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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100283/genetic-influences-on-hormonal-markers-of-chronic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-function-in-human-hair
#1
E M Tucker-Drob, A D Grotzinger, D A Briley, L E Engelhardt, F D Mann, M Patterson, C Kirschbaum, E K Adam, J A Church, J L Tackett, K P Harden
BACKGROUND: Cortisol is the primary output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is central to the biological stress response, with wide-ranging effects on psychiatric health. Despite well-studied biological pathways of glucocorticoid function, little attention has been paid to the role of genetic variation. Conventional salivary, urinary and serum measures are strongly influenced by diurnal variation and transient reactivity. Recently developed technology can be used to measure cortisol accumulation over several months in hair, thus indexing chronic HPA function...
January 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043700/prenatal-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-and-disruption-of-adrenal-androgens-and-glucocorticoids-levels-in-cord-blood-the-hokkaido-study
#2
Atsuko Araki, Takahiko Mitsui, Houman Goudarzi, Tamie Nakajima, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Itoh, Seiko Sasaki, Kazutoshi Cho, Kimihiko Moriya, Nobuo Shinohara, Katsuya Nonomura, Reiko Kishi
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is known for its endocrine disrupting properties. We previously demonstrated that prenatal DEHP exposure is associated with decreased progesterone levels and testosterone/estradiol ratio in the cord blood. However, evidence of the effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on adrenal androgen and glucocorticoids in infants is scarce. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the association between prenatal DEHP exposure and adrenal androgen and glucocorticoids, and to discuss its effects on steroid hormone profiles in infants...
December 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038491/some-social-aspects-of-discovery-synthesis-and-production-of-cortisone-in-the-1930s-1950s
#3
REVIEW
Daria Jadreškić
A discovery, synthesis and therapeutic application of cortisone present a paradigm for modern translational medicine (Hillier 2007, Saenger 2010), since they represented a joint achievement of discoveries by biochemists, Edward Calvin Kendall and Tadeus Reichstein; large scale synthesis by an industrial chemist, Lewis Hastings Sarett, and therapeutic application by a rheumatologist, Philip Showalter Hench. The goal of translational medicine is to speed up the process between basic research and clinical practice, and to integrate multiple disciplines in order to understand diverse outcomes (Zhang et al...
December 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998757/intraindividual-stability-of-cortisol-and-cortisone-and-the-ratio-of-cortisol-to-cortisone-in-saliva-urine-and-hair
#4
Quan Zhang, Zheng Chen, Shenghuo Chen, Youyun Xu, Huihua Deng
BACKGROUND: Cortisol, cortisone and the ratio of cortisol to cortisone in saliva, urine and hair are acute, short-term and long-term biomarkers to reliably assess the activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD). One key issue is whether these biomarkers have intraindividual relative stability. Salivary, urinary and hair cortisol was proven to show considerable long-term intraindividual relative stability. However, currently unknown is whether cortisone and the ratio in saliva, urine and hair show intraindividual relative stability...
December 18, 2016: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981314/severe-alveolar-hemorrhage-what-s-in-it-for-the-gastroenterologist
#5
Alina Popp, Ciprian Jurcuţ, Daniel Vasile Balaban, Mihai Șotcan, Kaija Laurila, Mariana Jinga
BACKGROUND: Alveolar hemorrhage is a potentially life-threatening condition which is usually managed by the pulmonologist. When considering its etiology, there is a rare association that sets the disease into the hands of the gastroenterologist. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 48 year-old female who was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe anemia and hemoptysis. On imaging, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates suggestive of alveolar hemorrhage were detected and a diagnosis of pulmonary hemosiderosis was made...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973460/adrenal-disorders-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Labrini Papanastasiou, Stelios Fountoulakis, Ioannis A Vatalas
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the developed world and its pathogenesis is complex and multifactorial. It is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is the leading cause of hepatic cirrhosis. This review aims to present current knowledge on the involvement of the adrenal glands in the development of NAFLD. Clinical and animal studies have shown that excess glucocorticoids (GC) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD seem to have a subtle chronic activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis leading to a state of subclinical hypercortisolism...
December 14, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964706/low-dose-methotrexate-ld-mtx-in-rheumatology-practice-a-most-widely-misunderstood-drug
#7
Anand N Malaviya
Methotrexate (MTX) was synthesised as a folate antagonist for use in treating childhood leukaemia in 1940s. Gubner and colleagues in 1953 used several log-order lower doses of MTX that mimicked the anti-inflammatory properties of cortisone. They used it successfully in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Their work was however overlooked because the Nobel Prize winning drug cortisone held sway in those days. With increasing awareness of the adverse effects of cortisone, interest was rekindled in discovering 'steroid-sparing' drugs...
