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Multilingualism intelligence

Kazuo Ueda, Yoshitaka Nakajima, Wolfgang Ellermeier, Florian Kattner
A set of experiments was performed to make a cross-language comparison of intelligibility of locally time-reversed speech, employing a total of 117 native listeners of English, German, Japanese, and Mandarin Chinese. The experiments enabled to examine whether the languages of three types of timing-stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed languages-exhibit different trends in intelligibility, depending on the duration of the segments that were temporally reversed. The results showed a strikingly similar trend across languages, especially when the time axis of segment duration was normalised with respect to the deviation of a talker's speech rate from the average in each language...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Faramarz Pourasghar, Yeganeh Partovi
BACKGROUND: By self-reporting outcome procedure the patients themselves record disease symptoms outside medical centers and then report them to medical staff in specific periods of time. One of the self-reporting methods is the application of interactive voice response (IVR), in which some pre-designed questions in the form of voice tracks would be played and then the caller responses the questions by pressing phone's keypad bottoms. AIM: The present research explains the main framework of such system designing according to IVR technology that is for the first time designed and administered in Iran...
October 2015: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Birger Kollmeier, Anna Warzybok, Sabine Hochmuth, Melanie A Zokoll, Verena Uslar, Thomas Brand, Kirsten C Wagener
OBJECTIVE: A review of the development, evaluation, and application of the so-called 'matrix sentence test' for speech intelligibility testing in a multilingual society is provided. The format allows for repeated use with the same patient in her or his native language even if the experimenter does not understand the language. DESIGN: Using a closed-set format, the syntactically fixed, semantically unpredictable sentences (e.g. 'Peter bought eight white ships') provide a vocabulary of 50 words (10 alternatives for each position in the sentence)...
2015: International Journal of Audiology
Martin Root, Erin Ravine, Anne Harper
Cognitive decline occurs with age and may be slowed by dietary measures, including increased intake of dietary phytochemicals. However, evidence from large and long-term studies of flavonol intake is limited. Dietary intakes of flavonols were assessed from a large biracial study of 10,041 subjects, aged 45-64, by analysis of a food frequency questionnaire administered at visit 1 of triennial visits. Cognitive function was assessed at visits 2 and 4 with the following three cognitive performance tests: the delayed word recall test, the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale digit symbol subtest, and the word fluency test of the Multilingual Aphasia Examination...
December 2015: Journal of Medicinal Food
F S Bersani, O Corazza, G Albano, S Bruschi, A Minichino, R Vicinanza, G Bersani, G Martinotti, F Schifano
OBJECTIVE: Alternative methods of alcohol consumption have recently emerged among adolescents and young adults, including the alcohol "eyeballing", which consist in the direct pouring of alcoholic substances on the ocular surface epithelium. In a context of drug and behavioural addictions change, "eyeballing" can be seen as one of the latest and potentially highly risky new trends. We aimed to analyze the existing medical literature as well as online material on this emerging trend of alcohol misuse...
June 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Sharynne McLeod, Kathryn Crowe, Ameneh Shahaeian
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe normative and validation data on the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS; McLeod, Harrison, & McCormack, 2012c) for English-speaking children. METHOD: The ICS is a 7-item, parent-report measure of children's speech intelligibility with a range of communicative partners. Data were collected from the parents of 803 Australian English-speaking children ranging in age from 4;0 (years;months) to 5;5 (37.0% were multilingual)...
July 2015: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Kate Cockcroft, Tracy Alloway, Evan Copello, Robyn Milligan
There is debate regarding the appropriate use of Western cognitive measures with individuals from very diverse backgrounds to that of the norm population. Given the dated research in this area and the considerable socio-economic changes that South Africa has witnessed over the past 20 years, this paper reports on the use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III), the most commonly used measure of intelligence, with an English second language, multilingual, low socio-economic group of black, South African university students...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Patricia L Woods, Ingrid Rieger, Crista Wocadlo, Adrienne Gordon
BACKGROUND: Very preterm infants (<30 weeks of gestation) are at increased risk of specific language impairment and systematic developmental follow-up is essential for the provision of targeted early intervention. AIMS: To define the predictive value of early language testing and stability of language development, and perinatal and demographic risk factors for the diagnosis of SLI at 5 years, in a cohort of preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: We used a retrospective hospital based cohort study...
October 2014: Early Human Development
Nicole Gust, Franz Petermann, Ute Koglin
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated whether children with and without migration background differed in their assessment of the effectiveness of presented behavioral and mental strategies, and in the generation of effective behavioral and mental emotion-regulation strategies (knowledge of emotion regulation strategies). METHOD: A sample of N = 210 children (age 36-72 months) with and without migration background was compared in their knowledge of emotion-regulation strategies...
September 2014: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Chang Liu, Su-Hyun Jin, Chia-Tsen Chen
The goal of this study was to examine durations of American English vowels produced by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers and the effects of vowel duration on vowel intelligibility. Twelve American English vowels were recorded in the /hVd/ phonetic context by native speakers and non-native speakers. The English vowel duration patterns as a function of vowel produced by non-native speakers were generally similar to those produced by native speakers. These results imply that using duration differences across vowels may be an important strategy for non-native speakers' production before they are able to employ spectral cues to produce and perceive English speech sounds...
