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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812983/a-microfluidic-platform-for-modeling-metastatic-cancer-cell-matrix-invasion
#1
Laura Blaha, Chentian Zhang, Mario Cabodi, Joyce Y Wong
Invasion of the extracellular matrix is a critical step in the colonization of metastatic tumors. The invasion process is thought to be driven by both chemokine signaling and interactions between invading cancer cells and physical components of the metastatic niche, including endothelial cells that line capillary walls and serve as a barrier to both diffusion and invasion of the underlying tissue. Transwell chambers, a tool for generating artificial chemokine gradients to induce cell migration, have facilitated recent work to investigate the chemokine contributions to matrix invasion...
August 16, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809824/creation-and-transplantation-of-an-adipose-derived-stem-cell-asc-sheet-in-a-diabetic-wound-healing-model
#2
Yuka Kato, Takanori Iwata, Kaoru Washio, Toshiyuki Yoshida, Hozue Kuroda, Shunichi Morikawa, Mariko Hamada, Kazuki Ikura, Nobuyuki Kaibuchi, Masayuki Yamato, Teruo Okano, Yasuko Uchigata
Artificial skin has achieved considerable therapeutic results in clinical practice. However, artificial skin treatments for wounds in diabetic patients with impeded blood flow or with large wounds might be prolonged. Cell-based therapies have appeared as a new technique for the treatment of diabetic ulcers, and cell-sheet engineering has improved the efficacy of cell transplantation. A number of reports have suggested that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), a type of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC), exhibit therapeutic potential due to their relative abundance in adipose tissue and their accessibility for collection when compared to MSCs from other tissues...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809821/gradient-strain-chip-for-stimulating-cellular-behaviors-in-cell-laden-hydrogel
#3
Hsin-Yi Hsieh, Chiao-Wen Chu, Ming-Hsuan Chiu, Shueh-Yao Chu, Tsu-Wei Huang, Fan-Gang Tseng
Artificial guidance for cellular alignment is a hot topic in the field of tissue engineering. Most of the previous research has investigated single strain-induced cellular alignment on a cell-laden hydrogel by using complex experimental processes and mass controlling systems, which are usually associated with contamination issues. Thus, in this article, we propose a simple approach to building a gradient static strain using a fluidic chip with a plastic PDMS cover and a UV transparent glass substrate for the stimulation of cellular behavior in a 3D hydrogel...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808804/identification-of-a-new-liver-specific-c-type-mrna-transcriptional-variant-for-mouse-st3gal5-gm3-gm4-synthase
#4
Fumi Shishido, Satoshi Uemura, Takahiro Nitta, Jin-Ichi Inokuchi
GM3, a major lipid component of the plasma membrane outer leaflet in mammalian cells, is synthesized in the luminal side of Golgi by ST3GAL5 protein (ST3G5), a type II membrane protein. Two strains of St3Gal5 knockout mice have been established for studies of GM3 physiological function: St3Gal5-Ex5-KO (lacking exon 5, which contains the catalytic domain of ST3G5), and St3Gal5-Ex3-KO (lacking exon 3, which contains the initiation codons). Results of the present study demonstrate that GM3 synthesis is still present, at a low level, in liver of St3Gal5-Ex3-KO mice...
August 14, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808216/modeling-and-validating-three-dimensional-human-normal-cervix-and-cervical-cancer-tissues-in-vitro
#5
Anna Karolina Zuk, Xuesong Wen, Stephen Dilworth, Dong Li, Lucy Ghali
The use of three dimensional in vitro systems in cancer research is a promising path for developing effective anticancer therapies. The aim of this study was to engineer a functional 3-Din vitro model of normal and cancerous cervical tissue.Normal epithelial and immortalized cervical epithelial carcinoma cell lines were used to construct 3-D artificial normal cervical and cervical cancerous tissues. De-epidermised dermis (DED) was used as a scaffold for both models. Morphological analyses were conducted by using hematoxylin and eosin staining and characteristics of the models were studied by analyzing the expression of different structural cytokeratins and differential protein marker Mad1 using immunohistochemical technique...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807305/evaluation-of-the-priocheck%C3%A2-trichinella-aad-kit-for-the-digestion-and-recovery-of-larvae-in-pork-horse-meat-and-wild-meat
#6
Kelly Konecsni, Cheryl Scheller, Brad Scandrett, Patrik Buholzer, Alvin Gajadhar
The artificial digestion magnetic stirrer method using pepsin protease and hydrochloric acid is the standard assay for the detection of Trichinella larvae in muscle of infected animals. Recently, an alternative enzyme, serine protease, was employed in the development of a commercially available digestion kit (PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit). This assay requires a higher digestion temperature of 60°C which kills the larvae during the digestion process, mitigating the risk of environmental contamination from the parasite...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806597/a-nested-multivariate-chemometrics-based-calibration-strategy-for-direct-trace-biometal-analysis-in-soft-tissue-utilizing-energy-dispersive-x-ray-fluorescence-edxrf-and-scattering-spectrometry
#7
REVIEW
J J Okonda, K H Angeyo, J M Mangala, S M Kisia
Compton scatter-modulated fluorescence and multivariate chemometric (artificial neural network (ANN) and principal component regression (PCR)) calibration strategy was explored for direct rapid trace biometals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se) analysis in "complex" matrices (model soft tissues). This involved spectral feature selection (multiple fluorescence signatures) normalized to or in conjunction with Compton scatter. ANN model resulted in more accurate trace biometal determination (R(2)>0.9) compared to PCR. Hybrid nested (ANN and PCR) approach led to optimized accurate biometals' concentrations in Oyster tissue (≤ ± 10%)...
