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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813055/multivesicular-droplets-a-cell-model-system-to-study-compartmentalised-biochemical-reactions
#1
N Nuti, P E Verboket, P S Dittrich
Multivesicular vesicles (MVVs) are artificial liposomal structures widely used as a platform to study the compartmentalisation of cells and as a scaffold for artificial cell/protocell models. Current preparation techniques for MVVs, however, offer poor control on the size, lamellarity, and loading of inner lipid vesicles. Here, we introduce a microfluidic device for the production of multivesicular droplets (MVDs): a novel model system combining the ease of use and control of droplet microfluidics with the biological relevance of MVVs...
August 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812983/a-microfluidic-platform-for-modeling-metastatic-cancer-cell-matrix-invasion
#2
Laura Blaha, Chentian Zhang, Mario Cabodi, Joyce Y Wong
Invasion of the extracellular matrix is a critical step in the colonization of metastatic tumors. The invasion process is thought to be driven by both chemokine signaling and interactions between invading cancer cells and physical components of the metastatic niche, including endothelial cells that line capillary walls and serve as a barrier to both diffusion and invasion of the underlying tissue. Transwell chambers, a tool for generating artificial chemokine gradients to induce cell migration, have facilitated recent work to investigate the chemokine contributions to matrix invasion...
August 16, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812881/predicting-microbial-fuel-cell-biofilm-communities-and-bioreactor-performance-using-artificial-neural-networks
#3
Keaton Larson Lesnik, Hong Liu
The complex interactions that occur in mixed-species bioelectrochemical reactors, like microbial fuel cells (MFCs), make accurate predictions of performance outcomes under untested conditions difficult. While direct correlations between any individual waste stream characteristic or microbial community structure and reactor performance have not been able to be directly established, the increase in sequencing data and readily available computational power enables the development of alternate approaches. In the current study, 33 MFCs were evaluated under a range of conditions including 8 separate substrates and 3 different wastewaters...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812673/craniofacial-diversification-in-the-domestic-pigeon-and-the-evolution-of-the-avian-skull
#4
Nathan M Young, Marta Linde-Medina, John W Fondon, Benedikt Hallgrímsson, Ralph S Marcucio
A central question in evolutionary developmental biology is how highly conserved developmental systems can generate the remarkable phenotypic diversity observed among distantly related species. In part, this paradox reflects our limited knowledge about the potential for species to both respond to selection and generate novel variation. Consequently, the developmental links between small-scale microevolutionary variations within populations to larger macroevolutionary patterns among species remain unbridged...
March 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812204/multivariable-adaptive-artificial-pancreas-system-in-type-1-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Ali Cinar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes the current state of the artificial pancreas (AP) systems and introduces various new modules that should be included in future AP systems. RECENT FINDINGS: A fully automated AP must be able to detect and mitigate the effects of meals, exercise, stress and sleep on blood glucose concentrations. This can only be achieved by using a multivariable approach that leverages information from wearable devices that provide real-time streaming data about various physiological variables that indicate imminent changes in blood glucose concentrations caused by meals, exercise, stress and sleep...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812178/sludge-quantification-at-water-treatment-plant-and-its-management-scenario
#6
Tarique Ahmad, Kafeel Ahmad, Mehtab Alam
Large volume of sludge is generated at the water treatment plants during the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Handling and disposal of sludge require careful attention from civic bodies, plant operators, and environmentalists. Quantification of the sludge produced at the treatment plants is important to develop suitable management strategies for its economical and environment friendly disposal. Present study deals with the quantification of sludge using empirical relation between turbidity, suspended solids, and coagulant dosing...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812147/can-polyp-detection-rate-be-used-prospectively-as-a-marker-of-adenoma-detection-rate
#7
Brent Murchie, Kanwarpreet Tandon, Shamiq Zackria, Steven D Wexner, Colin O'Rourke, Fernando J Castro
BACKGROUND: Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a quality indicator for screening colonoscopy, but its calculation is time-consuming. Polyp detection rate (PDR) has been found to correlate with ADR; however, its use as a quality indicator has been criticized out of concern for endoscopists artificially inflating the PDR. We aim to evaluate whether active monitoring affects PDR. METHODS: In March 2015, 14 endoscopists were made aware that their personal PDRs would be tracked monthly as a quality improvement project...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812040/effect-of-changes-in-artificial-turf-on-sports-injuries-in-male-university-soccer-players
#8
Kohei Fujitaka, Akira Taniguchi, Tsukasa Kumai, Shingo Otuki, Mamoru Okubo, Yasuhito Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Studies comparing the types and severity of trauma and injuries caused by different types of field surfaces have been conducted. However, there have been no studies on sports injuries caused by temporal deterioration of long-pile artificial turf fields and related decreases in the rubber chip and silica sand infill. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of an artificial turf field on sports injuries in a university soccer team. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiological study...
