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High intelligence

H G Kenngott, M Wagner, A A Preukschas, B P Müller-Stich
Modern operating room (OR) suites are mostly digitally connected but until now the primary focus was on the presentation, transfer and distribution of images. Device information and processes within the operating theaters are barely considered. Cognitive assistance systems have triggered a fundamental rethinking in the automotive industry as well as in logistics. In principle, tasks in the OR, some of which are highly repetitive, also have great potential to be supported by automated cognitive assistance via a self-thinking system...
October 24, 2016: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Ana Sánchez Azofra, Trilokesh D Kidambi, Rita J Jeremy, Peggy Conrad, Amie Blanco, Megan Myers, James Barkovich, Jonathan P Terdiman
BACKGROUND: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant hereditary colon cancer syndrome caused by mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with both colonic and extra-colonic manifestations. Case reports have noted an association with FAP and intellectual disability and animal studies have shown that APC is implicated in neural development and function, but no studies have investigated neuropsychological, behavioral, or structural brain characteristics of patients with FAP...
2016: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Jeanette Reffstrup Christensen, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup Bredahl, Jenny Hadrévi, Gisela Sjøgaard, Karen Søgaard
BACKGROUND: Several RCT studies have aimed to reduce either musculoskeletal disorders, sickness presenteeism, sickness absenteeism or a combination of these among females with high physical work demands. These studies have provided evidence that workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions are effective, but long-term effects are still uncertain. These studies either lack to succeed in maintaining intervention effects or lack to document if effects are maintained past a one-year period...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Shuoyang Chen, Tingfa Xu, Daqun Li, Jizhou Zhang, Shenwang Jiang
During the process of moving object detection in an intelligent visual surveillance system, a scenario with complex background is sure to appear. The traditional methods, such as "frame difference" and "optical flow", may not able to deal with the problem very well. In such scenarios, we use a modified algorithm to do the background modeling work. In this paper, we use edge detection to get an edge difference image just to enhance the ability of resistance illumination variation. Then we use a "multi-block temporal-analyzing LBP (Local Binary Pattern)" algorithm to do the segmentation...
October 21, 2016: Sensors
Yanan Zhang, Loong-Tak Lim
Colorimetric CO2 indicators were prepared by printing pH dyes (M-cresol purple or phenol red, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, ethylcellulose, 1:2 ethanol:1-butanol solvent), using a commercially available thermal inkjet printer, on either cellulose paper or plastic transparency film. Indicators inks printed on the papers had higher sensitivity to CO2, greater color change, and more producible than those printed on plastic film. Varying the print intensities of the two pH dyes resulted in multiplexed indicators with tunable sensitivity and expanded detection concentration range towards CO2...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Teresa M Attina, Russ Hauser, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Patricia A Hunt, Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, John Peterson Myers, Joseph DiGangi, R Thomas Zoeller, Leonardo Trasande
BACKGROUND: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to disease and dysfunction and incur high associated costs (>1% of the gross domestic product [GDP] in the European Union). Exposure to EDCs varies widely between the USA and Europe because of differences in regulations and, therefore, we aimed to quantify disease burdens and related economic costs to allow comparison. METHODS: We used existing models for assessing epidemiological and toxicological studies to reach consensus on probabilities of causation for 15 exposure-response relations between substances and disorders...
October 17, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Xiaopeng Wang, Jian Gao, Zhihua Cheng, Nan Chen, Liangti Qu
A new type of responsive battery with the fascinating feature of pressure perceptibility has been developed, which can spontaneously, timely and reliably control the power outputs (e.g., current and voltage) in response to pressure changes. The device design is based on the structure of the Zn-air battery, in which graphene-coated sponge serves as pressure-sensitive air cathode that endows the whole system with the capability of self-controlled energy release. The responsive batteries exhibit superior battery performance with high open-circuit voltage (1...
October 20, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Zahra Polat, Erdoğan Bulut, Ahmet Ataş
BACKGROUND: Spoken word recognition and speech perception tests in quiet are being used as a routine in assessment of the benefit which children and adult cochlear implant users receive from their devices. Cochlear implant users generally demonstrate high level performances in these test materials as they are able to achieve high level speech perception ability in quiet situations. Although these test materials provide valuable information regarding Cochlear Implant (CI) users' performances in optimal listening conditions, they do not give realistic information regarding performances in adverse listening conditions, which is the case in the everyday environment...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Bas P Hartel, Martijn J H Agterberg, Ad F Snik, Henricus P M Kunst, A John V Opstal, Arjan J Bosman, Ronald J E Pennings
OBJECTIVES: Usher syndrome is the leading cause of hereditary deaf-blindness. Most patients with Usher syndrome type IIa start using hearing aids from a young age. A serious complaint refers to interference between sound localization abilities and adaptive sound processing (compression), as present in today's hearing aids. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of advanced signal processing on binaural hearing, including sound localization. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: In this prospective study, patients were fitted with hearing aids with a nonlinear (compression) and linear amplification program...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Cailei Zhao, Yongxin Li, Weiguo Cao, Kui Xiang, Heye Zhang, Jian Yang, Yungen Gan
To explore the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the quantitative assessment of early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus.Ten patients with communicating hydrocephalus (age: 2-36 months) and 14 age-/gender-matched controls (age: 2-36 months) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. The imaging data were collected before and 3 months after the operation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gerald J Haeffel, Sascha Hein, Amanda Square, Donna Macomber, Maria Lee, John Chapman, Elena L Grigorenko
This study reports findings from the administration of a social problem-solving training (SPST) intervention to juvenile detainees in the Connecticut Youth Detainee Program. SPST is a cognitive behavioral intervention that teaches children and youth how to more effectively cope with interpersonal stress and conflict. In the current study, we tested whether SPST could decrease depressive symptoms in a sample of detained adolescent offenders. The study used a randomized-control design with detention staff administering the intervention...
