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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444767/the-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist-dora-22-lowers-histamine-levels-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-prefrontal-cortex-without-lowering-hippocampal-acetylcholine
#1
Lihang Leon Yao, Andres Ramirez, Anthony J Roecker, Steven Fox, Jason Uslaner, Sean M Smith, Robert Hodgson, Paul J Coleman, John J Renger, Christopher J Winrow, Anthony L Gotter
Chronic insomnia is defined as a persistent difficulty with sleep initiation maintenance or non-restorative sleep. The therapeutic standard of care for this condition is treatment with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor modulators, which promote sleep but are associated with a panoply of side effects, including cognitive and memory impairment. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) have recently emerged as an alternative therapeutic approach that acts via a distinct and more selective wake-attenuating mechanism with the potential to be associated with milder side effects...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444446/comparison-of-the-clinical-and-cognitive-features-of-genetically-positive-als-patients-from-the-largest-tertiary-center-in-serbia
#2
Ivan V Marjanović, Biljana Selak-Djokić, Stojan Perić, Milena Janković, Vladimir Arsenijević, Ivana Basta, Dragana Lavrnić, Elka Stefanova, Zorica Stević
Discovering novel mutations in C9orf72, FUS, ANG, and TDP-43 genes in ALS patients arises necessities for better clinical characterizations of these subjects. The aim is to determine clinical and cognitive profile of genetically positive Serbian ALS patients. 241 ALS patients were included in the study (17 familiar and 224 apparently sporadic). The following genes were analyzed: SOD1, C9orf72, ANG, FUS, and TDP-43. An extensive battery of classic neuropsychological tests was used in 27 ALS patients (22 SOD1 positive and 5 SOD1 negative) and 82 healthy controls (HCs)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444394/tissue-specific-dissociation-of-diurnal-transcriptome-rhythms-during-sleep-restriction-in-mice
#3
Jana Husse, Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Johanna L Barclay, Nadine Naujokat, Judit Meyer-Kovac, Hendrik Lehnert, Henrik Oster
Study objectives: Shortened or mistimed sleep affects metabolic homeostasis, which may in part be mediated by dysregulation of endogenous circadian clocks. In this study, we assessed the contribution of sleep disruption to metabolic dysregulation by analysing diurnal transcriptome regulation in metabolic tissues of mice subjected to a sleep restriction paradigm. Methods: Male mice were subjected to 2x5 days of sleep restriction (SR) with enforced waking during the first six hours of the light phase...
April 24, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444230/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-%C3%AE%C2%B54-diminishes-neurotrophic-function-of-human-ipsc-derived-astrocytes
#4
Jing Zhao, Mary D Davis, Yuka Atagi, Mitsuru Shinohara, Neill R Graff-Radford, Steven G Younkin, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Takahisa Kanekiyo, Guojun Bu
The ε4 allele of the APOE gene encoding apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a strong genetic risk factor for aging-related cognitive decline as well as late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to the common ε3 allele. In the central nervous system, apoE is produced primarily by astrocytes and functions in transporting lipids including cholesterol to support neuronal homeostasis and synaptic integrity. Although mouse models and corresponding primary cells have provided valuable tools for studying apoE isoform-dependent functions, recent studies have shown that human astrocytes have distinct gene expression profile compare with rodent astrocytes...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443057/cognitive-constructivist-approach-in-medical-settings-the-use-of-personal-meaning-questionnaire-for-neurological-patients-personality-investigation
#5
Barbara Poletti, Laura Carelli, Annalisa Lafronza, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Andrea Ciammola, Monica Grobberio, Vanessa Raimondi, Rita Pezzati, Rita B Ardito, Vincenzo Silani
Objective: The cognitive-constructivist psychotherapy approach considers the self as a continuous regulation process between present and past experience, in which attributions of meaning is characterized by the use of internal rules. In this conception, everyone would be driven by a specific inner coherence called Personal Meaning Organization (PMO). Such approach has never been applied to neurological patients by means of ad hoc developed tools. We performed an explorative study aimed to characterize personality styles in different neurological conditions within the theoretical framework of cognitive-constructivist model...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442320/people-with-multiple-sclerosis-report-significantly-worse-symptoms-and-health-related-quality-of-life-than-the-us-general-population-as-measured-by-promis-and-neuroqol-outcome-measures
#6
Dagmar Amtmann, Alyssa M Bamer, Jiseon Kim, Hyewon Chung, Rana Salem
BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) report fatigue, pain, depression, cognitive difficulties, and other symptoms. It is often difficult to compare symptoms across studies and populations because scales used to measure individual symptoms or quality of life indicators (QOLI) use different metrics and often do not provide norms. PROMIS and Neuro-QOL measures, developed with modern psychometric methods, use a common metric and provide population norms. OBJECTIVE: To create symptom profiles and compare symptoms and QOLIs of people living with MS to a US general population sample...
