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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036611/progranulin-mediated-deficiency-of-cathepsin-d-results-in-ftd-and-ncl-like-phenotypes-in-neurons-derived-from-ftd-patients
#1
Clarissa Valdez, Yvette C Wong, Michael Schwake, Guojun Bu, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dimitri Krainc
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) encompasses a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by cognitive and behavioral impairments. Heterozygous mutations in progranulin (PGRN) cause familial FTD and result in decreased PGRN expression, while homozygous mutations result in complete loss of PGRN expression and lead to the neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). However, how dose-dependent PGRN mutations contribute to these two different diseases is not well understood...
September 25, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036587/latent-profile-analysis-and-conversion-to-psychosis-characterizing-subgroups-to-enhance-risk-prediction
#2
Kristin M Healey, David L Penn, Diana Perkins, Scott W Woods, Richard S E Keefe, Jean Addington
BACKGROUND: Groups at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis are heterogeneous, composed of individuals with different clusters of symptoms. It is likely that there exist subgroups, each associated with different symptom constellations and probabilities of conversion. METHOD: Present study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to ascertain subgroups in a combined sample of CHR (n = 171) and help-seeking controls (HSCs; n = 100; PREDICT study). Indicators in the LPA model included baseline Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and neurocognitive performance as measured by multiple instruments, including category instances (CAT)...
July 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035779/data-driven-heterogeneity-in-mathematical-learning-disabilities-based-on-the-triple-code-model
#3
Christian Peake, Juan E Jiménez, Cristina Rodríguez
Many classifications of heterogeneity in mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) have been proposed over the past four decades, however no empirical research has been conducted until recently, and none of the classifications are derived from Triple Code Model (TCM) postulates. The TCM proposes MLD as a heterogeneous disorder, with two distinguishable profiles: a representational subtype and a verbal subtype. A sample of elementary school 3rd to 6th graders was divided into two age cohorts (3rd - 4th grades, and 5th - 6th grades)...
October 13, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034102/new-directions-in-hypnosis-research-strategies-for-advancing-the-cognitive-and-clinical-neuroscience-of-hypnosis
#4
Mark P Jensen, Graham A Jamieson, Antoine Lutz, Giuliana Mazzoni, William J McGeown, Enrica L Santarcangelo, Athena Demertzi, Vilfredo De Pascalis, Éva I Bányai, Christian Rominger, Patrik Vuilleumier, Marie-Elisabeth Faymonville, Devin B Terhune
This article summarizes key advances in hypnosis research during the past two decades, including (i) clinical research supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for managing a number of clinical symptoms and conditions, (ii) research supporting the role of various divisions in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices in hypnotic responding, and (iii) an emerging finding that high hypnotic suggestibility is associated with atypical brain connectivity profiles. Key recommendations for a research agenda for the next decade include the recommendations that (i) laboratory hypnosis researchers should strongly consider how they assess hypnotic suggestibility in their studies, (ii) inclusion of study participants who score in the middle range of hypnotic suggestibility, and (iii) use of expanding research designs that more clearly delineate the roles of inductions and specific suggestions...
2017: Neuroscience of Consciousness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033972/clinical-spectrum-risk-factors-and-behavioral-abnormalities-among-dementia-subtypes-in-a-north-indian-population-a-hospital-based-study
#5
Suman Kushwaha, Puneet Talwar, Aldrin Anthony, Meena Gupta, Kiran Bala, Rachna Agarwal, Vibha Sharma, Ritushree Kukreti
BACKGROUND: As variability in the clinical profile of dementia subtypes had been reported with regional differences across the world, we conducted a retrospective hospital-based study in a North Indian population. METHODS: We retrieved patient records from 2007 to 2014 for details of clinical evaluation, diagnosis, neuroimaging, biochemical investigations, and follow-up of 1,876 patients with dementia (PwD), and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics...
May 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033782/neural-correlates-of-direct-access-trading-in-a-real-stock-market-an-fmri-investigation
#6
GianMario Raggetti, Maria G Ceravolo, Lucrezia Fattobene, Cinzia Di Dio
Background: While financial decision making has been barely explored, no study has previously investigated the neural correlates of individual decisions made by professional traders involved in real stock market negotiations, using their own financial resources. Aim: We sought to detect how different brain areas are modulated by factors like age, expertise, psychological profile (speculative risk seeking or aversion) and, eventually, size and type (Buy/Sell) of stock negotiations, made through Direct Access Trading (DAT) platforms...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033637/cognitive-functioning-in-euthymic-bipolar-patients-on-monotherapy-with-novel-antipsychotics-or-mood-stabilizers
#7
Vesile Şentürk Cankorur, Hilal Demirel, Cem Atbaşoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is associated with cognitive dysfunction in several domains. Medication effect is a potential confounder that can only be statistically controlled in many studies. The cognitive profile in bipolar disorder during remission on maintenance antipsychotics or mood stabilizers medication has not been compared before. METHODS: We compared the cognitive profile of bipolar disorder patients euthymic for 2 month or more on monotherapy with novel antipsychotics (AP) (n=16), lithium carbonate (Li) (n=25) or valproic acid (VPA; n=26)...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032016/neuropsychological-outcomes-following-paediatric-temporal-lobe-surgery-for-epilepsies-evidence-from-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Alice E Flint, Mitch Waterman, Grace Bowmer, Gayatri Vadlamani, Paul Chumas, Matthew C H J Morrall
OBJECTIVE: The systematic review aimed to assess the neuropsychological outcomes of temporal lobe resections for epilepsy in children. Additional objectives included determining whether earlier age at surgery leads to better neuropsychological outcomes; the relationships between and predictors of these outcomes. METHODS: Using advanced search terms, a systematic review of electronic databases was conducted, comprising MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science and CINAHL...
