an inexpensive and simple technique that aims to replicate a naturally occurring subcutaneous tumor and allows trainees to plan and perform three common surgical procedures: incisional biopsy, marginal excision, and wide surgical excision...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885829/membrane-active-amphipathic-peptide-wrl3-with-in-vitro-antibiofilmcapability-and-in-vivo-efficacy-in-treating-mrsa-burn-wound-infections
#15
Zhi Ma, Jinzhi Han, Bingxue Chang, Ling Gao, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lu, Haizhen Zhao, Chong Zhang, Xiaomei Bie
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become increasingly prevalent in hospitals, clinics, and the community. MRSA can cause significant and even lethal infections, especially in skin burn wounds. The currently available topical agents have largely failed to eliminate MRSA infections due to resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new and effective approaches for treating MRSA. Here, we show that a novel engineered amphipathic peptide, WRL3, exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against MRSA, even in the presence of various salts or serum...
September 8, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885140/xenogenic-rolling-circle-replication-of-a-synthetic-beak-and-feather-disease-virus-genomic-clone-in-293tt-mammalian-cells-and-nicotiana-benthamiana
#16
Guy L Regnard, Warren R J de Moor, Inga I Hitzeroth, Anna-Lise Williamson, Edward P Rybicki
The preparation of infectious beak and feather disease circovirus virions (BFDV) has until now relied on the extraction of virus from whole tissue of deceased or euthanized parrots known to be infected with the virus. Extraction from diseased tissue is necessary, as the virus has yet to be grown in vitro using tissue-cultured cells from any source. While infectious DNA clones have been synthesized for porcine and duck circoviruses, and both replicate in host cells and result in active viral infection in animals, this has not been shown for BFDV...
September 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884371/egfr-t790m-mutation-testing-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-tissue-and-blood-samples-artificially-spiked-with-circulating-cell-free-tumor-dna-results-of-a-round-robin-trial
#17
Jana Fassunke, Michaela Angelika Ihle, Dido Lenze, Annika Lehmann, Michael Hummel, Claudia Vollbrecht, Roland Penzel, Anna-Lena Volckmar, Albrecht Stenzinger, Volker Endris, Andreas Jung, Ulrich Lehmann, Silke Zeugner, Gustavo Baretton, Hans Kreipe, Peter Schirmacher, Thomas Kirchner, Manfred Dietel, Reinhard Büttner, Sabine Merkelbach-Bruse
The European Commision (EC) recently approved osimertinib for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR T790M mutations. Besides tissue-based testing, blood samples containing cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can be used to interrogate T790M status. Herein, we describe the conditions and results of a round robin trial (RRT) for T790M mutation testing in NSCLC tissue specimens and peripheral blood samples spiked with cell line DNA mimicking tumor-derived ctDNA...
September 8, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884041/natural-and-artificial-small-rnas-a-promising-avenue-of-nucleic-acid-therapeutics-for-cancer
#18
Sunny Yadav, Mamta Shekhawat, Devashree Jahagirdar, Nilesh Kumar Sharma
Since the failure of traditional therapy, gene therapy using functional DNA sequence and small RNA/DNA molecules (oligonucleotide) has become a promising avenue for cancer treatment. The discovery of RNA molecules has impelled researchers to investigate small regulatory RNA from various natural and artificial sources and determine a cogent target for controlling tumor progression. Small regulatory RNAs are used for therapeutic silencing of oncogenes and aberrant DNA repair response genes. Despite their advantages, therapies based on small RNAs exhibit limitations in terms of stability of therapeutic drugs, precision-based delivery in tissues, precision-based intercellular and intracellular targeting, and tumor heterogeneity-based responses...
August 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883822/the-role-of-the-chemokine-system-in-tissue-response-to-prosthetic-by-products-leading-to-periprosthetic-osteolysis-and-aseptic-loosening
#19
REVIEW
Tereza Dyskova, Jiri Gallo, Eva Kriegova
Millions of total joint replacements are performed annually worldwide, and the number is increasing every year. The overall proportion of patients achieving a successful outcome is about 80-90% in a 10-20-years time horizon postoperatively, periprosthetic osteolysis (PPOL) and aseptic loosening (AL) being the most frequent reasons for knee and hip implant failure and reoperations. The chemokine system (chemokine receptors and chemokines) is crucially involved in the inflammatory and osteolytic processes leading to PPOL/AL...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883656/the-presence-of-acquired-enamel-pellicle-changes-acid-induced-erosion-from-dissolution-to-a-softening-process
#20
Mahdi Mutahar, Guy Carpenter, David Bartlett, Matthew German, Rebecca Moazzez
Erosive wear undermines the structural properties of enamel resulting in irreversible enamel loss. A thin protein layer formed from natural saliva on tooth surfaces, acquired enamel pellicle (AEP), protects against erosive wear. The exact components in saliva responsible for such protection are not yet known. We prepared three solutions containing different components: proteins and ions [natural saliva (NS)], minerals with no proteins [artificial saliva (AS)] and neither proteins nor ions [deionised water (DW)]...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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