June 2014: Language and Speech
Ornella Corazza, Giovanni Martinotti, Rita Santacroce, Eleonora Chillemi, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Fabrizio Schifano, Selim Cellek
INTRODUCTION: The use of unlicensed food and herbal supplements to enhance sexual functions is drastically increasing. This phenomenon, combined with the availability of these products over the Internet, represents a challenge from a clinical and a public health perspective. METHODS: A comprehensive multilingual assessment of websites, drug fora, and other online resources was carried out between February and July 2013 with exploratory qualitative searches including 203 websites...
2014: BioMed Research International
Sharynne Mcleod, Elise Baker
A survey of 231 Australian speech-language pathologists (SLPs) was undertaken to describe practices regarding assessment, analysis, target selection, intervention, and service delivery for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). The participants typically worked in private practice, education, or community health settings and 67.6% had a waiting list for services. For each child, most of the SLPs spent 10-40 min in pre-assessment activities, 30-60 min undertaking face-to-face assessments, and 30-60 min completing paperwork after assessments...
July 2014: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Thomas H Bak, Jack J Nissan, Michael M Allerhand, Ian J Deary
Recent evidence suggests a positive impact of bilingualism on cognition, including later onset of dementia. However, monolinguals and bilinguals might have different baseline cognitive ability. We present the first study examining the effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition controlling for childhood intelligence. We studied 853 participants, first tested in 1947 (age = 11 years), and retested in 2008-2010. Bilinguals performed significantly better than predicted from their baseline cognitive abilities, with strongest effects on general intelligence and reading...
June 2014: Annals of Neurology
Anne E Hogan, Herbert C Quay
There is a pressing need to share advances in developmental science with the large, multidisciplinary professional workforce that serves vulnerable infants and toddlers and their families. Foundational knowledge and conceptual frameworks that integrate material regarding the contents and processes of early development and promotion of their use can assist interventionists and the families they serve. This chapter describes an approach that has been developed over the past 10 years and summarizes key contents with sample practical applications...
2014: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Manuela Macedonia, Iris Groher, Friedrich Roithmayr
intelligent virtual agents (IVAs) with human appearance and the capability to teach foreign language vocabulary. We report results from studies that we have conducted with Billie, an IVA employed as a vocabulary trainer, as well as research findings on the acceptance of the agent as a trainer by adults and children. The results show that Billie can train humans as well as a human teacher can and that both adults and children accept the IVA as a trainer. The advantages of IVAs are multiple. First, their teaching methods can be based on neuropsychological research findings concerning memory and learning practice...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Peter G Brindley, Katherine E Smith, Pierre Cardinal, Francois LeBlanc
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2014: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Pavel Pecina, Ondřej Dušek, Lorraine Goeuriot, Jan Hajič, Jaroslava Hlaváčová, Gareth J F Jones, Liadh Kelly, Johannes Leveling, David Mareček, Michal Novák, Martin Popel, Rudolf Rosa, Aleš Tamchyna, Zdeňka Urešová
OBJECTIVE: We investigate machine translation (MT) of user search queries in the context of cross-lingual information retrieval (IR) in the medical domain. The main focus is on techniques to adapt MT to increase translation quality; however, we also explore MT adaptation to improve effectiveness of cross-lingual IR. METHODS AND DATA: Our MT system is Moses, a state-of-the-art phrase-based statistical machine translation system. The IR system is based on the BM25 retrieval model implemented in the Lucene search engine...
July 2014: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Jeffrey J Holliday
The current study reports the results of a perception experiment in which 20 naive native Mandarin listeners classified and rated the goodness of Korean stops /p, t, k, p(h), t(h), k(h), p*, t*, k*/, affricates /tɕ, tɕ*, tɕ(h)/, and fricatives /s(h), s*/ in terms of Mandarin segmental categories. It was found that listeners were sensitive to the voice onset time dimension of Korean stops and the presence of aspiration in Korean affricates, but Korean lenis and aspirated obstruents were generally assimilated to a single Mandarin category because the f0 cue differentiating them is not relevant to any Mandarin segmental contrast...
March 2014: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Paola Escudero, Bianca Sisinni, Mirko Grimaldi
Salento Italian (SI) listeners' categorization and discrimination of standard Southern British English (SSBE) vowels were examined in order to establish their initial state in the acquisition of the SSBE vowel system. The results of the vowel categorization task revealed that SI listeners showed single-category assimilation for many SSBE vowels and multiple-category assimilation for others. Additionally, SI vowel discrimination accuracy varied across contrasts, in line with the categorization results. This differential level of difficulty is discussed on the basis of current L2 perception models...
March 2014: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Lauren Calandruccio, Emily Buss, Joseph W Hall
Masked speech perception can often be improved by modulating the masker temporally and/or spectrally. These effects tend to be larger in normal-hearing listeners than hearing-impaired listeners, and effects of temporal modulation are larger in adults than young children [Hall et al. (2012). Ear Hear. 33, 340-348]. Initial reports indicate non-native adult speakers of the target language also have a reduced ability to benefit from temporal masker modulation [Stuart et al. (2010). J. Am. Acad. Aud. 21, 239-248]...
March 2014: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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