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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220677/a-powerful-approach-to-estimating-annotation-stratified-genetic-covariance-via-gwas-summary-statistics
#1
Qiongshi Lu, Boyang Li, Derek Ou, Margret Erlendsdottir, Ryan L Powles, Tony Jiang, Yiming Hu, David Chang, Chentian Jin, Wei Dai, Qidu He, Zefeng Liu, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Paul K Crane, Hongyu Zhao
Despite the success of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on complex traits, our understanding of their genetic architecture is far from complete. Jointly modeling multiple traits' genetic profiles has provided insights into the shared genetic basis of many complex traits. However, large-scale inference sets a high bar for both statistical power and biological interpretability. Here we introduce a principled framework to estimate annotation-stratified genetic covariance between traits using GWAS summary statistics...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218504/temporal-spatial-profiling-of-pedunculopontine-galanin-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-lactacystin-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Joanna L Elson, Rafael Kochaj, Richard Reynolds, Ilse S Pienaar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is conventionally seen as resulting from single-system neurodegeneration affecting nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, accumulating evidence indicates multi-system degeneration and neurotransmitter deficiencies, including cholinergic neurons which degenerate in a brainstem nucleus, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), resulting in motor and cognitive impairments. The neuropeptide galanin can inhibit cholinergic transmission, while being upregulated in degenerating brain regions associated with cognitive decline...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214863/impact-of-a-weight-management-intervention-on-eating-competence-importance-of-measurement-interval-in-protocol-design
#3
Barbara Lohse, Jodi Stotts Krall, Tricia Psota, Penny Kris-Etherton
PURPOSE: To examine changes in eating competence (EC) in 12-month weight loss intervention. DESIGN: Randomized, parallel-arm with weight loss phase (baseline to month 4) and weight-maintenance phase (months 4-12). SETTING: Face-to-face in University classrooms, supervised and self-directed fitness sessions at University fitness center, and home. PARTICIPANTS: Premenopausal, mostly college-educated Pennsylvania women, body mass index >25 (n = 101)...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214700/adaptive-behaviour-executive-function-and-employment-in-adults-with-down-syndrome
#4
B Tomaszewski, D Fidler, D Talapatra, K Riley
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) demonstrate difficulties with aspects of executive function (EF) and adaptive behaviour across the lifespan. There is a current lack of information regarding how these difficulties relate to employment outcomes in adulthood. This study evaluated the adaptive behaviour and EF profiles of individuals with DS during early adulthood and the association between these areas of functioning and employment status. METHODS: Parents or caregivers of primarily young adults with DS (n = 31; mean chronological age = 25...
January 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213522/memory-specificity-training-can-improve-working-and-prospective-memory-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Golita Emsaki, Hamid Taher NeshatDoost, Mahgol Tavakoli, Majid Barekatain
Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is one of the cognitive profiles of aging. OBJECTIVE: In this study, Memory Specificity Training (MEST) was used as cognitive training in patients with amnestic MCI to understand the effectiveness of the intervention on memory dimensions. METHODS: Twenty patients that met the criteria for amnestic MCI were selected and randomly assigned to experimental (n=10) or control (n=10) groups. The experimental group received five sessions of training on memory specificity while the participants in the control group took part in two general placebo sessions...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212569/the-effect-of-strategic-memory-training-in-older-adults-who-benefits-most
#6
Alessia Rosi, Federica Del Signore, Elisa Canelli, Nicola Allegri, Sara Bottiroli, Tomaso Vecchi, Elena Cavallini
BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that there is a degree of variability among older adults' response to memory training, such that some individuals benefit more than others. The aim of the present study was to identify the profile of older adults who were likely to benefit most from a strategic memory training program that has previously proved to be effective in improving memory in healthy older adults. METHOD: In total, 44 older adults (60-83 years) participated in a strategic memory training...
December 7, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211233/elderly-caregivers-living-in-urban-rural-and-high-social-vulnerability-contexts
#7
Sofia Cristina Iost Pavarini, Anita Liberalesso Neri, Allan Gustavo Brígola, Ana Carolina Ottaviani, Érica Nestor Souza, Estefani Serafim Rossetti, Mariélli Terassi, Nathalia Alves de Oliveira, Bruna Moretti Luchesi
OBJECTIVE Comparing the differences in the sociodemographic, care and health profiles of elderly caregivers of the elderly living in urban, rural, and high social vulnerability contexts. METHOD A cross-sectional study developed with elderly caregivers enrolled in the Family Health Units of a municipality in the interior of São Paulo. Household interviews and evaluations were conducted on: Activities of Daily Living (ADL), self-reported pain, frailty, cognition, life satisfaction, family functionality, burden, stress and hope...
