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Hong Gun Kim, Yong Sun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac, Su-Hyeong Chae, Hye Kyoung Shin
Carbon foams were prepared by carbonization of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/waste artificial marble powder (WAMP) composites obtained via electron beam irradiation (EBI); these composites were prepared by mixing eco-friendly CMC with WAMP as the fillers for improved their poor mechanical strength. Gel fractions of the CMC/WAMP composites obtained at various EBI doses were investigated, and it was found that the CMC/WAMP composites obtained at an EBI dose of 80 kGy showed the highest gel fraction (95%); hence, the composite prepared at this dose was selected for preparing the carbon foam...
March 22, 2018: Materials
Thomas Maier, Daniel Meister, Severin Trösch, Jon Peter Wehrlin
Shooting in biathlon competitions substantially influences final rankings, but the predictability of hits and misses is unknown. The aims of the current study were A) to explore factors influencing biathlon shooting performance and B) to predict future hits and misses. We explored data from 118,300 shots from 4 seasons and trained various machine learning models before predicting 34,340 future shots (in the subsequent season). A) Lower hit rates were discovered in the sprint and pursuit disciplines compared to individual and mass start (P < 0...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Matthaeus Schwarz-Schilling, Aurore Dupin, Fabio Chizzolini, Swati Krishnan, Sheref Mansy, Friedrich C Simmel
Molecular complexes composed of RNA molecules and proteins are promising multifunctional nanostructures for a wide variety of applications in biological cells or in artificial cellular systems. In this study, we systematically address some of the challenges associated with the expression and assembly of such hybrid structures using cell-free gene expression systems. As a model structure, we investigated a pRNA-derived RNA scaffold functionalized with four distinct aptamers, three of which bind to proteins - streptavidin and two fluorescent proteins - while one binds the small molecule dye malachite green (MG)...
March 22, 2018: Nano Letters
Azadeh Ahmadi, Zahra Fatemi, Sara Nazari
Using the multivariate statistical methods, this study interprets a set of data containing 23 water quality parameters from 10 quality monitoring stations in Karkheh River located in southwest of Iran over 5 years. According to cluster analysis, the stations are classified into three classes of quality, and the most important factors on the whole set of parameters and each class are determined by the help of factor analysis. The results indicate the effects of natural factors, soil weathering and erosion, urban and human wastewater, agricultural and industrial wastewater on water quality at different levels and any location...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
U Hassan, R Zhu, R Bashir
Sepsis, as a leading cause of death worldwide, relies on systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria for its diagnosis. SIRS is highly non-specific as it relies on monitoring of patients' vitals for sepsis diagnosis, which are known to change with many confounding factors. Changes in leukocyte counts and CD64 expression levels are known specific biomarkers of pro-inflammatory host response at the onset of sepsis. Recently, we have developed a biosensor chip that can enumerate the leukocyte counts and quantify the neutrophil CD64 expression levels from a drop of blood...
March 22, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Jiangjiexing Wu, Sirong Li, Hui Wei
Nanozymes have been viewed as the next generation of artificial enzymes due to their low cost, large specific surface area, and good robustness under extreme conditions. However, the moderate activity and limited selectivity of nanozymes have impeded their usage. To overcome these shortcomings, integrated nanozymes (INAzymes) have been developed by encapsulating two or more different biocatalysts (e.g., natural oxidases and peroxidase mimics) together within confined frameworks. On the one hand, with the assistance of natural enzymes, INAzymes are capable of specifically recognizing targets...
March 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Alessandra Vecchione, Francesco Celandroni, Diletta Mazzantini, Sonia Senesi, Antonella Lupetti, Emilia Ghelardi
Recent guidelines indicate that oral probiotics, living microorganisms able to confer a health benefit on the host, should be safe for human consumption, when administered in a sufficient amount, and resist acid and bile to exert their beneficial effects (e.g., metabolic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, competitive). This study evaluated quantitative and qualitative aspects and the viability in simulated gastric and intestinal juices of commercial probiotic formulations available in Italy. Plate counting and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used to enumerate and identify the contained organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
John Gliatis, Konstantinos Anagnostou, Pantelis Tsoumpos, Evdokia Billis, Maria Papandreou, Spyridon Plessas
AIM: To present the long-term results of complex knee injuries, treated early using the Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System (LARS) artificial ligament to reconstruct posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). METHODS: From September 1997 to June 2010, thirty-eight complex knee injuries were treated, where early arthroscopic PCL reconstructions were undergone, using the LARS (Surgical Implants and Devices, Arc-sur-Tille, France) artificial ligament. Exclusion criteria were: Late (> 4 wk) reconstruction, open technique, isolated PCL reconstruction, knee degenerative disease, combined fracture or vascular injury and use of allograft or autograft for PCL reconstruction...
March 18, 2018: World Journal of Orthopedics
Jeong Hee Lee, Eung Do Kim, Eun Jung Jun, Hyoung Sun Yoo, Joon Woo Lee
Background: The purpose of this paper is to provide technology trends and information regarding market and prospects in stents used for human blood vessels in Korea and the world.A stent is a medical device in the form of a cylindrical metal net used to normalize flow when blood or other bodily fluids such as biliary fluids are obstructed in blood vessels, gastrointestinal tracts, etc. by inserting the stent into a narrowed or clogged area. Stents are classified into vascular and non-vascular stents...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Antonio José Mateo Orobia, Jorge Saa, Alberto Ollero Lorenzo, José María Herreras
Background: Dry Eye Disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease, with a high prevalence, that can have a great impact on the quality of life of patients. The first step of treatment includes the use of lacrimal substitutes composed of polymers, possible to associate osmoprotectant agents to the lacrimal substitutes. The aim of this article is to analyze the properties of the combination of hyaluronic acid (HA), carmellose, and osmoprotectors (Optava Fusion® ; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) on DED...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
L R Brewster, J J Dale, T L Guttridge, S H Gruber, A C Hansell, M Elliott, I G Cowx, N M Whitney, A C Gleiss
Discerning behaviours of free-ranging animals allows for quantification of their activity budget, providing important insight into ecology. Over recent years, accelerometers have been used to unveil the cryptic lives of animals. The increased ability of accelerometers to store large quantities of high resolution data has prompted a need for automated behavioural classification. We assessed the performance of several machine learning (ML) classifiers to discern five behaviours performed by accelerometer-equipped juvenile lemon sharks ( Negaprion brevirostris ) at Bimini, Bahamas (25°44'N, 79°16'W)...