April 21, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441967/comparison-of-csf-markers-and-semi-quantitative-amyloid-pet-in-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-and-in-cognitive-impairment-prognosis-using-the-adni-2-database
#7
Fayçal Ben Bouallègue, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Pierre Payoux
BACKGROUND: The relative performance of semi-quantitative amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and predicting the cognitive evolution of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is still debated. METHODS: Subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 with complete baseline cognitive assessment (Mini Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale [ADAS-cog] scores), CSF collection (amyloid-β1-42 [Aβ], tau and phosphorylated tau) and (18)F-florbetapir scans were included in our cross-sectional cohort...
April 26, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441964/fecal-metagenomic-profiles-in-subgroups-of-patients-with-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#8
Dorottya Nagy-Szakal, Brent L Williams, Nischay Mishra, Xiaoyu Che, Bohyun Lee, Lucinda Bateman, Nancy G Klimas, Anthony L Komaroff, Susan Levine, Jose G Montoya, Daniel L Peterson, Devi Ramanan, Komal Jain, Meredith L Eddy, Mady Hornig, W Ian Lipkin
BACKGROUND: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by unexplained persistent fatigue, commonly accompanied by cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever, lymphadenopathy, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The extent to which the gastrointestinal microbiome and peripheral inflammation are associated with ME/CFS remains unclear. We pursued rigorous clinical characterization, fecal bacterial metagenomics, and plasma immune molecule analyses in 50 ME/CFS patients and 50 healthy controls frequency-matched for age, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic site, and season of sampling...
April 26, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438714/the-effect-of-morphological-and-microstructural-integrity-of-the-corpus-callosum-on-cognition-fatigue-and-depression-in-mildly-disabled-ms-patients
#9
Jeroen Van Schependom, Jeroen Gielen, Jorne Laton, Georgios Sotiropoulos, Anne-Marie Vanbinst, Johan De Mey, Dirk Smeets, Guy Nagels
Aim To assess the value of callosal morphological and microstructural integrity in assessing different cognitive domains, fatigue and depression in mildly disabled multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 29 mildly disabled MS patients and 15 healthy controls using 3T magnetic resonance images (T1-weighted, FLAIR and DTI) and neuropsychological tests assessing different cognitive functions, depression and fatigue. We compared the added value of morphological measures (corpus callosum area corrected for total intracranial volume, index, circularity and the more detailed thickness profile) and diffusion features (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) in multilinear models including standard clinical and whole-brain parameters in assessing neuropsychological scores...
April 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438466/the-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-nac-on-human-cognition-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
David R Skvarc, Olivia M Dean, Linda K Byrne, Laura Gray, Stephen Lane, Matthew Lewis, Brisa S Fernandes, Michael Berk, Andrew Marriott
Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurogenesis are commonly implicated as cognitive modulators across a range of disorders. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a glutathione precursor with potent antioxidant, pro-neurogenesis and anti-inflammatory properties and a favourable safety profile. A systematic review of the literature specifically examining the effect of NAC administration on human cognition revealed twelve suitable articles for inclusion: four examining Alzheimer's disease; three examining healthy participants; two examining physical trauma; one examining bipolar disorder, one examining schizophrenia, and one examining ketamine-induced psychosis...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438208/amelioration-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-deficits-by-dcr3-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#11
Yi-Ling Liu, Wei-Ting Chen, Yu-Yi Lin, Po-Hung Lu, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Irene Han-Juo Cheng
BACKGROUND: Microglia mediate amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation, which is one of the key events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3)/TNFRSF6B is a pleiotropic immunomodulator that promotes macrophage differentiation toward the M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. Based on its role as an immunosupressor, we examined whether DcR3 could alleviate neuroinflammation and AD-like deficits in the central nervous system. METHOD: We crossed human APP transgenic mice (line J20) with human DcR3 transgenic mice to generate wild-type, APP, DcR3, and APP/DcR3 mice for pathological analysis...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438073/the-meaning-profiles-of-anxiety-and-depression-similarities-and-differences-in-two-age-groups
#12
Shulamith Kreitler
The distinctiveness of anxiety and depression is discussed concerning their nature, definitions, uses, manifestations and determinants. The objective was to examine the difference and similarity of anxiety and depression by applying the psychosemantic approach, which is a theory and methodology based on analysing the cognitive processes applied in communicating meanings. In Study 1, there were 760 participants of both genders, 23-31 years old. They were administered the Meanings Test, which yields the respondent's meaning profile, and one of seven anxiety scales or one of three depression scales...
April 25, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437426/representational-models-a-common-framework-for-understanding-encoding-pattern-component-and-representational-similarity-analysis
#13
Jörn Diedrichsen, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
Representational models specify how activity patterns in populations of neurons (or, more generally, in multivariate brain-activity measurements) relate to sensory stimuli, motor responses, or cognitive processes. In an experimental context, representational models can be defined as hypotheses about the distribution of activity profiles across experimental conditions. Currently, three different methods are being used to test such hypotheses: encoding analysis, pattern component modeling (PCM), and representational similarity analysis (RSA)...