2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211166/-factors-associated-with-the-use-of-wheelchairs-by-institutionalized-elderly-people
#8
Elysama Fernandes Alves, Poliana Penasso Bezerra
Due to the high prevalence of wheel-chair use by institutionalized elderly people, the scope of this research was to verify whether factors involving gender, age, education, length of institutionalization, comorbidities, cognition and functionality are associated with the use of such equipment, as well as ascertain the reasons for use according to the perceptions of the elderly. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study that included 55 elderly people subdivided into G1 (locomotion without assistance) and G2 (wheelchair users)...
November 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210605/cognitive-and-behaviour-profiles-of-children-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii
#9
Louise Crowe, Joy Yaplito-Lee, Vicki Anderson, Heidi Peters
Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (MPS II) or Hunter Syndrome is a rare X-linked condition, due to a defect in a lysosomal enzyme involved in the breakdown of glycosaminoglycans. It is a progressive condition with worsening over time; however, symptom severity and progression rates vary. Normal intellectual function has been reported in males with mild MPS II but few studies are available that provide comprehensive cognitive profiles. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) can stabilize physical symptoms and has become standard treatment...
September 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209249/educational-and-cognitive-predictors-of-pro-and-antisaccadic-performance
#10
Yaira Chamorro, Mario Treviño, Esmeralda Matute
Voluntary gaze control allows people to direct their attention toward selected targets while avoiding distractors. Failure in this ability could be related to dysfunctions in the neural circuits underlying executive functions. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that factors such as years of schooling and literacy may positively influence goal-directed behavior and inhibitory control. However, we do not yet know whether these factors also have a significant impact on the inhibitory control of oculomotor responses...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207277/laser-captured-microglia-in-the-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-brain-reveal-unique-regional-expression-profiles-and-suggest-a-potential-role-for-hepatitis-b-in-the-alzheimer-s-brain
#11
Diego Mastroeni, Jennifer Nolz, Shobana Sekar, Elaine Delvaux, Geidy Serrano, Lori Cuyugan, Winnie S Liang, Thomas G Beach, Joseph Rogers, Paul D Coleman
Expression array data from dozens of laboratories, including our own, show significant changes in expression of many genes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared with normal controls. These data typically rely on brain homogenates, and information about transcripts specific to microglia and other central nervous system (CNS) cell types, which far outnumber microglia-specific transcripts, is lost. We therefore used single-cell laser capture methods to assess the full range of microglia-specific expression changes that occur in different brain regions (substantia nigra and hippocampus CA1) and disease states (AD, Parkinson's disease, and normal controls)...
November 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206685/intelligence-and-specific-cognitive-functions-in-intellectual-disability-implications-for-assessment-and-classification
#12
Marco O Bertelli, Sally-Ann Cooper, Luis Salvador-Carulla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability categorize ability as measured by IQ tests. However, this does not suit the new conceptualization of intellectual disability, which refers to a range of neuropsychiatric syndromes that have in common early onset, cognitive impairments, and consequent deficits in learning and adaptive functioning. A literature review was undertaken on the concept of intelligence and whether it encompasses a range of specific cognitive functions to solve problems, which might be better reported as a profile, instead of an IQ, with implications for diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204979/treatment-of-spontaneous-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-self-reported-neuropsychological-performance-at-6-months-results-of-a-prospective-clinical-pilot-study-on-good-grade-patients
#13
Elisabeth Bründl, Petra Schödel, Sylvia Bele, Martin Proescholdt, Judith Scheitzach, Florian Zeman, Alexander Brawanski, Karl-Michael Schebesch
AIM: Limited focus has been placed on neuropsychological patient profiles after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (sSAH). We conducted a prospective controlled study in good-grade sSAH patients to evaluate the time course of treatment-specific differences in cognitive processing after sSAH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 26 consecutive sSAH patients were enrolled (drop out n=5). 9 patients received endovascular aneurysm occlusion (EV), 6 patients were treated microsurgically (MS), and 6 patients with perimesencephalic SAH (pSAH) underwent standardized intensive medical care...