August 8, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806149/detection-of-nanophyetus-salmincola-in-water-snails-and-fish-tissues-by-quantitative-pcr
#8
Maureen K Purcell, Rachel L Powers, Bonnie L Besijn, Paul K Hershberger
We report the development and validation of two quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to detect N. salmincola DNA in water samples and fish and snail tissues. Analytical and diagnostic validation demonstrated good sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of both qPCR assays. N. salmincola DNA copy number in kidney tissue was significantly correlated with metacercariae counts based on microscopy. Extraction methods were optimized for the sensitive qPCR detection of N. salmincola DNA in settled water samples...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804933/chemical-functionalization-of-polysaccharides-towards-biocompatible-hydrogels-for-biomedical-applications
#9
Andreas Kirschning, Gerald Dräger, Nick Dibbert
Hydrogels have emerged as a highly interdisciplinary topic as they play a significant role for a vast number of applications. They have been studied extensively as materials for contact lenses, wound dressing and as filler material in soft-tissue augmentation, in which classical polymer backbones such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) are typically employed. More recently, polysaccharides have received attention, particularly in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, as ideal candidate materials for artificial extracellular matrices (ECM)...
August 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803237/atf3-dependent-regulation-of-egr1-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Ilona Schoen, Sabine Koitzsch
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) are reported to interact, but their use as prognostic factors in cancer is discussed controversially. METHODS: We measured ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression changes in human mini-organ cultures (MOCs) of healthy nasal epithelia, UM-SCC-22B, and FADUDD cells after acid reflux exposure. Next, ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression was analysed in tumour tissues and related to the median expression of autologous reference tissue samples...
August 12, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802577/how-fast-fast-folding-proteins-fold-in-silico
#11
Yuan-Ping Pang
In reported microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations, fast-folding proteins CLN025 and Trp-cage autonomously folded to experimentally determined native conformations. However, the folding times of these proteins derived from the simulations were more than 4-10 times longer than their experimental values. This article reports autonomous folding of CLN025 and Trp-cage in isobaric-isothermal molecular dynamics simulations with agreements within factors of 0.69-1.75 between simulated and experimental folding times at different temperatures...
August 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802391/pathophysiology-of-esophageal-impairment-due-to-button-battery-ingestion
#12
Johannes Völker, Christine Völker, Philipp Schendzielorz, Sebastian P Schraven, Andreas Radeloff, Robert Mlynski, Rudolf Hagen, Kristen Rak
BACKGROUND: The increased use of button batteries with high energy densities in devices of daily life presents a high risk of injury, especially for toddlers and young children. If an accidental ingestion of a button battery occurs, this foreign body can become caught in the constrictions of the esophagus and cause serious damage to the adjacent tissue layers. The consequences can be ulcerations, perforations with fistula formation and damage to the surrounding anatomical structures. In order to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology after ingestion, we carried out systematic studies on fresh preparations of porcine esophagi...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801908/a-simple-method-for-constructing-artificial-promoters-activated-in-response-to-ultrasound-stimulation
#13
Ryohei Ogawa, Go Kagiya, Akihiko Watanabe, Akihiro Morii, Zheng-Guo Cui, Takashi Kondo
It has been pointed out that ultrasound could be used as a controller for bioprocesses including gene expression since its energy can noninvasively reach deep in the body. Gene expression may be timely and spatially controlled by ultrasound, thus providing necessary bioactive proteins for the targeted tissue in a timely fashion. Although there are many processes involved in gene expression control, one of the most important processes is transcription, and the promoter plays an essential role in it. There are several promoters known to be activated in response to ultrasound irradiation ...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796824/droplet-digital-polymerase-chain-reaction-ddpcr-assays-integrated-with-an-internal-control-for-quantification-of-bovine-porcine-chicken-and-turkey-species-in-food-and-feed
#14
Hanan R Shehata, Jiping Li, Shu Chen, Helen Redda, Shumei Cheng, Nicole Tabujara, Honghong Li, Keith Warriner, Robert Hanner
