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Artificial tissue

Fabien Bernard, Sylvain Dumez, Sébastien Lemière, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Annabelle Deram, Franck Vandenbulcke, Damien Cuny
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg-1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vu Huy Luong, Takenao Chino, Noritaka Oyama, Takashi Matsushita, Yoko Sasaki, Dai Ogura, Shin-Ichiro Niwa, Tanima Biswas, Akiyuki Hamasaki, Mikako Fujita, Yoshinari Okamoto, Masami Otsuka, Hironobu Ihn, Minoru Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling is well known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). We previously developed an artificial molecule, the histidine-pyridine-histidine ligand derivative HPH-15, which may have an antifibrotic effect. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of this drug in human skin fibroblasts and in a preclinical model of SSc. METHODS: The effects of HPH-15 on expression of extracellular matrix components and TGF-β signaling in human dermal fibroblasts were analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Andrew J Olsen, Priya Katyal, Jennifer S Haghpanah, Matthew B Kubilius, Ruipeng Li, Nicole L Schnabel, Sean C O'Neill, Yao Wang, Min Dai, Navjot Singh, Raymond S Tu, Jin Kim Montclare
Recombinant methods have been used to engineer artificial protein triblock polymers comprised of two different self-assembling domains (SADs) bearing one elastin (E) flanked by two cartilage oligomeric matrix protein coiled-coil (C) domains to generate CEC. To understand how the two C domains improve small molecule recognition and the mechanical integrity of CEC, we have constructed CL44AECL44A, which bears an impaired CL44A domain that is unstructured as a negative control. The CEC triblock polymer demonstrates increased small molecule binding and ideal elastic behavior for hydrogel formation...
March 15, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Sheng Yan, Hangyan Shi, Da Chen, Jincai Guo, Yi Sun, Sufan Wu
The reconstruction of large full-thickness scalp defects remains a surgical challenge, especially when the skull is exposed completely without periosteum. Surgical technique options for wound coverage have included tissue expansion, skin grafting, local or regional flaps, and microvascular free tissue transfer. In recent years, some authors have reported to use biological material as an alternative for repairing complex wounds. The authors report the successful reconstruction of a large defect with bare skull in bilateral temporal regions of a 3-year-old child...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
T N Safonova, N P Kintiukhina
PURPOSE: to identify the role of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) in diagnostic and to assess the effectiveness of involutional blepharitis treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 32 patients (64 eyes) with chronic blepharitis aged in average 75.21±3.56 years. All patients completed questionnaire (SPEED), underwent Schirmer I, Norn tear break-up time and compression tests, had the number of functioning meibomian glands (NFMG) calculated. The patients' eyelids were examined with LSCM, and the condition of conjunctiva was evaluated by microbiological study...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Kotaro Shimai, Takehiro G Kusakabe
Ascidians possess relatively small and compact genomes. This feature enables us to easily isolate cis-regulatory DNAs of genes of interest. Particularly, cis-regulatory DNAs of genes showing tissue- or cell-type-specific expression are routinely used for the artificial induction of gene expression. This strategy helps us to label cells, tissues, and organs of interest, and to investigate gene functions through overexpression, ectopic expression, and the disruption of functions by dominant-negative forms. Thus, cis-regulatory DNAs provide a powerful tool for tissue-specific genetic manipulation in studies of ascidian development and physiology...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Karl A G Kremling, Shu-Yun Chen, Mei-Hsiu Su, Nicholas K Lepak, M Cinta Romay, Kelly L Swarts, Fei Lu, Anne Lorant, Peter J Bradbury, Edward S Buckler
Here we report a multi-tissue gene expression resource that represents the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of modern inbred maize, and includes transcriptomes in an average of 255 lines in seven tissues. We mapped expression quantitative trait loci and characterized the contribution of rare genetic variants to extremes in gene expression. Some of the new mutations that arise in the maize genome can be deleterious; although selection acts to keep deleterious variants rare, their complete removal is impeded by genetic linkage to favourable loci and by finite population size...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Yu Moriguchi, Dae-Sung Lee, Ryota Chijimatsu, Khair Thamina, Kazuto Masuda, Dai Itsuki, Hideki Yoshikawa, Satoshi Hamaguchi, Akira Myoui
In the physiochemical sciences, plasma is used to describe an ionized gas. Previous studies have implicated plasma surface treatment in the enhancement of hydrophilicity of implanted musculoskeletal reconstructive materials. Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics, widely used in bone tissue regeneration, have made great advancements to skeletal surgery. In the present study, we investigate the impact of low-pressure plasma on the interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA) both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, when used with oxygen, can augment the hydrophilicity of non-porous HA surfaces and the osteoconductivity of the IP-CHA disc via increased water penetration of inner porous structures, as demonstrated through microfocus computed tomography (μCT) assay...