November 1, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204015/clinical-profile-of-cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#14
Sulena, Dipti Gupta, Anjani Kumar Sharma, Naveen Kumar
Background: There are very less data on the comparison between the cognitive profile in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Parkinson's-plus groups, especially in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the cognitive profile across PD, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) groups and compare them using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), frontal assessment battery (FAB), and verbal fluency tests. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203897/flexible-timing-by-temporal-scaling-of-cortical-responses
#15
Jing Wang, Devika Narain, Eghbal A Hosseini, Mehrdad Jazayeri
Musicians can perform at different tempos, speakers can control the cadence of their speech, and children can flexibly vary their temporal expectations of events. To understand the neural basis of such flexibility, we recorded from the medial frontal cortex of nonhuman primates trained to produce different time intervals with different effectors. Neural responses were heterogeneous, nonlinear, and complex, and they exhibited a remarkable form of temporal invariance: firing rate profiles were temporally scaled to match the produced intervals...
December 4, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203810/effective-litmus-gene-test-for-monitoring-the-quality-of-blood-samples-application-to-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnostics
#16
Sung-Mi Shim, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae-Pil Jeon
Gene expression profiles reflect the biologically diverse activities of cells under specific cell environments. Using the transcriptional response of cultured cells to blood composition, we developed a litmus gene assay to discriminate blood samples reflecting different sample qualities or disease conditions. This cell-based litmus gene assay identified six genes (CCL20, CEMIP, IL1B, IL8, PRG2, PTGS2) as potential biomarkers of plasma quality control and the SPC25 gene as a diagnostic biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202809/five-years-follow-up-of-dental-fear-and-anxiety-experience-of-dental-care-and-oral-health-behaviour-in-swedish-preterm-and-full-term-adolescents
#17
Susanne Brogårdh-Roth, Johanna Månsson, Karin Ridell, Lubna Alward, Kristina Hellén-Halme, EwaCarin Ekberg
BACKGROUND: There is rising concern about how preterm birth affects long-term health later in life. The various effects that preterm birth have on developmental outcomes, cognitive profiles and medical health may also affect levels of cooperation in the dental care situation in addition to general oral health and other oral health-related habits. Oral health is an integral part of one's general health and well-being; however, less is known about how prematurity affects oral health and other related areas such as dental care, and including dental fear and anxiety (DFA) in individuals during adolescence and adulthood...
December 4, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201992/probability-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-breast-cancer-survivors-based-on-gray-matter-structural-network-efficiency
#18
Shelli R Kesler, Vikram Rao, William J Ray, Arvind Rao
Introduction: Breast cancer chemotherapy is associated with accelerated aging and potentially increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: We calculated the probability of AD diagnosis from brain network and demographic and genetic data obtained from 47 female AD converters and 47 matched healthy controls. We then applied this algorithm to data from 78 breast cancer survivors. Results: The classifier discriminated between AD and healthy controls with 86% accuracy (P < ...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201545/different-patterns-of-attentional-bias-in-antenatal-and-postpartum-depression
#19
Åsa Edvinsson, Alkistis Skalkidou, Charlotte Hellgren, Malin Gingnell, Lisa Ekselius, Mimmie Willebrand, Inger Sundström Poromaa
Background: Biased information processing in attention, memory, and interpretation is proposed to be central cognitive alterations in patients with major depressive disorder, but studies in women with peripartum depression are scarce. Because of the many similarities with depression in nonperipartum states as regards symptom profile and risk factors, we hypothesized that women with antenatal and postpartum depression would display attentional bias to negatively and positively valenced words...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200111/low-grade-gliomas
#20
David Schiff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low-grade gliomas present vexing management issues for neuro-oncologists. The relatively long survival compared to other brain tumors makes consideration of treatment toxicity, and thus timing of potentially damaging interventions such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, crucial. Moreover, the rarity of these tumors makes clinical trials to ascertain optimal care challenging. RECENT FINDINGS: The discovery that most low-grade gliomas harbor isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations that confer a favorable prognosis has improved diagnosis and risk stratification of these tumors...
December 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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