Food adulteration and feed contamination are significant issues in the food/feed industry, especially for meat products. Reliable techniques are needed to monitor these issues. Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) assays were developed and evaluated for detection and quantification of bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey DNA in food and feed samples. The ddPCR methods were designed based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and integrated with an artificial recombinant plasmid DNA to control variabilities in PCR procedures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796799/differential-outcomes-of-zika-virus-infection-in-aedes-aegypti-orally-challenged-with-infectious-blood-meals-and-infectious-protein-meals
#15
Yan-Jang S Huang, Amy C Lyons, Wei-Wen Hsu, So Lee Park, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
BACKGROUND: Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796780/transcriptome-and-proteome-analysis-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-systemic-infection-of-wild-type-and-immune-deficient-mice
#16
Olusegun Oshota, Max Conway, Maria Fookes, Fernanda Schreiber, Roy R Chaudhuri, Lu Yu, Fiona J E Morgan, Simon Clare, Jyoti Choudhary, Nicholas R Thomson, Pietro Lio, Duncan J Maskell, Pietro Mastroeni, Andrew J Grant
Salmonella enterica are a threat to public health. Current vaccines are not fully effective. The ability to grow in infected tissues within phagocytes is required for S. enterica virulence in systemic disease. As the infection progresses the bacteria are exposed to a complex host immune response. Consequently, in order to continue growing in the tissues, S. enterica requires the coordinated regulation of fitness genes. Bacterial gene regulation has so far been investigated largely using exposure to artificial environmental conditions or to in vitro cultured cells, and little information is available on how S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796191/smart-carriers-and-nanohealers-a-nanomedical-insight-on-natural-polymers
#17
REVIEW
Sreejith Raveendran, Ankit K Rochani, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi Kumar
Biodegradable polymers are popularly being used in an increasing number of fields in the past few decades. The popularity and favorability of these materials are due to their remarkable properties, enabling a wide range of applications and market requirements to be met. Polymer biodegradable systems are a promising arena of research for targeted and site-specific controlled drug delivery, for developing artificial limbs, 3D porous scaffolds for cellular regeneration or tissue engineering and biosensing applications...
August 10, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791965/design-of-bfgf-tethered-self-assembling-extracellular-matrix-proteins-via-coiled-coil-triple-helix-formation
#18
Yoshinori Mizuguchi, Yasumasa Mashimo, Masayasu Mie, Eiry Kobatake
Self-assembling peptides are attractive materials for tissue engineering applications because of their functionality including high biocompatibility and biodegradability. Modification of self-assembling peptides with functional motifs, such as the cell-adhesive tripeptide sequence RGD leads to functional artificial extracellular matrices (ECMs). In this study, we developed an artificial self-assembling ECM protein tethered with a growth factor via heterotrimer triple-helix (helix A/B/C) formation. The helix A and helix C peptides, which are capable of forming a heterodimer coiled-coil structure, were fused to both ends of a matrix protein composed of the elastin-derived structural unit (APGVGV)12 with an RGD motif...
August 9, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790923/gut-microbiome-response-to-sucralose-and-its-potential-role-in-inducing-liver-inflammation-in-mice
#19
Xiaoming Bian, Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Pengcheng Tu, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Sucralose is the most widely used artificial sweetener, and its health effects have been highly debated over the years. In particular, previous studies have shown that sucralose consumption can alter the gut microbiota. The gut microbiome plays a key role in processes related to host health, such as food digestion and fermentation, immune cell development, and enteric nervous system regulation. Inflammation is one of the most common effects associated with gut microbiome dysbiosis, which has been linked to a series of human diseases, such as diabetes and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782627/electrical-stimulation-of-different-retinal-components-and-the-effect-of-asymmetric-pulses
#20
Dorit Raz-Prag, Giora Beit-Yaakov, Yael Hanein
BACKGROUND: High resolution electrical stimulation of neural tissue is a fundamental challenge in applications such as deep brain stimulation and artificial vision. In artificial vision, achieving and validating local selective epi-retinal stimulation of different layers in the retina is particularly challenging owing to plurality of retinal cell types and delocalized wiring. RESULTS: Strong selectivity and non-localized responses to epi-retinal stimulation, over a wide range of realistic stimulation parameters, was achieved and validated using asymmetric pulses...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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