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Artificial tissue

Minoo Heidari Kani, Eng-Cheng Chan, Roger C Young, Trent Butler, Roger Smith, Jonathan W Paul
Research insights into uterine function and the mechanisms of labour have been hindered by the lack of suitable animal and cellular models. The use of traditional culturing methods limits the exploration of complex uterine functions, such as cell interactions, connectivity and contractile behaviour, as it fails to mimic the three-dimensional (3D) nature of uterine cell interactions in vivo. Animal models are an option, however, use of these models is constrained by ethical considerations as well as translational limitations to humans...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Ling Qi, Hongquan Yu, Yu Zhang, Donghai Zhao, Peng Lv, Yue Zhong, Ye Xu
M2 tumor-associated macrophage has been found to play a supportive role in the progression of glioma. The underlying mechanism, nevertheless, has been largely unknown. In our study, to investigate how M2 macrophage played role in glioma, firstly we've analyzed the clinicopathological significance of M2 macrophage existence on clinical tissues of glioma using detection of CD163 expression with immunohistochemistry. Then, we've artificially induced M2 macrophage from human monocyte cell line THP-1, followed by co-culture with glioma cell lines in vitro...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
P Han, X R Niu, X Y Du, Z C Chen, Y Xu, Y Cheng, Y Gao, Q Zhang, M Xu
Cochlear implant (CI) is an artificial electronic device which can provide a sense of sound to a patient with severe or profound hearing loss. Pathological changes have been observed after CI surgery, which might influence the effectiveness of the CI procedure. In this review, we divided the postoperative pathological changes of the temporal bone into two categories according to different stages: immediate trauma and delayed side effects. Immediate trauma might arise from traumatic insertion of the electrode during CI surgery, which included trauma at cochleostomy site, lateral wall trauma, basilar membrane injury, osseous lamina fracture and modiolar injury...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Yoon Kim, Amin Tamadon, Seung-Yup Ku
In vitro culture of ovarian follicles is a promising bioengineering technique for preserving fecundity in reproductive age female by providing fertilizable oocytes. Successful clinical application should be preceded by developing the protocols that can efficiently overcome follicular cell apoptosis since the apoptosis is a critical phenomenon in in vivo folliculogenesis and in in vitro follicular maturation. Numerous pro-survival and anti-apoptotic molecules including follicular developmental regulators have been reported to be involved in the intra-ovarian apoptosis...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Z Riedelová-Reicheltová, E Brynda, T Riedel
Fibrin is a versatile biopolymer that has been extensively used in tissue engineering. In this paper fibrin nanostructures prepared using a technique based on the catalytic effect of fibrin-bound thrombin are presented. This technique enables surface-attached thin fibrin networks to form with precisely regulated morphology without the development of fibrin gel in bulk solution. Moreover, the influence of changing the polymerization time, along with the antithrombin III and heparin concentrations on the morphology of fibrin nanostructures was explored...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Jelmer Sjollema, Heidrun Keul, Henny van der Mei, René Dijkstra, Minie Rustema-Abbing, Joop de Vries, Ton Loontjens, Ton Dirks, Henk Busscher
Various potential anti-infection strategies can be thought of for biomaterial implants and devices. Permanent, tissue-integrated implants such as artificial joint prostheses require a different anti-infection strategy than, for instance, removable urinary catheters. The different requirements set to biomaterials implants and devices in different clinical applications call for tailor-made strategies. Here, a modular coating-concept for biomaterials is reported, which in its full, trifunctional form comprises nonadhesiveness to bacteria and antimicrobial release, combined with enhanced tissue integration characteristics...
October 19, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Takanobu Inoue, Atsuo Iida, Shingo Maegawa, Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa, Masato Kinoshita
In this study, we verified nuclear transport activity of an artificial nuclear localization signal (aNLS) in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). We generated a transgenic medaka strain expresses the aNLS tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by a medaka beta-actin promoter. The aNLS-EGFP was accumulated in the nuclei of somatic tissues and yolk nuclei of oocytes, but undetectable in the spermatozoa. The fluorescent signal was observed from immediately after fertilization by a maternal contribution...
October 19, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Peter A Lioufas, Michelle R Quayle, James C Leong, Paul G McMenamin
: To explore the potential viability and limitations of 3D printed models of children with cleft palate deformity. BACKGROUND: The advantages of 3D printed replicas of normal anatomical specimens have previously been described. The creation of 3D prints displaying patient-specific anatomical pathology for surgical planning and interventions is an emerging field. Here we explored the possibility of taking rare pediatric radiographic data sets to create 3D prints for surgical education...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Yujia Zhou, Gesheng Wang, Jialin Liu, Yong Du, Lei Wang, Xiaoyong Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of medical adhesive glue for tension-reduced duraplasty in decompressive craniotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 56 cases were enrolled for this study from Jan 2013 to May 2015. All patients underwent decompressive craniotomy and the dura was repaired in all of them with tension-reduced duraplasty using the COMPONT medical adhesive to glue artificial dura together. The postoperative complications and the healing of dura mater were observed and recorded...
October 14, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
O V Kim, R I Litvinov, J Chen, D Z Chen, J W Weisel, M S Alber
Fibrin and collagen as well as their combinations play an important biological role in tissue regeneration and are widely employed in surgery as fleeces or sealants and in bioengineering as tissue scaffolds. Earlier studies demonstrated that fibrin-collagen composite networks displayed improved tensile mechanical properties compared to the isolated protein matrices. Unlike previous studies, here unconfined compression was applied to a fibrin-collagen filamentous polymer composite matrix to study its structural and mechanical responses to compressive deformation...