2018: PloS One
Anamaria Balic
The tooth is an intricate composition of precisely patterned, mineralized matrices and soft tissues. Mineralized tissues include enamel (produced by the epithelial cells called ameloblasts), dentin and cementum (produced by mesenchymal cells called odontoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively), and soft tissues, which include the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament along with the invading nerves and blood vessels. It was perceived for a very long time that teeth primarily serve an esthetical function. In recent years, however, the role of healthy teeth, as well as the impact of oral health on general well-being, became more evident...
March 13, 2018: Gerontology
Yuya Otsuka, Toshinori Sato
The structures and amounts of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) produced by cells have attracted much interest because GAG biosynthesis activity can change in cellular processes such as disease and differentiation. β-Xylosides, also called saccharide primers, have been used as artificial acceptors not only to generate GAG oligosaccharides in cells and tissues but also to investigate their biosynthetic pathways. Various analytical methods have been applied to confirm the structure and amounts of GAG oligosaccharides elongated using saccharide primers, yet sample preparation processes such as solid-phase-extraction in analysis can cause experimental error and disrupt accurate comparative quantification of glycosylated products...
March 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Andrew Smith, Sandra Winter, David Lappin, Andrea Sherriff, Ian McIvor, Pamela Philp, Nigel Suttner, Sulisti Holmes, Alan Stewart
BACKGROUND: Currently UK vCJD cases total 178, with an estimated maximum 1:2,000 carriage rate based on archived appendix and tonsil tissue, implying infection maybe rare but carriage relatively common. Previous workers have identified that maintenance of surgical instruments in a humid atmosphere after use and prior to cleaning assists cleaning efficacy. Relatively recently the Department of Health/Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens UK have recommended a surgical instrument cleanliness threshold post cleaning of <5μg protein per instrument side...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Jiuming He, Luojiao Huang, Runtao Tian, Tiegang Li, Chenglong Sun, Xiaowei Song, Yiwei Lv, Zhigang Luo, Xin Li, Zeper Abliz
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has become a powerful tool to probe molecule events in biological tissue. However, it is a widely held viewpoint that one of the biggest challenges is an easy-to-use data processing software for discovering the underlying biological information from complicated and huge MSI dataset. Here, a user-friendly and full-featured MSI software including three subsystems, Solution, Visualization and Intelligence, named MassImager, is developed focusing on interactive visualization, in-situ biomarker discovery and artificial intelligent pathological diagnosis...
July 26, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Wei-Cheng Lu, Xu Zheng, Jin-Fu Liu, Wen-Chuan Wu, Xing-Yue Chen, Hai-Bo Wei, Chun-Lei Li, Ming-Jing Lin
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Bifidobacterium on the expression of β-defensin-2 (BD-2) in intestinal tissue of neonatal rats with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). METHODS: A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, Bifidobacterium control, NEC model, and Bifidobacterium treatment, with 10 rats in each group. A rat model of NEC was induced by hypoxia, cold stimulation, and artificial feeding. The rats in the Bifidobacterium control and Bifidobacterium treatment groups were given Bifidobacterium via the gastric tube after cold stimulation once a day for three consecutive days...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Alexander M Seifalian, Aleksandra M Urbanska, Mir Davood Omrani, John G Hardy, Zahra Madjd, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi, Hossein Ghanbarian, Peiman Brouki Milan, Masoud Mozafari, Rui L Reis, Subhas C Kundu, Ali Samadikuchaksaraei
Severe burn injuries can lead to delay in healing and devastating scar formation. Attempts are made to develop a suitable skin substitute for scarless healing of such skin wounds. Currently, there is no effective strategy yet for a complete scarless healing after the thermal injuries. In our recent work we fabricate and evaluated a 3D protein-based artificial skin made from decellularized human amniotic membrane (AM) and electrospun nanofibrous silk fibroin (ESF) in vitro. We also characterize both biophysical and cell culture investigation to establish in vitro performance of the developed bilayer scaffolds...
