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cervical cancer developing countries

E E Jedy-Agba, E O Dareng, S N Adebamowo, M Odutola, E A Oga, F Igbinoba, T Otu, E Ezeome, F Bray, R Hassan, C A Adebamowo
INTRODUCTION: HPV attributable cancers are the second most common infection-related cancers worldwide, with much higher burden in less developed regions. There are currently no country-specific estimates of the burden of these cancers in Nigeria just like many other low and middle income countries. METHODS: In this study, we quantified the proportion of the cancer burden in Nigeria that is attributable to HPV infection from 2012 to 2014 using HPV prevalence estimated from previous studies and data from two population based cancer registries (PBCR) in Nigeria...
October 22, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
David Gaffney, Bill Small, Henry Kitchener, Sang Young Ryu, Akila Viswanathan, Ted Trimble, Al Covens, Sarikapan Wilailak, Arb-Aroon Lertkhachonsuk, Chomporn Sitathanee, Umesh Mahantshetty, Brandon Fisher, Susan Springer, Thomas Pollatz, Antonius Spiller, Monica Bacon, Anuja Jhingran
Eighty-seven percent of cervix cancer occurs in less-developed regions of the world, and there is up to an 18-fold difference in mortality rate for cervix cancer depending on the region of the world. The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN) was founded through the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup with the aim of improving access to clinical trials in cervix cancer worldwide, and in so doing improving standards of care. The CCRN recently held its first international educational symposium in Bangkok. Sixty-two participants attended from 16 different countries including Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Taiwan, China, Vietnam, Korea, Japan, Columbia, Brazil, Canada, and the United States...
November 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Haiping Liu, Dan Lyu, Yan Zhang, Lianbing Sheng, Ning Tang
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death among females in less developed countries. Studies have shown that the single-nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin 6 might be associated with cervical cancer risk. A total of 710 articles from EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of science, PubMed, Springer link, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were reviewed in our study. A meta-analysis on the associations between interleukin 6 rs1800795 polymorphism and cervical cancer risk was carried out by comparison using 5 genetic models...
October 24, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Alain Luxembourg, Susanne K Kjaer, Mari Nygard, Misoo C Ellison, Thomas Group, J Brooke Marshall, David Radley, Alfred Saah
The 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) (9vHPV) vaccine targets four HPV types (6/11/16/18) also covered by the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine and five additional types (31/33/45/52/58). Vaccine efficacy to prevent HPV infection and disease was established in a Phase III clinical study in women 16-26years of age. A long-term follow-up (LTFU) study has been initiated as an extension of the Phase III clinical study to assess effectiveness of the 9vHPV vaccine up to at least 14years after the start of vaccination...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Chaevia Clendinen, Yapei Zhang, Rebecca N Warburton, Donald W Light
BACKGROUND: Nearly all of the 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 270,000 deaths occur in middle or lower income countries. Yet the two most prevalent HPV vaccines are unaffordable to most. Even prices to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, are unaffordable to graduating countries, once they lose Gavi subsidies. Merck and Glaxosmithkline (GSK) claim their prices to Gavi equal their manufacturing costs; but these costs remain undisclosed. We undertook this investigation to estimate those costs...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
Meredith S Shiels, Eric A Engels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of cancers that occur at an elevated rate among people with HIV infection in the current treatment era, including discussion of the cause of these cancers, as well as changes in cancer incidence and burden over time. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cervical cancer have declined sharply in developed countries during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, but remain elevated 800-fold, 10-fold and four-fold, respectively, compared with the general population...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
James Sutherland Lawson, Wendy K Glenn, Noel James Whitaker
High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case-control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Joël Ladner, Marie-Hélène Besson, Etienne Audureau, Mariana Rodrigues, Joseph Saba
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the greatest cause of age-weighted years of life lost in the developing world. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with a high proportion of cervical cancers, and HPV vaccination may help to reduce the incidence of cancer. The aim of the study was to identify barriers, obstacles, and strategies and to analyze key concerns and lessons learned with respect to the implementation of HPV vaccination program in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The Gardasil Access Program (GAP) is a donation program established to enable organizations and institutions in eligible low-resource countries to gain operational experience designing and implementing HPV vaccination programs...
October 13, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Jane H Williams, Stacy M Carter
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer disproportionately burdens disadvantaged women. Organised cervical screening aims to make cancer prevention available to all women in a population, yet screening uptake and cancer incidence and mortality are strongly correlated with socioeconomic status (SES). Reaching underscreened populations is a stated priority in many screening programs, usually with an emphasis on something like 'equity'. Equity is a poorly defined and understood concept. We aimed to explain experts' perspectives on how cervical screening programs might justifiably respond to 'the underscreened'...
October 6, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Sunila Shakya, Unni Syversen, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Anna Mary Bofin, Guro Aune, Sven Arne Nordbø, Karishma Malla Vaidya, Biraj Man Karmacharya, Jan Egil Afset, Solveig Tingulstad
INTRODUCTION: In this study we aimed to determine the overall and type-specific prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and risk factors for such infection among women in rural Nepal, and to investigate the distribution of HPV infection by cervical cytology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted among women aged ≥ 15 years in five rural villages within Kavre District in Nepal. Socio-demographic data and information on risk factors for cervical cancer were obtained through an interview, and a cervical specimen was collected for HPV DNA detection and typing using the Anyplex(™) ll HPV28 Detection system, and for Papanicolaou test...