April 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437380/lifestyle-and-neurocognition-in-older-adults-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-cognitive-impairment
#14
James A Blumenthal, Patrick J Smith, Stephanie Mabe, Alan Hinderliter, Kathleen Welsh-Bohmer, Jeffrey N Browndyke, Pao-Hwa Lin, William Kraus, P Murali Doraiswamy, James Burke, Andrew Sherwood
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of lifestyle factors and neurocognitive functioning in older adults with vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment, without dementia (CIND). METHODS: One hundred sixty adults (Mean = 65.4±6.8 years) with CIND completed neurocognitive assessments of executive function, processing speed, and memory. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometry, aerobic capacity determined by exercise testing, and dietary habits quantified by the Food Frequency Questionnaire and 4-Day Food Diary to assess adherence to the Mediterranean and DASH diets were obtained to assess direct effects with neurocognition...
April 21, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436599/metformin-as-targeted-treatment-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#15
Angel Belle C Dy, Flora Tassone, Marwa Eldeeb, María J Salcedo-Arellano, Nicole Tartaglia, Randi Hagerman
Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) may be affected by several comorbid conditions, both behavioral and medical. Growth findings suggest that they are at an increased risk for obesity and overeating. The Prader-Willi phenotype (PWP) of FXS occurs in less than 10% of patients but it is associated with severe hyperphagia, lack of satiation and morbid obesity. Metformin is a drug used in individuals with high risk for diabetes type 2, obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. It has had a strong safety profile in children and adults with type 2 diabetes and obesity...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436390/biomarkers-for-early-diagnosis-of%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-oldest-old-yes-or-no
#16
Lucia Paolacci, David Giannandrea, Patrizia Mecocci, Lucilla Parnetti
In recent years, many efforts have been spent to identify sensitive biomarkers able to improve the accuracy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. Two different workgroups (NIA-AA and IWG) included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging findings in their sets of criteria in order to improve diagnostic accuracy as well as early diagnosis. The number of subjects with cognitive impairment increases with aging but the oldest old (≥85 years of age), the fastest growing age group, is still the most unknown from a biological point of view...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436151/whole-genome-sequence-association-and-ancestry-informed-polygenic-profile-of-eeg-alpha-in-a-native-american-population
#17
Qian Peng, Nicholas J Schork, Kirk C Wilhelmsen, Cindy L Ehlers
EEG alpha activity is the dominant oscillation in most adult humans, is highly heritable, and has been associated with a number of cognitive functions. Two EEG phenotypes, low- and high-voltage alpha (LVA & HVA), have been demonstrated to have high heritabilities. They have different prevalence depending on a population's ancestral origins. In the present study we assessed the influence of ancestry admixture on EEG alpha power, and conducted a whole genome sequencing association analysis and an ancestry-informed polygenic study on those phenotypes in a Native American (NA) population that has a high prevalence of LVA...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435124/action-recognition-is-viewpoint-dependent-in-the-visual-periphery
#18
Laura Fademrecht, Isabelle Bülthoff, Stephan de la Rosa
Recognizing actions of others across the whole visual field is required for social interactions. In a previous study, we have shown that recognition is very good even when life size avatars who were facing the observer carried out actions (e.g. waving) were presented very far away from the fovea (Fademrecht, Bülthoff, & de la Rosa, 2016). We explored the possibility whether this remarkable performance was owed to life size avatars facing the observer, which - according to some social cognitive theories (e...
April 20, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434870/maternal-socioeconomic-disadvantage-is-associated-with-transcriptional-indications-of-greater-immune-activation-and-slower-tissue-maturation-in-placental-biopsies-and-newborn-cord-blood
#19
Gregory E Miller, Ann E Borders, Amy H Crockett, Kharah M Ross, Sameen Qadir, Lauren Keenan-Devlin, Adam K Leigh, Paula Ham, Jeffrey Ma, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Linda M Ernst, Steve W Cole
Children from economically disadvantaged families experience worse cognitive, psychiatric, and medical outcomes compared to more affluent youth. Preclinical models suggest some of the adverse influence of disadvantage could be transmitted during gestation via maternal immune activation, but this hypothesis has not been tested in humans. It also remains unclear whether prenatal interventions can mitigate such effects. To fill these gaps, we conducted two studies. Study 1 characterized the socioeconomic conditions of 79 women during pregnancy...
April 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434642/-late-life-depression-or-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-which-tools-for-the-differential-diagnosis
#20
A-I Gasser, V Salamin, S Zumbach
INTRODUCTION: Depression and Alzheimer's disease are both very frequent in elderly people. Cognitive deficits are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but they are also common in depressed elderly people who often present cognitive deficits such as memory, attention and executive function problems. On the other hand, people with early Alzheimer's disease demonstrate emotional and behavioral disorders generally encountered in depression such as loss of energy, apathy, mood disorder, and irritability...
April 20, 2017: L'Encéphale
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