2016: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951607/-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#8
M Balke, G Wunderlich, A Brunn, G R Fink, H C Lehmann
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic progressive or relapsing autoimmune neuropathy with heterogeneous clinical presentation. Symptoms typically include symmetrical, proximal and/or distal paresis and sensory loss. Atypical CIDP variants are increasingly recognized, including subtypes with rapid onset as well as variants with pure sensory, focal or marked asymmetrical deficits. Diagnosis is established by compatible symptoms, characteristic electrophysiological features and cerebrospinal fluid analysis...
December 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932530/affective-alterations-in-patients-with-cushing-s-syndrome-in-remission-are-associated-with-decreased-bdnf-and-cortisone-levels
#9
E Valassi, I Crespo, B G Keevil, A Aulinas, E Urgell, A Santos, P J Trainer, S M Webb
OBJECTIVE: Affective alterations and poorer quality of life often persist in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) in remission. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and is highly expressed in brain areas controlling mood and response to stress. Our aims were to assess affective alterations after long-term remission of CS and evaluate whether they are associated with serum BDNF, salivary cortisol (SalF) and/or cortisone (SalE) concentrations...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927697/absence-of-11-keto-reduction-of-cortisone-and-11-ketotestosterone-in-the-model-organism-zebrafish
#10
Maria Tsachaki, Arne Meyer, Benjamin Weger, Denise V Kratschmar, Janina Tokarz, Jerzy Adamski, Heinz-Georg Belting, Markus Affolter, Thomas Dickmeis, Alex Odermatt
Zebrafish are widely used as model organism. Their suitability for endocrine studies, drug screening and toxicity assessements depends on the extent of conservation of specific genes and biochemical pathways between zebrafish and human. Glucocorticoids consist of inactive 11-keto (cortisone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone) and active 11β-hydroxyl forms (cortisol, corticosterone). In mammals, two 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD1, 11β-HSD2) interconvert active and inactive glucocorticoids, allowing tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoid action...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925640/diagnosis-and-management-of-distal-clavicle-osteolysis
#11
Steven F DeFroda, Christopher Nacca, Gregory R Waryasz, Brett D Owens
Distal clavicle osteolysis is an uncommon condition that most commonly affects weight lifters and other athletes who perform repetitive overhead activity. Although this condition most commonly presents in young active men, it is becoming increasing more common in women with the rise in popularity of body building and extreme athletics. Distal clavicle osteolysis can be debilitating, especially in those with rigorous training regimens, preventing exercise because of pain with activities such as bench presses and chest flies...
December 7, 2016: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856655/glucocorticoids-and-chronic-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Rainer H Straub, Maurizio Cutolo
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that once bound to their receptor interact with the DNA binding domain. Almost 1000-2000 genes are sensitive to their effects, including immune/inflammatory response genes. However, their role in pathophysiology and therapy is still debated. We performed a literature survey using the key words glucocorticoids, inflammation, autoimmune disease, rheumatology and adrenal glands in order to define important targets for this review on glucocorticoids. Considering endogenous/exogenous glucocorticoids in chronic inflammatory diseases brought up five major points for discussion: inadequately low production of endogenous cortisol relative to systemic inflammation (the disproportion principle); changes of the systemic and local cortisol-to-cortisone shuttle (reactivation and degradation of cortisol); inflammation-induced glucocorticoid resistance; highlights of present glucocorticoid therapy; and the role of circadian rhythms in action of cortisol...
December 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855510/uhplc-ms-ms-bioanalysis-of-urinary-dhea-cortisone-and-their-hydroxylated-metabolites-as-potential-biomarkers-for-cyp3a-mediated-drug-drug-interactions
#13
Naiyu Zheng, Lisa J Christopher, Xuewen Ma, Qin C Ji, Adela Buzescu, Hamza Kandoussi, Samira M Garonzik, Frank LaCreta, Anne-Francoise Aubry, Mark E Arnold, Jianing Zeng
AIM: A UHPLC-MS/MS assay was developed to quantify urinary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 7β-hydroxy-DHEA, cortisone and 6β-hydroxycortisone as potential biomarkers to predict CYP3A activity. RESULTS: A sensitive assay at LLOQ of 0.500 ng/ml with good accuracy and precision was developed for the four analytes in human urine. This UHPLC-MS/MS assay was optimized by eliminating nonspecific loss of the analytes in urine, ensuring complete hydrolysis of the conjugates to unconjugated forms and use of the product ions of [M+H-H2O](+) for multiple reaction monitoring detection of DHEA and 7β-hydroxy-DHEA...