August 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811818/prototype-generation-using-self-organizing-maps-for-informativeness-based-classifier
#9
Leandro Juvêncio Moreira, Leandro A Silva
The k nearest neighbor is one of the most important and simple procedures for data classification task. The kNN, as it is called, requires only two parameters: the number of k and a similarity measure. However, the algorithm has some weaknesses that make it impossible to be used in real problems. Since the algorithm has no model, an exhaustive comparison of the object in classification analysis and all training dataset is necessary. Another weakness is the optimal choice of k parameter when the object analyzed is in an overlap region...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811680/the-antimicrobial-peptide-human-beta-defensin-3-is-induced-by-platelet-released-growth-factors-in-primary-keratinocytes
#10
Andreas Bayer, Justus Lammel, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Sebastian Lippross, Peter Behrendt, Tim Klüter, Thomas Pufe, Jochen Cremer, Holger Jahr, Franziska Rademacher, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF®)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811598/effects-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-on-megaselia-scalaris-lowe-diptera-phoridae-and-its-microbial-community
#11
Marcus J Pennington, Jason A Rothman, Michael B Jones, Quinn S McFrederick, Jay Gan, John T Trumble
Drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations are increasing water demands. Many countries are extending potable water supplies by irrigating crops with wastewater. Unfortunately, wastewater contains biologically active, long-lived pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Run-off from farms and wastewater treatment plant overflows contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on a cosmopolitan saprophagous insect, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811586/modulating-sound-with-acoustic-metafiber-bundles
#12
Jian-Ping Xia, Hong-Xiang Sun, Shou-Qi Yuan
Acoustic metamaterials and metasurfaces provide great flexibility for manipulating sound waves and promise unprecedented functionality, ranging from transformation acoustics, acoustic cloaking, acoustic imaging to acoustic rerouting. However, the design of artificial structures with both broad bandwidth and multifunctionality remains challenging with traditional design approaches. Here we present a design and realization of a broadband acoustic metafiber bundle. Very different from previously reported acoustic metamaterials and metasurfaces, not only the metafiber structure is simple, flexible and tunable, but also the metafiber bundle has the advantages of broad bandwidth, high transmission, no resonance-induced energy loss and unchangeable output wavefront owing to eigenmodes in the passbands of the metafiber...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811368/fluctuation-spectra-and-force-generation-in-nonequilibrium-systems
#13
Alpha A Lee, Dominic Vella, John S Wettlaufer
Many biological systems are appropriately viewed as passive inclusions immersed in an active bath: from proteins on active membranes to microscopic swimmers confined by boundaries. The nonequilibrium forces exerted by the active bath on the inclusions or boundaries often regulate function, and such forces may also be exploited in artificial active materials. Nonetheless, the general phenomenology of these active forces remains elusive. We show that the fluctuation spectrum of the active medium, the partitioning of energy as a function of wavenumber, controls the phenomenology of force generation...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811095/can-the-optimum-artificial-tear-treatment-for-dry-eye-disease-be-predicted-from-presenting-signs-and-symptoms
#14
Laika Essa, Deborah Laughton, James S Wolffsohn
PURPOSE: To assess dry eye treatment with four preservative-free dry eye artificial tear treatments to facilitate evidence-based prescribing. METHODS: A randomised, single masked crossover trial of Clinitas Soothe, Hyabak, Tears Again and TheraTears artificial tears was conducted on 50 symptomatic dry eye patients, aged 60.8±14.2years. At baseline and after trialling each treatment for 4 weeks, signs and symptoms were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), non-invasive tear break-up time, fluorescein tear break-up time, tear meniscus height (TMH), Phenol Red test, lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF), ocular surface staining, and lipid layer grading and osmolarity (baseline visit only)...