October 7, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Nicole G Campos, Monisha Sharma, Andrew Clark, Jane J Kim, Stephen C Resch
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women, with 85% of cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. While organized screening programs have reduced cervical cancer incidence in high-income countries through detection and treatment of precancerous lesions, the implementation of organized screening has not been effective in low-resource settings due to lack of infrastructure and limited budgets. Our objective was to estimate the cost of comprehensive primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention in low- and middle-income countries...
2016: PloS One
Israel Mitiku, Fasika Tefera
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst female cancer worldwide, especially in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The level of women's knowledge about cervical cancer is not well documented in Ethiopia. The current study sought to assess women's knowledge about cervical cancer and associated factors. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a sample of 620 women aged 15-49 years residing in Dessie town, Northeast Ethiopia...
2016: PloS One
Mónica S Sierra, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Sébastien Antoni, Mathieu Laversanne, Marion Piñeros, Esther de Vries, David Forman
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Cancer burden is increasing in Central and South America (CSA). We describe the current burden of cancer in CSA. METHODS: We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries (13 countries) and nation-wide cancer mortality data from the WHO (18 countries). We estimated world population age-standardized incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 person-years. RESULTS: The leading cancers diagnosed were prostate, lung, breast, cervix, colorectal, and stomach, which were also the primary causes of cancer mortality...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Raúl Murillo, Rolando Herrero, Mónica S Sierra, David Forman
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: More than 20 years after cytology-based screening was introduced in Central and South America (CSA), cervical cancer remains a leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality in the region. Although several population-based registries exist in the region, few comprehensive analyses have been conducted to describe the status of cervical cancer control. METHODS: Population-based data from cancer registries in 13 countries and mortality data from 18 countries in CSA were analyzed...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Shabnam Akhter, Pradip Manna, Mohammed Kamal, C James Sung, W Dwayne Lawrence, M Ruhul Quddus
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh, with a population of 160 million and nearly half being women, has the 4th highest rate of cervical carcinoma deaths in the world. It is projected that ∼500,000 of these women would die of this entirely preventable cancer by 2030. HPV vaccination is not widely offered in Bangladesh. This pilot study is designed to find out the prevalence of rare and multi-viral high-risk HPV (hrHPV) subtype(s) infection which may help strategize a large scale vaccination program in tackling cervical carcinoma in the country...
2016: Diagnostic Pathology
Subhojit Dey, Parika Pahwa, Arti Mishra, Jyotsna Govil, Preet K Dhillon
OBJECTIVES: Burden of cervical cancer (CC) is highest for women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated as the necessary cause of CC although a number of other factors aid the long process of CC development. One among them is the presence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This study investigated the associations between RTIs and CC from India. METHODS: This study utilized secondary data from the Cancer Detection Centre of the ICS, Delhi...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
N Aminisani, R Fattahpour, L Abedi, S M Shamshirgaran
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among females across the world. It is a preventable cancer and early detection is very feasible. This study aimed to identify which women characteristics are potentially associated with and may have an important influence on the uptake of cervical cancer screening in Kurdish women living in the west of Iran.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in late 2014. A random sample of women aged 40 years and above without history of cervical cancer and identi ed as Kurdish background were selected and interviewed by two trained interviewers...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
YongJie Huang, Yang Li, Fen F Wang, WeiGuo Lv, Xing Xie, Xiaodong Cheng
Cervical cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women from developing countries. Identification of novel prognostic predictors or therapeutic targets may improve patient prognosis. In the current study, we demonstrated by real-time PCR that miR-224 expression was significantly upregulated (1.82-fold, P = 0.0025) in cervical cancer tissues (n = 126) compared with in normal cervical tissues (n = 64). Higher expression of miR-224 was significantly associated with poorer prognostic factors, including advanced FIGO stage, nodal metastasis, larger tumor size, vascular involvement and deep stromal invasion (all P < 0...
2016: PloS One
Sanaa Elmajjaoui, Nabil Ismaili, Hanane El Kacemi, Tayeb Kebdani, Hassan Sifat, Noureddine Benjaafar
BACKGROUND: On behalf of the medical staff of the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat, we conducted a retrospective study to report epidemiology and 5-year outcomes of cervical carcinoma in Moroccan women. METHODS: We reviewed all women diagnosed with invasive cervical carcinoma in our institute between January 2006 and December 2006. Outcomes and prognoses are analyzed in patients who received at least one treatment. RESULTS: The analysis included 646 women...
2016: BMC Women's Health
Erika Langsfeld, Laimonis A Laimins
Human papillomaviruses are the causative agents of cervical, anal as well as many oropharyngeal cancers. While prophylactic vaccines have been developed, uptake is low in the US and other Western countries, and access is limited in less developed countries. A number of areas are emerging as critical for future study. These include investigation of the mechanisms regulating infection and progression to cancer at both cervical and oropharyngeal sites as these appear to be distinct. HPV-induced cancers also may be susceptible to immune therapy, revealing opportunities for treating advanced cervical disease and reducing the morbidity of treatments for oropharyngeal cancers...
May 2016: Trends in Cancer
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