2018: Marine Biology
Dalibor Pacik, Mariana Plevova, Lucie Urbanova, Zuzana Lackova, Vladislav Strmiska, Alois Necas, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam
The hypothesis that dogs can detect malignant tumours through the identification of specific molecules is nearly 30 years old. To date, several reports have described the successful detection of distinct types of cancer. However, is still a lack of data regarding the specific molecules that can be recognized by a dog's olfactory apparatus. Hence, we performed a study with artificially prepared, well-characterized urinary specimens that were enriched with sarcosine, a widely reported urinary biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa)...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tanai Cardona, Shengxi Shao, Peter J Nixon
In this review, we highlight recent research and current ideas on how to improve the efficiency of the light reactions of photosynthesis in crops. We note that the efficiency of photosynthesis is a balance between how much energy is used for growth and the energy wasted or spent protecting the photosynthetic machinery from photodamage. There are reasons to be optimistic about enhancing photosynthetic efficiency, but many appealing ideas are still on the drawing board. It is envisioned that the crops of the future will be extensively genetically modified to tailor them to specific natural or artificial environmental conditions...
March 21, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
Souta Motoike, Mikihito Kajiya, Nao Komatsu, Manabu Takewaki, Susumu Horikoshi, Shinji Matsuda, Kazuhisa Ouhara, Tomoyuki Iwata, Katsuhiro Takeda, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Hidemi Kurihara
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) cultured clumps of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)/extracellular matrix (ECM) complexes (C-MSCs) consist of cells and self-produced ECM. C-MSCs can regulate cellular functions in vitro and can be grafted into a defect site without an artificial scaffold to induce bone regeneration. Long-term cryopreservation of C-MSCs, which can enable them to serve as a ready-to-use cell preparation, may be helpful in developing beneficial cell therapy for bone regeneration...
March 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jenny Peng, Niels Rochow, Mohammadhossein Dabaghi, Radenka Bozanovic, Jan Jansen, Dragos Predescu, Bryon DeFrance, Sau-Young Lee, Gerhard Fusch, Ponnambalam Ravi Selvaganapathy, Christoph Fusch
INTRODUCTION: A lung assist device, which acts as an artificial placenta, can provide additional gas exchange for preterm and term newborns with respiratory failure. The concept of the lung assist device requires a large bore access via umbilical vessels to allow pumpless extracorporeal blood flow rates up to 30 mL/kg/min. After birth, constricted umbilical vessels need to be reopened for vascular access. The objective is to study the impact of umbilical vessel expansion on vessel integrity for achieving large bore access...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Bruna Facinelli, Emanuela Marini, Gloria Magi, Lucia Zampini, Lucia Santoro, Carlo Catassi, Chiara Monachesi, Orazio Gabrielli, Giovanni V Coppa
BACKGROUND: It is well known that human milk oligosaccharides play an important role as prebiotics, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infective agents. In the last few years, several studies have been performed using specific oligosaccharides, such as 2'-fucosyllactose and 6'-sialylactose, to evaluate their biological functions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-adhesive effect of the above oligosaccharides on Escherichia coli and Salmonella fyris...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Fabrizia Caiazzo, Alessandra Caggiano
Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio...
March 19, 2018: Materials
N Sharma, P W Hunt, B C Hine, N K Sharma, A Chung, R A Swick, I Ruhnke
A study was conducted to determine the performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of laying hens exposed to ranges contaminated with Ascaridia galli. Sixteen-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) were divided into 4 treatments with 5 replicates containing 10 hens per pen. Hens of treatment 1 [negative control (NC)] ranged on a decontaminated area, and hens of treatments 2 (low infection) and 3 (medium infection) ranged on areas previously contaminated by hens artificially infected with 250 and 1,000 embryonated A...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Ling Han, Ruixiang Zheng, Michele R Richards, Ming Tan, Elena N Kitova, Xi Jiang, John S Klassen
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis. Many HuNoVs recognize histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as cellular receptors or attachment factors for infection. It was recently proposed that HuNoV recognition of HBGAs involves a cooperative, multistep binding mechanism that exploits both known and, previously, unknown glycan binding sites. In this study, binding measurements, implemented using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), were performed on homodimers of the protruding domain (P dimers) of the capsid protein of three HuNoV strains [Saga (GII...
March 19, 2018: Glycobiology
Elena Boto, Niall Holmes, James Leggett, Gillian Roberts, Vishal Shah, Sofie S Meyer, Leonardo Duque Muñoz, Karen J Mullinger, Tim M Tierney, Sven Bestmann, Gareth R Barnes, Richard Bowtell, Matthew J Brookes
Imaging human brain function with techniques such as magnetoencephalography typically requires a subject to perform tasks while their head remains still within a restrictive scanner. This artificial environment makes the technique inaccessible to many people, and limits the experimental questions that can be addressed. For example, it has been difficult to apply neuroimaging to investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive development in babies and children, or to study processes in adults that require unconstrained head movement (such as spatial navigation)...
March 21, 2018: Nature
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