August 12, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811038/fast-and-robust-online-adaptive-planning-in-stereotactic-mr-guided-adaptive-radiation-therapy-smart-for-pancreatic-cancer
#15
O Bohoudi, A M E Bruynzeel, S Senan, J P Cuijpers, B J Slotman, F J Lagerwaard, M A Palacios
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To implement a robust and fast stereotactic MR-guided adaptive radiation therapy (SMART) online strategy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: SMART strategy for plan adaptation was implemented with the MRIdian system (ViewRay Inc.). At each fraction, OAR (re-)contouring is done within a distance of 3cm from the PTV surface. Online plan re-optimization is based on robust prediction of OAR dose and optimization objectives, obtained by building an artificial neural network (ANN)...
August 12, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810830/annotating-long-intergenic-non-coding-rnas-under-artificial-selection-during-chicken-domestication
#16
Yun-Mei Wang, Hai-Bo Xu, Ming-Shan Wang, Newton Otieno Otecko, Ling-Qun Ye, Dong-Dong Wu, Ya-Ping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Numerous biological functions of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified. However, the contribution of lincRNAs to the domestication process has remained elusive. Following domestication from their wild ancestors, animals display substantial changes in many phenotypic traits. Therefore, it is possible that diverse molecular drivers play important roles in this process. RESULTS: We analyzed 821 transcriptomes in this study and annotated 4754 lincRNA genes in the chicken genome...
August 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810826/improving-fold-resistance-prediction-of-hiv-1-against-protease-and-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-using-artificial-neural-networks
#17
Olivier Sheik Amamuddy, Nigel T Bishop, Özlem Tastan Bishop
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in HIV treatment is still a worldwide problem. Predicting resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) before starting any treatment is important. Prediction accuracy is essential, as low-accuracy predictions increase the risk of prescribing sub-optimal drug regimens leading to patients developing resistance sooner. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a powerful tool that would be able to assist in drug resistance prediction. In this study, we constrained the dataset to subtype B, sacrificing generalizability for a higher predictive performance, and demonstrated that the predictive quality of the ANN regression models have definite improvement for most ARVs...
August 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810781/projected-coupled-cluster-theory
#18
Yiheng Qiu, Thomas M Henderson, Jinmo Zhao, Gustavo E Scuseria
Coupled cluster theory is the method of choice for weakly correlated systems. But in the strongly correlated regime, it faces a symmetry dilemma, where it either completely fails to describe the system or has to artificially break certain symmetries. On the other hand, projected Hartree-Fock theory captures the essential physics of many kinds of strong correlations via symmetry breaking and restoration. In this work, we combine and try to retain the merits of these two methods by applying symmetry projection to broken symmetry coupled cluster wave functions...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810527/icariin-combined-with-snailase-shows-improved-intestinal-hydrolysis-and-absorption-in-osteoporosis-rats
#19
Congyan Liu, Xia Gao, Yuping Liu, Mengmeng Huang, Ding Qu, Yan Chen
Icariin has a significant anti-osteoporotic activity, but its clinical application is limited due to a poor oral bioavailability especially under pathological conditions like osteoporosis. Based on the intestinal absorption and metabolism characteristics of icariin in the osteoporosis rats, a kind of simple enteric capsules containing icariin and snailase was designed to overcome this issue in this study. Snailase was secleted as the most efficient exogenous hydrolase of icariin and the related hydrolysis reaction parameters were optimized in the artificial intestinal liquid...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810440/nature-relatedness-is-connected-with-modern-health-worries-and-electromagnetic-hypersensitivity
#20
Zsuzsanna Dömötör, Renáta Szemerszky, Ferenc Köteles
Although nature relatedness is considered a positive characteristic, its relationship to constructs involving worries about the negative effects of artificial environmental factors is also feasible. A questionnaire assessing modern health worries, electrosensitivity, somatosensory amplification, spirituality, and nature relatedness was completed by 510 individuals. Nature relatedness was related to electrosensitivity, modern health worries, and spirituality. In a binary logistic regression analysis, somatosensory amplification, modern health worries, and nature relatedness were associated with electrosensitivity, and nature relatedness moderated the connection between modern health worries and electrosensitivity...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
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