September 19, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031468/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-1-decision-making-under-physical-performance-pressure-in-elite-athletes
#9
Beth L Parkin, Katie Warriner, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: The cognitive skills required during sport are highly demanding; accurate decisions based on the processing of dynamic environments are made in a fraction of a second (Walsh, 2014). Optimal decision-making abilities are crucial for success in sporting competition (Bar-Eli et al., 2011; Kaya, 2014). Moreover, for the elite athlete, decision making is required under conditions of intense mental and physical pressure (Anshel and Wells, 2000), yet much of the work in this area has largely ignored the highly stressful context in which athletes operate...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028935/latent-profile-analysis-reveals-behavioral-and-brain-correlates-of-dopamine-cognition-associations
#10
Martin Lövdén, Nina Karalija, Micael Andersson, Anders Wåhlin, Jan Axelsson, Ylva Köhncke, Lars S Jonasson, Anna Rieckman, Goran Papenberg, Douglas D Garrett, Marc Guitart-Masip, Alireza Salami, Katrine Riklund, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg, Ulman Lindenberger
Evidence suggests that associations between the neurotransmitter dopamine and cognition are nonmonotonic and open to modulation by various other factors. The functional implications of a given level of dopamine may therefore differ from person to person. By applying latent-profile analysis to a large (n = 181) sample of adults aged 64-68 years, we probabilistically identified 3 subgroups that explain the multivariate associations between dopamine D2/3R availability (probed with 11C-raclopride-PET, in cortical, striatal, and hippocampal regions) and cognitive performance (episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed)...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027643/contribution-of-theory-of-mind-executive-functioning-and-pragmatics-to-socialization-behaviors-of-children-with-high-functioning-autism
#11
Carmen Berenguer, Ana Miranda, Carla Colomer, Inmaculada Baixauli, Belén Roselló
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027314/the-relationship-between-attitudes-toward-aging-and-health-promoting-behaviours-in-older-adults
#12
Gülbahar Korkmaz Aslan, Asiye Kartal, İlgün Özen Çınar, Nazan Koştu
BACKGROUND: Identifying the factors that are associated with health-promoting behaviours in older adults is necessary to increase their willingness and motivation to participate in health-promotion activities. Understanding context-specific attitudes in relation to their influence on health-promoting behaviours is crucial in designing efficient interventions that foster health-promoting behaviours among older adults. AIM: This study aimed to examine the relationships between attitudes towards aging and health-promoting behaviours in older adults in Turkey...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025977/an-approach-to-discovering-novel-muscarinic-m1-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulators-with-potent-cognitive-improvement-and-minimized-gastrointestinal-dysfunction
#13
Emi Kurimoto, Satoru Matsuda, Yuji Shimizu, Yuu Sako, Takao Mandai, Takahiro Sugimoto, Hiroki Sakamoto, Haruhide Kimura
Activation of muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) is a promising approach for improving cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. However, an M1 selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM), benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA), at 30 mg/kg, induced diarrhea in wild-type mice, but not in M1R knock-out mice. Moreover, BQCA (0.1-1000 nM) augmented electric field stimulation (EFS) -induced ileum contraction in an in vitro Magnus assay. Thus, we decided to establish a drug-screening strategy to discover novel M1 PAMs producing potent cognitive improvement with minimized gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022119/sex-specific-cognitive-behavioural-profiles-emerging-from-individual-variation-in-numerosity-discrimination-in-gambusia-affinis
#14
R Ian Etheredge, Capucine Avenas, Matthew J Armstrong, Molly E Cummings
The relationship between an individual's cognitive abilities and other behavioural attributes is complex, yet critical to understanding how individual differences in cognition arise. Here we use western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, to investigate the relationship between individual associative learning performance in numerical discrimination tests and independent measures of activity, exploration, anxiety and sociability. We found extensive and highly repeatable inter-individual variation in learning performance (r = 0...