October 14, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Miyuki Omori, Yuji Sato, Noboru Kitagawa, Yuta Shimura, Manabu Ito
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) is effective in analyzing stress distributions around dental implants. However, FEA of living tissue involves many conditions, and the structures and behaviors are complex; thus, it is difficult to ensure the validity of the results. To verify reproducibility and validity, we embedded implants in experimental models and constructed FEA models; implant displacements were compared under various loading conditions. METHODS: Implants were embedded in the molar regions of artificial mandibles to fabricate three experimental models...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Dae Young Yoo, Dae Won Kim, Jin Young Chung, Hyo Young Jung, Jong Whi Kim, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang, Jung Hoon Choi, Goang-Min Choi, Soo Young Choi, Seung Myung Moon
In the present study, we investigated the ability of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) to improve the therapeutic potential of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) against ischemic damage in the spinal cord. Animals were divided into four groups: the control group, vehicle (PEP-1 peptide and artificial cerebrospinal fluid)-treated group, Ad-MSC alone group, and Ad-MSC-treated group with PEP-1-SOD1. The abdominal aorta of the rabbit was occluded for 30 min in the subrenal region to induce ischemic damage, and immediately after reperfusion, artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Ad-MSCs (2 × 10(5)) were administered intrathecally...
October 14, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Dimitrios Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios Strakas, Eugenia Koliniotou-Koumpia, Effimia Koumpia
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of using Er,Cr:YSGG laser during in-office tooth bleaching on bovine enamel surface to evaluate the safety of this therapy on tooth tissues. Thirty-six enamel specimens were prepared from bovine incisors and divided into three groups: Group 1 specimens (control) received no bleaching treatment; Group 2 received a conventional in-office bleaching treatment (40 % H2O2); Group 3 received laser-assisted bleaching procedure (40 % H2O2) utilizing an Er,Cr:YSGG laser...
October 14, 2016: Odontology
Kevin Enck, John Patrick McQuilling, Giuseppe Orlando, Riccardo Tamburrini, Sittadjody Sivanandane, Emmanuel C Opara
Islet transplantation (IT) has recently been shown to be a promising alternative to pancreas transplantation for reversing diabetes. IT requires the isolation of the islets from the pancreas, and these islets can be used to fabricate a bio-artificial pancreas. Enzymatic digestion is the current gold standard procedure for islet isolation but has lingering concerns. One such concern is that it has been shown to damage the islets due to nonselective tissue digestion. This chapter provides a detailed description of a nonenzymatic method that we are exploring in our lab as an alternative to current enzymatic digestion procedures for islet isolation from human and nonhuman pancreatic tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Cheng Zhong, Hai-Yang Xie, Lin Zhou, Xiao Xu, Shu-Sen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Because of an increasing discrepancy between the number of potential liver graft recipients and the number of organs available, scientists are trying to create artificial liver to mimic normal liver function and therefore, to support the patient's liver when in dysfunction. 3D printing technique meets this purpose. The present study was to test the feasibility of 3D hydrogel scaffolds for liver engineering. METHODS: We fabricated 3D hydrogel scaffolds with a bioprinter...
October 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Stefan Thiem, Moritz F Eissmann, Emma Stuart, Joachim Elzer, Anna Jonas, Michael Buchert, Matthias Ernst
Temporal and spatial regulation of genes mediated by tissue-specific promoters and conditional gene expression systems provide a powerful tool to study gene function in health, disease and during development. Although transgenic mice expressing the Cre recombinase in the gastric epithelium have been reported, there is a lack of models that allow inducible and reversible gene modification in the stomach. Here, we exploited the gastrointestinal epithelium-specific expression pattern of the three trefoil factor (Tff) genes and bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis to generate a novel mouse strain that expresses the CreERT2 recombinase and the reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA)...
October 12, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Nanying Li, Juqing Song, Guanglin Zhu, Xiaoyu Li, Lei Liu, Xuetao Shi, Yingjun Wang
As always, the clinical therapy of critical size bone defects caused by trauma, tumor removal surgery or congenital malformation is facing great challenges. Currently, various approaches including autograft, allograft and cell-biomaterial composite based tissue-engineering strategies have been implemented to reconstruct injured bone. However, due to damage during the transplantation processes or design negligence of the bionic scaffolds, these methods expose vulnerabilities without the assistance of periosteum, a bilayer membrane on the outer surface of the bone...
October 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
P Zarzosa, N Navarro, I Giralt, C Molist, A Almazán-Moga, I Vidal, A Soriano, M F Segura, R Hladun, A Villanueva, S Gallego, J Roma
The use of preclinical models is essential in translational cancer research and especially important in pediatric cancer given the low incidence of each particular type of cancer. Cell line cultures have led to significant advances in cancer biology. However, cell lines have adapted to growth in artificial culture conditions, thereby undergoing genetic and phenotypic changes which may hinder the translational application. Tumor grafts developed in mice from patient tumor tissues, generally known as patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), are interesting alternative approaches to reproducing the biology of the original tumor...
October 7, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Pengfei Zhang, Marc Behl, Xingzhou Peng, Muhammad Yasar Razzaq, Andreas Lendlein
Inspired by the application of ultrasonic cavitation based mechanical force (CMF) to open small channels in natural soft materials (skin or tissue), it is explored whether an artificial polymer network can be created, in which shape-changes can be induced by CMF. This concept comprises an interconnected macroporous rhodium-phosphine (Rh-P) coordination polymer network, in which a CMF can reversibly dissociate the Rh-P microphases. In this way, the ligand exchange of Rh-P coordination bonds in the polymer network is accelerated, resulting in a topological rearrangement of molecular switches...
September 26, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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