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Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Vívian T Martins, Daniela P Lage, Lourena E Costa, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Fernanda F Ramos, Thaís T O Santos, Fernanda Ludolf, Jamil S Oliveira, Tiago A O Mendes, Eduardo S Silva, Alexsandro S Galdino, Mariana C Duarte, Bruno M Roatt, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Antonio L Teixeira, Eduardo A F Coelho
Vaccination seems to be the best approach to control visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Resistance against infection is based on the development of a Th1 immune response characterized by the production of interferons-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12), granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), among others. A number of antigens have been tested as potential targets against the disease; few of them are able to stimulate human immune cells. In the present study, 1 prediction of MHC class I and II molecules-specific epitopes in the amino acid sequences of 3 Leishmania proteins: 1 hypothetical, prohibitin, and small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing proteins, was performed using bioinformatics tools, and a T-cell epitopes-based recombinant chimeric protein was constructed, synthetized and purified to be evaluated in invitro and in vivo experiments...
May 22, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
William F Regine, Kathryn Winter, Ross A Abrams, Howard Safran, Ivan L Kessel, Yuhchyau Chen, James A Fugazzi, Eric D Donnelly, Thomas A DiPetrillo, Samir Narayan, John P Plastaras, Rakesh Gaur, Guila Delouya, John H Suh, Joshua E Meyer, Michael G Haddock, Mukund S Didolkar, Gilbert D A Padula, David Johnson, John P Hoffman, Christopher H Crane
Purpose: NRG Oncology RTOG 9704 was the first adjuvant trial to validate the prognostic value of postresection CA19-9 levels for survival in patients with pancreatic carcinoma. The data resulting from this study also provide information about predictors of recurrence that may be used to tailor individualized management in this disease setting. This secondary analysis assessed the prognostic value of postresection CA19-9 and surgical margin status (SMS) in predicting patterns of disease recurrence...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Simone Krebs, Afruja Ahad, Lukas Carter, Justin Eyquem, Christian Brand, Meghan Bell, Vladimir Ponomarev, Thomas Reiner, Claude F Meares, Stephen Gottschalk, Michel Sadelain, Steven M Larson, Wolfgang Andreas Weber
There remains an urgent need for the non-invasive tracking of transfused chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to determine their biodistribution, viability, expansion, and anti-tumor functionality. 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) antibody reporter 1 (DAbR1) comprises a single-chain fragment of the anti-lanthanoid-DOTA antibody 2D12.5/G54C fused to the human CD4-transmembrane domain and binds irreversibly to lanthanoid-(S)-2-(4-acrylamidobenzyl)-DOTA (AABD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether DAbR1 can be expressed on lymphocytes and used as a reporter gene as well as a suicide gene for therapy of immune-related adverse effects...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Miao Zhang, Zhirong Zhou, Lei Zheng, Shaobin Lin
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the concentration of 34 kinds of elements in drinking water in Beijing. METHODS: From September 15 th to 20 th, 2016, 92 families from four directions in Beijing urban area were randomly selected and drinking water from them were collected. In 24 of the 92 families, water samples were also collected from water treatment devices. The concentrations of 17 kinds of elements were determined then evaluated. RESULTS: The concentration of 17 kinds of elements meet the hygiene standards of drinking water in all of the drinking water samples except that the iron and mercury concentration of one sample exceed the quality limits...
September 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Erica K Low, Egil Brudvik, Bradford Mitchell Kuhlman, Paul F Wilson, Graca M Almeida-Porada, Christopher D Porada
Astronauts on missions beyond low-Earth orbit are exposed to a hostile environment in which they are continually bombarded with unique high-energy species of radiation, while in conditions of microgravity (G), which can alter radiation response and immunity. In the present studies, we examined the impact exposing human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC) to μG had upon their capacity to repair DNA damage and their ability to generate immune cells critical for mounting an effective anti-tumor response...