October 11, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020466/improving-post-stroke-cognitive-and-behavioral-abnormalities-by-using-virtual-reality-a-case-report-on-a-novel-use-of-nirvana
#15
Rosaria De Luca, Michele Torrisi, Adriana Piccolo, Giovanni Bonfiglio, Provvidenza Tomasello, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Cognitive impairment, as well as mood and anxiety disorders, occur frequently in patients following stroke. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combined rehabilitative treatment using conventional relaxation and respiratory techniques, in a specific rehabilitative virtual environment (by using Bts-Nirvana). A 58-year-old woman, affected by hemorrhagic stroke, underwent two different rehabilitation trainings, including either standard relaxation techniques alone in a common clinical setting or the same psychological approach in a semi-immersive virtual environment with an augmented sensorial (audio-video) and motor feedback (sensory motor-interaction)...
October 11, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018328/intermittent-ethanol-during-adolescence-leads-to-lasting-behavioral-changes-in-adulthood-and-alters-gene-expression-and-histone-methylation-in-the-pfc
#16
Jennifer T Wolstenholme, Tariq Mahmood, Guy M Harris, Shahroze Abbas, Michael F Miles
Adolescents primarily consume alcohol in binges, which can be particularly harmful to the developing frontal cortex and increase risk for an adult alcohol use disorder. We conducted a study investigating immediate and long lasting changes to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) transcriptome to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying adult ethanol behavioral sensitivity following binge ethanol in adolescence. DBA/2J mice were orally dosed with 4 g/kg ethanol intermittently from day 29 to 42. Adolescent mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior and ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting reflex task...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016979/attention-mediated-neurocognitive-profiles-in-survivors-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-comparison-to-children-with-neurodevelopmental-adhd
#17
Kristina K Hardy, Victoria W Willard, Anthony Gioia, Christina Sharkey, Karin S Walsh
Background: Attention and working memory symptoms are among the most common late effects in survivors of pediatric brain tumors, and are often associated with academic and psychosocial difficulties. Diagnostic and treatment approaches derived from the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) literature have frequently been applied to survivors, yet the extent of overlap in cognitive profiles between these groups is unclear. The objective of the present study is to compare neurocognition in survivors of brain tumors and children with neurodevelopmental ADHD...
September 8, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016837/multicenter-pilot-study-of-radio-chemotherapy-as-first-line-treatment-for-adults-with-medulloblastoma-noa-07
#18
Dagmar Dagmar, Martin Proescholdt, Christiane Reinert, Torsten Pietsch, David T W Jones, Stefan M Pfister, Elke Hattingen, Clemens Seidel, Linda Dirven, Ralf Luerding, Jaap Reijneveld, Monika Warmuth-Metz, Matteo Bonsanto, Michael Bremer, Stephanie Combs, Stefan Rieken, Ulrich Herrlinger, Holger Kuntze, Regine Mayer-Steinacker, Dag Moskopp, Thomas Schneider, Andreas Beringer, Uwe Schlegel, Walter Stummer, Helmut Welker, Astrid Weyerbrock, Frank Paulsen, Stefan Rutkowski, Michael Weller, Wolfgang Wick, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Ulrich Bogdahn, Peter Hau
Background: Medulloblastoma in adult patients is rare, with 0.6 cases per million. Prognosis depends on clinical factors and medulloblastoma entity. No prospective data on the feasibility of radio-chemotherapy exist. The German Neuro-Oncology Working Group (NOA) performed a prospective descriptive multicenter single-arm Phase II trial to evaluate feasibility and toxicity of radio-polychemotherapy. Methods: The NOA-07 trial combined cranio-spinal irradiation with vincristine, followed by eight cycles of cisplatin, lomustine and vincristine...
August 21, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993728/age-drives-distortion-of-brain-metabolic-vascular-and-cognitive-functions-and-the-gut-microbiome
#19
Jared D Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J Green, George Chlipala, Robert P Mohney, Mignon Keaton, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M S Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin
Advancing age is the top risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the contribution of aging processes to AD etiology remains unclear. Emerging evidence shows that reduced brain metabolic and vascular functions occur decades before the onset of cognitive impairments, and these reductions are highly associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation developed in the brain over time. Interestingly, recent findings suggest that the gut microbiota may also play a critical role in modulating immune responses in the brain via the brain-gut axis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993711/social-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-are-related-to-maternal-immune-history-profile
#20
S Patel, A Masi, R C Dale, A J O Whitehouse, I Pokorski, G A Alvares, I B Hickie, E Breen, A J Guastella
Maternal immune activation has been highlighted as a factor that might increase the risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. Preclinical animal evidence shows that immune activation in mothers during pregnancy causes ASD-like behavioural traits in offspring. To this point, there has been no investigation of whether immune system activation in human mothers during pregnancy is associated with more severe symptoms in children with ASD. In this study, data from an existing ASD cohort (N=220) were analysed to investigate whether immune conditions in the mother were associated with greater severity of autism-related symptoms...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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