December 2016: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848093/a-new-technique-for-promoting-cyclic-utilization-of-cyclodextrins-in-biotransformation
#14
Yanbing Shen, Ziqi Yu, Xu Yang, Fang Wang, Jianmei Luo, Min Wang
Cyclodextrins (CDs) can improve the productivity of steroid biotransformation by enhancing substrate solubility. CDs can be recycled by grafting them with appropriate carriers. Loofah fiber is an excellent grafting material for CDs, and can be applied to the biotransformation and recycling of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). In this work, a technique for recycling β-CD in cortisone acetate (CA) biotransformation by Arthrobacter simplex CPCC 140451 was studied. Loofah fiber-grafted β-CD (LF-β-CD) was prepared using epichlorohydrin, which is a cross-linking agent...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813051/salivary-cortisol-and-cortisone-do-not-appear-to-be-useful-biomarkers-for-monitoring-hydrocortisone-replacement-in-addison-s-disease
#15
I L Ross, M Lacerda, T S Pillay, D J Blom, G Johannsson, J A Dave, N S Levitt, D Haarburger, J-S van der Walt
Salivary cortisol has been used to monitor hydrocortisone replacement in patients with Addison's disease (AD). Since salivary cortisol is metabolised to salivary cortisone, it may be an adjunctive analyte to assess adequacy of hydrocortisone replacement in patients with AD. We aimed to characterise the exposure of salivary cortisol and cortisone in patients and healthy controls. We measured salivary cortisol and cortisone by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and constructed a day curve (08:00 until 24:00 h) with 16 time points in 25 AD patients taking their usual hydrocortisone dose and in 26 healthy controls...
December 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774663/liver-and-serum-expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-asymptomatic-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients
#16
Silja H Voutilainen, Silja K Kosola, Taina I Tervahartiala, Timo A Sorsa, Hannu J Jalanko, Mikko P Pakarinen
We related hepatic gene and serum expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) to liver histology in pediatric LT recipients. Liver biopsies and serum samples were obtained from 52 patients 10.6 years post-LT and age-matched controls for analyses of MMPs and TIMPs. Patients with fibrosis had significantly higher hepatic gene expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 than patients without. Expression of these genes correlated with graft Metavir fibrosis stage (r = 0...
October 23, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715400/genetic-variation-in-the-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-gene-determines-nafld-and-visceral-obesity
#17
Stefan Z Lutz, Andreas Peter, Fausto Machicao, Apostolia Lamprinou, Jürgen Machann, Fritz Schick, Ingmar Königsrainer, Alfred Königsrainer, Andreas Fritsche, Harald Staiger, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan, Konstantinos Kantartzis
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Acute pharmacological inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts cortisone into the much more potent cortisol in peripheral tissues, results in reduction of total, visceral, and liver fat but not insulin resistance. We now investigated whether lifelong alterations of 11β-HSD1 activity similarly affect these cardiometabolic risk parameters by studying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 11β-HSD1-coding gene (HSD11B1). DESIGN/METHODS: Liver fat content was measured by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and total and visceral fat mass by (1)H-magnetic resonance tomography in 327 subjects...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682404/simultaneous-determination-of-seven-neuroactive-steroids-associated-with-depression-in-rat-plasma-and-brain-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Youqiong Wang, Lipeng Tang, Wei Yin, Jiesi Chen, Tiandong Leng, Xiaoke Zheng, Wenbo Zhu, Haipeng Zhang, Pengxin Qiu, Xiaoxiao Yang, Guangmei Yan, Haiyan Hu
Sensitive and specific biomarkers are required for the diagnosis and treatment of depression because the existing diagnostic criteria are subjective and could produce false positives or negatives. Some endogenous neuroactive steroids that have shown either antidepressant effects or concentration changes in individuals with depression could provide potential biomarkers. In this study, a simple and specific method was developed to simultaneously determine seven endogenous neuroactive steroids in biological samples: cortisone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, estradiol, progesterone, pregnenolone, and testosterone...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646492/impact-of-maternal-steroids-during-pregnancy
#19
Rebecca M Reynolds
Increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids is a key mechanism thought to underlie the early life programming of later life disease. There is substantial experimental data in animal models in support of this hypothesis. Emerging evidence suggests glucocorticoid programming may also occur in humans with some studies now linking maternal endogenous cortisol levels with size at birth and gestation at delivery. The dramatic changes to the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during pregnancy mean that large-scale studies in humans are challenging to conduct...
December 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629575/breast-milk-cortisol-and-cortisone-concentrations-follow-the-diurnal-rhythm-of-maternal-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity
#20
Bibian van der Voorn, Marita de Waard, Johannes B van Goudoever, Joost Rotteveel, Annemieke C Heijboer, Martijn Jj Finken
BACKGROUND: Very preterm infants often receive donor milk from mothers who deliver at term, but its composition differs from that of their own mother's milk. Because breast-milk glucocorticoids can support developing neonates, we explored concentration variability within and between mothers. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that breast-milk glucocorticoid concentrations would be higher after very preterm delivery [gestational age (GA) <32 wk; study 1] and would follow the diurnal rhythm of maternal adrenocortical activity (study 2)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
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