October 19, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Hans Lehrach
Every human is unique. We differ in our genomes, environment, behavior, disease history, and past and current medical treatment-a complex catalog of differences that often leads to variations in the way each of us responds to a particular therapy. We argue here that true personalization of drug therapies will rely on "virtual patient" models based on a detailed characterization of the individual patient by molecular, imaging, and sensor techniques. The models will be based, wherever possible, on the molecular mechanisms of disease processes and drug action but can also expand to hybrid models including statistics/machine learning/artificial intelligence-based elements trained on available data to address therapeutic areas or therapies for which insufficient information on mechanisms is available...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Amal A Wanigatunga, Paul V Nickerson, Todd M Manini, Parisa Rashidi
The objective of this analysis was to apply symbolic aggregate approximation (SAX) time-series analysis to accelerometer data for activity pattern visualization stratified by self-reported mobility difficulty. A total of 2393 (71.6  ±  7.9 years old) participants wore an accelerometer on the hip (4  +  d; 10  +  h) during the national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES), a biannual series of health assessments of the US population. One minute epoch data was used to perform SAX, which converted accelerometry time series data into four activity levels...
October 18, 2016: Physiological Measurement
Richard W Hass
Divergent thinking has often been used as a proxy measure of creative thinking, but this practice lacks a foundation in modern cognitive psychological theory. This article addresses several issues with the classic divergent-thinking methodology and presents a new theoretical and methodological framework for cognitive divergent-thinking studies. A secondary analysis of a large dataset of divergent-thinking responses is presented. Latent semantic analysis was used to examine the potential changes in semantic distance between responses and the concept represented by the divergent-thinking prompt across successive response iterations...
October 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Farzaneh Karimi-Alavijeh, Saeed Jalili, Masoumeh Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome which underlies the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes is considered as a group of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, artificial intelligence based health-care systems are highly regarded because of its success in diagnosis, prediction, and choice of treatment. This study employs machine learning technics for predict the metabolic syndrome...
May 2016: ARYA Atherosclerosis
Abigail Livny, Anat Biegon, Tammar Kushnir, Sagi Harnof, Chen Hoffmann, Eyal Fruchter, Mark Weiser
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to have a substantial, though highly variable, impact on cognitive abilities. Due to the wide range of cognitive abilities among healthy individuals, an objective assessment of TBI-related cognitive loss requires an accurate measurement of premorbid cognitive performance. To address this problem, we recruited 50 adults who sustained a TBI and had performed a cognitive baseline assessment in adolescence as part of the aptitude tests mandated by the Israeli Defense Forces...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Luisa Schonhaut B, Marcela Pérez R, Ana María Castilla F, Sonia Castro M, Patricia Salinas A, Iván Armijo R
INTRODUCTION: The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III)...
October 13, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Soumya Swaminathan, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Geetha Ramachandran, A K Hemanth Kumar, Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Eric Nuermberger, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  The role of drug concentrations in clinical outcomes in children with tuberculosis is unclear. Target concentrations for dose optimization are unknown. METHODS:  Plasma drug concentrations measured in Indian children with tuberculosis were modeled using compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses. The children were followed until end of therapy to ascertain therapy failure or death. An ensemble of artificial intelligence algorithms, including random forests, was used to identify predictors of clinical outcome from among 30 clinical, laboratory, and pharmacokinetic variables...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Silvia Colella, Marco Mazzeo, Aurora Rizzo, Giuseppe Gigli, Andrea Listorti
Incubating in the rise of the perovskite photovoltaic era, an intelligent material design allows now for a fine tune of the properties, targeting also light-emitting applications. Herein benefits derive from the use of low dimensional and nanostructured perovskites, marginally exploited in photovoltaic devices, allowing for exciton engineering and for intrinsic resonating structures. By evaluating halide perovskites, envisioning light-emitting applications, particular attention is dedicated to the role that this material can effectively play in the field...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Qinghua Yi, Hao Wang, Shan Cong, Yingjie Cao, Yun Wang, Yinghui Sun, Yanhui Lou, Jie Zhao, Jiang Wu, Guifu Zou
Due to the good photocatalytic activity, the TiO2@CNTs thin film is highly desirable to apply to the self-cleaning glass for green intelligent building. Here, the TiO2@CNTs thin film has been successfully achieved by polymer-assisted approach of an aqueous chemical solution method. The polymer, polyethylenimine, aims to combine the Ti(4+) with CNTs for film formation of TiO2@CNTs. The resultant thin film was uniform, highly transparent, and super-hydrophilic. Owing to fast electron transport and effectively hindering electron-hole recombination, the TiO2@CNTs thin film has nearly twofold photocatalytic performance than pure TiO2...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
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