June 14, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Matthew J Atherton, Kyle B Stephenson, Fanny Tzelepis, David Bakhshinyan, Jake K Nikota, Hwan Hee Son, Anna Jirovec, Charles Lefebvre, Anna Dvorkin-Gheva, Ali A Ashkar, Yonghong Wan, David F Stojdl, Eric C Belanger, Rodney H Breau, John C Bell, Fred Saad, Sheila K Singh, Jean-Simone Diallo, Brian D Lichty
Prostate cancer (PCa) was estimated to have the second highest global incidence rate for male non-skin tumors and is the fifth most deadly in men thus mandating the need for novel treatment options. MG1-Maraba is a potent and versatile oncolytic virus capable of lethally infecting a variety of prostatic tumor cell lines alongside primary PCa biopsies and exerts direct oncolytic effects against large TRAMP-C2 tumors in vivo . An oncolytic immunotherapeutic strategy utilizing a priming vaccine and intravenously administered MG1-Maraba both expressing the human six-transmembrane antigen of the prostate (STEAP) protein generated specific CD8+ T-cell responses against multiple STEAP epitopes and resulted in functional breach of tolerance...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Moon H Nahm, Jigui Yu, Hailey P Weerts, Heather Wenzel, Chitradevi S Tamilselvi, Lakshmi Chandrasekaran, Marcela F Pasetti, Sachin Mani, Robert W Kaminski
Shigella is an important cause of diarrhea worldwide, with serotypes Shigella flexneri 2a, S. flexneri 3a, and Shigella sonnei demonstrating epidemiological prevalence. Many development efforts are focused on Shigella lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based vaccines, as O antigen-specific conjugate vaccines are immunogenic and efficacious. Immunization with Shigella vaccines containing LPS can elicit antibodies capable of killing Shigella in a serotype-specific manner. Thus, to facilitate Shigella vaccine development, we have developed a serum bactericidal assay (SBA) specific for three Shigella serotypes that measures killing of target bacteria at multiple serum dilutions and in the presence of exogenous complement...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Rosemary E Morman, Patrick G Schweickert, Stephen F Konieczny, Elizabeth J Taparowsky
BATF functions in T cells and B cells to control the host response to antigen and promote the production of class switched immunoglobulins. In this study, we demonstrate that BATF expression increases rapidly, and transiently, following B cell stimulation and use an inducible murine model of BATF deletion to show that this induction is necessary, and sufficient, for immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR). We examine two genes (Nfil3 and miR155gh) that are positively regulated, and one gene (Wnt10a) that is negatively regulated by BATF during CSR...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
João F Gomes-Neto, Rossella Sartorius, Fábio B Canto, Thamyres S Almeida, André A Dias, Carlos-Henrique D Barbosa, Guilherme A Melo, Ana Carolina Oliveira, Pedro-Henrique N Aguiar, Carlos R Machado, Herbert L de Matos Guedes, Marcelo F Santiago, Alberto Nóbrega, Piergiuseppe De Berardinis, Maria Bellio
Recombinant filamentous fd bacteriophages (r fd ) expressing antigenic peptides were shown to induce cell-mediated immune responses in the absence of added adjuvant, being a promising delivery system for vaccination. Here, we tested the capacity of r fd phages to protect against infection with the human protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiologic agent of Chagas Disease. For this, C57BL/6 (B6) and Tlr9- / - mice were vaccinated with r fd phages expressing the OVA257-264 peptide or the T. cruzi -immunodominant peptides PA8 and TSKB20 and challenged with either the T...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
João F Gomes, Ana Lopes, Daniel Gonçalves, Cristina Luxo, Marta Gmurek, Raquel Costa, Rosa M Quinta-Ferreira, Rui C Martins, Ana Matos
Corbicula fluminea, an Asian clam, is one of the worst invasive species in Europe that can survive in very adverse environmental conditions. Despite its negative impacts, the species also has the capacity to bioaccumulate heavy metals, contaminants and can be exploited for wastewater treatment purposes. The capacity of the Asian clam to remove Escherichia coli, used as fecal contamination indicator, was analyzed. Conventional wastewater treatment plants are not suitable to remove bacteria, thus resulting in treated municipal wastewater with high bacterial loads...
June 6, 2018: Chemosphere
André L Saraiva, Flávio P Veras, Raphael S Peres, Jhimmy Talbot, Kalil A de Lima, João P Luiz, José M Carballido, Thiago M Cunha, Fernando Q Cunha, Bernhard Ryffel, Jose C Alves-Filho
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to significant changes in metabolic activity. Succinate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, has emerged as a metabolic mediator of the innate immune response. However, the involvement of succinate in the generation of the adaptive immune response and establishment of autoimmune response has not been addressed thus far. Here we demonstrated that the succinate-sensing receptor (Sucnr1/GPR91) plays a critical role in the development of immune-mediated arthritis...
June 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Priyanka Verma, Gaurav Malhotra, Ritesh Agrawal, Sunita Sonavane, Vilas Meshram, Ramesh V Asopa
PURPOSE OF THE REPORT: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) overexpression is not restricted to prostate cancer, but it has also been demonstrated in gliomas, lung cancer, and in tumor neovasculature. Systematic studies exploring PSMA uptake in thyroid tumors are lacking. The aim of this pilot study was to assess PSMA expression in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (mDTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients of mDTC harboring 32 lesions (5 men; age range, 38-65 years; mean age, 50 years) underwent prospective evaluation with radioiodine (I), F-FDG PET, and Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET scans as per the institution protocol...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
S Rizvi, S T Raza, F Mahdi, S P Singh, M Rajput, Q Rahman
Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global major health problem resulting from interaction of environmental and genetic factors, examples of the latter being KCNJ11 (coding for part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel) and SDF-1β (coding for chemokine CXCL12). Our case-control study was conducted to assess whether recessive, dominant or additive genotype model associations of KCNJ11 (E23K, rs5219) and SDF-1β (G801A, rs1801157) were more strongly linked to type 2 diabetes. Subjects & Methods Genetic polymorphism analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism...
