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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441085/noun-and-verb-knowledge-in-monolingual-preschool-children-across-17-languages-data-from-cross-linguistic-lexical-tasks-litmus-clt
#1
Ewa Haman, Magdalena Łuniewska, Pernille Hansen, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Shula Chiat, Jovana Bjekić, Agnė Blažienė, Katarzyna Chyl, Ineta Dabašinskienė, Pascale Engel de Abreu, Natalia Gagarina, Anna Gavarró, Gisela Håkansson, Efrat Harel, Elisabeth Holm, Svetlana Kapalková, Sari Kunnari, Chiara Levorato, Josefin Lindgren, Karolina Mieszkowska, Laia Montes Salarich, Anneke Potgieter, Ingeborg Ribu, Natalia Ringblom, Tanja Rinker, Maja Roch, Daniela Slančová, Frenette Southwood, Roberta Tedeschi, Aylin Müge Tuncer, Özlem Ünal-Logacev, Jasmina Vuksanović, Sharon Armon-Lotem
This article investigates the cross-linguistic comparability of the newly developed lexical assessment tool Cross-linguistic Lexical Tasks (LITMUS-CLT). LITMUS-CLT is a part the Language Impairment Testing in Multilingual Settings (LITMUS) battery (Armon-Lotem, de Jong & Meir, 2015). Here we analyse results on receptive and expressive word knowledge tasks for nouns and verbs across 17 languages from eight different language families: Baltic (Lithuanian), Bantu (isiXhosa), Finnic (Finnish), Germanic (Afrikaans, British English, South African English, German, Luxembourgish, Norwegian, Swedish), Romance (Catalan, Italian), Semitic (Hebrew), Slavic (Polish, Serbian, Slovak) and Turkic (Turkish)...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441063/validating-the-psycholinguistic-aspects-of-litmus-clt-evidence-from-polish-and-norwegian
#2
Pernille Hansen, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Magdalena Łuniewska, Ewa Haman
The novel assessment tool Cross-Linguistic Lexical Tasks (LITMUS-CLT) aims for comparable cross-linguistic assessment of multilingual children's lexical skills by basing each language version on two language-specific variables: age of acquisition (AoA) and complexity index (CI), a novel measure related to phonology, morphology, exposure and etymology. This article investigates the validity of this methodology, asking whether the underlying properties are robust predictors of children's performance. The Polish and Norwegian CLTs were used to assess 32 bilingual Polish-Norwegian, 34 monolingual Norwegian and 36 monolingual Polish children...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425775/academic-outcomes-of-multilingual-children-in-australia
#3
Meredith O'Connor, Elodie O'Connor, Joanne Tarasuik, Sarah Gray, Amanda Kvalsvig, Sharon Goldfeld
PURPOSE: The Australian educational system is increasingly challenged to meet the needs of multilingual students, who comprise a fifth of the student population. Within the context of a monolingual English curriculum, multilingual children who enter school not yet English proficient may be at risk of experiencing inequitable educational outcomes. METHOD: We examined the relationship between the timing of multilingual children's acquisition of receptive English vocabulary skills and subsequent reading and numeracy outcomes, as well as factors associated with earlier versus later timing of acquisition...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424634/when-the-second-language-takes-the-lead-neurocognitive-processing-changes-in-the-first-language-of-adult-attriters
#4
Kristina Kasparian, Karsten Steinhauer
Although research on multilingualism has revealed continued neuroplasticity for language-learning beyond what was previously expected, it remains controversial whether and to what extent a second language (L2) acquired in adulthood may induce changes in the neurocognitive processing of a first language (L1). First language (L1) attrition in adulthood offers new insight on neuroplasticity and the factors that modulate neurocognitive responses to language. To date, investigations of the neurocognitive correlates of L1 attrition and of factors influencing these mechanisms are still scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423780/development-and-evaluation-of-a-case-based-retrieval-service
#5
Emilie Pasche, Marcello Chinali, Julien Gobeill, Patrick Ruch