March 12, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Maria Gomes Fernandes, Monika Bialecka, Daniela C F Salvatori, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
STUDY QUESTION: Which set of antibodies can be used to identify migratory and early post-migratory human primordial germ cells (hPGCs)? STUDY FINDING: We validated the specificity of 33 antibodies for 31 markers, including POU5F1, NANOG, PRDM1 and TFAP2C as specific markers of hPGCs at 4.5 weeks of development of Carnegie stage (CS12-13), whereas KIT and SOX17 also marked the intra-aortic hematopoietic stem cell cluster in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The dynamics of gene expression during germ cell development in mice is well characterized and this knowledge has proved crucial to allow the development of protocols for the in-vitro derivation of functional gametes...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Miusi Shi, Ruiwen Yang, Qin Li, Kangle Lv, Richard J Miron, Jie Sun, Mei Li, Yufeng Zhang
Since the discovery of osteoinduction in the early 20th century, innovative biomaterials with osteoinductive potential have emerged as candidates for bone repair. Recently, artificial protocell models have demonstrated great potential for tissue regeneration. Herein, we developed artificial bioactive proto-osteocells by self-assembly of biodegradable biphasic-phosphate particles in the form of aqueous-bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-containing pickering emulsions in corn oil to fulfill the release of BMP2 with controlled and local efficacy...
March 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Leng-Duei Koh, Jingjie Yeo, Yeong Yuh Lee, Qunya Ong, Mingyong Han, Benjamin C-K Tee
The present review will introduce the basic concepts of silk-based electronics/optoelectronics including the latest technological advances on the use of silk fibroin in combination with other functional components, with an emphasis on improving the performance of next-generation silk-based materials. It also highlights the patterning of silk fibroin to produce micro/nano-scale features, as well as the functionalization of silk fibroin to impart antimicrobial (i.e. antibacterial) properties. Silk-based bioelectronics have great potential for advanced or futuristic bio-applications including e-skins, e-bandages, biosensors, wearable displays, implantable devices, artificial muscles, etc...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Katrin Schelleckes, Boris Schmitz, Malte Lenders, Mirja Mewes, Stefan-Martin Brand, Eva Brand
KIBRA has been suggested as a key regulator of the hippo pathway, regulating organ size, cell contact inhibition as well as tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis. Recently, alterations of KIBRA expression caused by promotor methylation have been reported for several types of cancer. Our current study aimed to design an artificial transcription factor capable of re-activating expression of the tumor suppressor KIBRA and the hippo pathway. We engineered a new gene named 'ZFP226' encoding for a ~23 kDa fusion protein...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Letizia Zullo, Ambra Buschiazzo, Michela Massollo, Mattia Riondato, Alessia Democrito, Cecilia Marini, Fabio Benfenati, Gianmario Sambuceti
This study aimed at developing a method for administration of18 F-Fludeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) in the common octopus and micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) bio-distribution assay for the characterization of glucose metabolism in body organs and regenerating tissues. Methods: Seven animals (two with one regenerating arm) were anesthetized with 3.7% MgCl2 in artificial seawater. Each octopus was injected with 18-30 MBq of isosmotic18 F-FDG by accessing the branchial heart or the anterior vena cava. After an uptake time of ~50 minutes, the animal was sacrificed, placed on a bed of a micro-PET scanner and submitted to 10 min static 3-4 bed acquisitions to visualize the entire body...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Marjaana Ojalill, Pekka Rappu, Elina Siljamäki, Pekka Taimen, Peter Boström, Jyrki Heino
BACKGROUND: The composition and organization of extracellular matrix (ECM) are important regulators of cell behavior. In particular in the prostate, this central role of the ECM is further stressed by the fact that several potential markers of prostate stem cells are matrix receptors. METHODS: We established 12 fibroblastic cell lines from cancerous and non-cancerous areas of six prostates and allowed the cells to produce ECM under cell culture conditions. We also performed a proteome wide analysis of the ECM components by mass spectrometry...
March 9, 2018: Prostate
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