June 12, 2018: British Journal of Biomedical Science
J M Cózar, B Miñana, F Gómez-Veiga, A Rodríguez-Antolín
AIMS: To describe the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and disease-specific mortality in the prospective prostate cancer GESCAP cohort, as well as the progression to castration resistance in patients on hormone therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective, observational, epidemiological, multicentre study. Of the 4087 patients recruited, 3843 were evaluable. The variables analysed were the risk group (localized, locally advanced, lymph involvement, metastatic), age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, Gleason score and initial treatment...
June 8, 2018: Actas Urologicas Españolas
K Canis, J Anzengruber, E Garenaux, M Feichtinger, K Benamara, F Scheiflinger, L-A Savoy, B M Reipert, M Malisauskas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Human factor VIII (FVIII) is a plasma glycoprotein, defects of which result in hemophilia A. Current substitution therapy uses FVIII products purified from human plasma or from various cell lines (recombinant FVIII) with different levels of B-domain deletion. Glycosylation is a post-translational protein modification in FVIII that has a substantial influence on its physical, functional, and antigenic properties. Variation in glycosylation is likely the reason that FVIII products differ in their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and immunogenicity...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Arif J Siddiqui, Adebayo J Molehin, Weidong Zhang, Pramodh K Ganapathy, Eunjee Kim, Juan U Rojo, Whitni K Redman, Souad R Sennoune, Justin Sudduth, Jasmin Freeborn, Derick Hunter, Kameswara R Kottapalli, Pratibha Kottapalli, Ruwanthi Wettashinghe, Govert J van Dam, Paul L A M Corstjens, James F Papin, David Carey, Workineh Torben, Gul Ahmad, Afzal A Siddiqui
Sm-p80-based vaccine efficacy for Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated in a baboon model of infection and disease. The study was designed to replicate a human vaccine implementation scenario for endemic regions in which vaccine would be administered following drug treatment of infected individuals. In our study, the Sm-p80-based vaccine reduced principal pathology producing hepatic egg burdens by 38.0% and egg load in small and large intestines by 72.2% and 49.4%, respectively, in baboons. Notably, hatching rates of eggs recovered from liver and small and large intestine of vaccinated animals were significantly reduced, by 60...
June 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Saleh Aghakhani, Didier Grandjean, Wouter Baekelant, Eduardo Coutiño-Gonzalez, Eduard Fron, Kristina Kvashnina, Maarten B J Roeffaers, Johan Hofkens, Bert F Sels, Peter Lievens
Luminescent silver clusters (AgCLs) stabilized inside partially Ag exchanged Na LTA zeolites show a remarkable reversible on-off switching of their green-yellowish luminescence that is easily tuned by a hydration and dehydration cycle, making them very promising materials for sensing applications. We have used a unique combination of photoluminescence (PL), UV-visible-NIR Diffuse Reflectance (DRS), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopies to unravel the atomic-scale structural changes responsible for the reversible optical behavior of the confined AgCLs in LTA zeolites...
June 11, 2018: Nanoscale
F Verachi, Z Percario, P Di Bonito, E Affabris, C Amici, L Accardi
In Human Papillomaviruses- (HPV-) associated carcinogenesis, continuous expression of the E6 oncoprotein supports its value as a potential target for the development of diagnostics and therapeutics for HPV cancer. We previously reported that the I7 single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) specific for HPV16 E6, expressed as an intrabody by retroviral system, could inhibit significantly the growth of cervical cancer cells in vitro and was even able to reduce tumor development in experimental HPV-related cancer models...
2018: BioMed Research International
K P Dalton, A Balseiro, R A Juste, A Podadera, I Nicieza, D Del Llano, R González, J M Martin Alonso, J M Prieto, F Parra, R Casais
RHDVb has become the dominant RHDV on the Iberian Peninsula. A better understanding of its pathogenicity is required to aid control measures. Thus, the clinical course, humoral immune response, viraemia and kinetics of RHDV-N11 (a Spanish RHDVb isolate) infection in different tissues at both viral RNA and protein levels were studied in experimentally infected young and adult rabbits. The case fatality rate differed between the two age groups, with 21% of kits succumbing while no deaths were observed in adults...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Courtney B Betts, Nathan D Pennock, Breanna P Caruso, Brian Ruffell, Virginia F Borges, Pepper Schedin
The mammary gland is not classically considered a mucosal organ, although it exhibits some features common to mucosal tissues. Notably, the mammary epithelium is contiguous with the external environment, is exposed to bacteria during lactation, and displays antimicrobial features. Nonetheless, immunological hallmarks predictive of mucosal function have not been demonstrated in the mammary gland, including immune tolerance to foreign Ags under homeostasis. This inquiry is important, as mucosal immunity in the mammary gland may assure infant and women's health during lactation...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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