Identifying similar patients might greatly facilitate the treatment of a given patient, enabling to observe the response and outcome to a particular treatment. Case-based retrieval services dealing with natural language processing are of major importance to deal with the significant amount of unstructured clinical data. In this paper, we present the development and evaluation of a case-based retrieval (CBR) service tested on a collection of Italian pediatric cardiology cases. Cases are indexed and a search engine is proposed...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372114/experimental-validation-of-spatial-fourier-transform-based-multiple-sound-zone-generation-with-a-linear-loudspeaker-array
#6
Takuma Okamoto, Atsushi Sakaguchi
Generating acoustically bright and dark zones using loudspeakers is gaining attention as one of the most important acoustic communication techniques for such uses as personal sound systems and multilingual guide services. Although most conventional methods are based on numerical solutions, an analytical approach based on the spatial Fourier transform with a linear loudspeaker array has been proposed, and its effectiveness has been compared with conventional acoustic energy difference maximization and presented by computer simulations...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348537/graphemes-sharing-phonetic-features-tend-to-induce-similar-synesthetic-colors
#7
Mi-Jeong Kang, Yeseul Kim, Ji-Young Shin, Chai-Youn Kim
Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia experience idiosyncratic colors when viewing achromatic letters or digits. Despite large individual differences in grapheme-color association, synesthetes tend to associate graphemes sharing a perceptual feature with similar synesthetic colors. Sound has been suggested as one such feature. In the present study, we investigated whether graphemes of which representative phonemes have similar phonetic features tend to be associated with analogous synesthetic colors. We tested five Korean multilingual synesthetes on a color-matching task using graphemes from Korean, English, and Japanese orthography...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326995/multipic-a-standardized-set-of-750-drawings-with-norms-for-six-european-languages
#8
Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Davide Crepaldi, Antje S Meyer, Boris New, Christos Pliatsikas, Eva Smolka, Marc Brysbaert
Numerous studies in psychology, cognitive neuroscience and psycholinguistics have used pictures of objects as stimulus materials. Currently, authors engaged in cross-linguistic work or wishing to run parallel studies at multiple sites where different languages are spoken must rely on rather small sets of black-and-white or colored line drawings. These sets are increasingly experienced as being too limited. Therefore, we constructed a new set of 750 colored pictures of concrete concepts. This set, MultiPic, constitutes a new valuable tool for cognitive scientists investigating language, visual perception, memory and/or attention in monolingual or multilingual populations...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326989/perception-of-nonnative-accented-sentences-by-5-to-8-year-olds-and-adults-the-role-of-phonological-processing-skills
#9
Tessa Bent, Eriko Atagi
To acquire language and successfully communicate in multicultural and multilingual societies, children must learn to understand speakers with various accents and dialects. This study investigated adults' and 5- to 8-year-old children's perception of native- and nonnative-accented English sentences in noise. Participants' phonological memory and phonological awareness were assessed to investigate factors associated with individual differences in word recognition. Although both adults and children performed less accurately with nonnative talkers than native talkers, children showed greater performance decrements...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280057/discourses-of-prejudice-in-the-professions-the-case-of-sign-languages
#10
Tom Humphries, Poorna Kushalnagar, Gaurav Mathur, Donna Jo Napoli, Carol Padden, Christian Rathmann, Scott Smith
There is no evidence that learning a natural human language is cognitively harmful to children. To the contrary, multilingualism has been argued to be beneficial to all. Nevertheless, many professionals advise the parents of deaf children that their children should not learn a sign language during their early years, despite strong evidence across many research disciplines that sign languages are natural human languages. Their recommendations are based on a combination of misperceptions about (1) the difficulty of learning a sign language, (2) the effects of bilingualism, and particularly bimodalism, (3) the bona fide status of languages that lack a written form, (4) the effects of a sign language on acquiring literacy, (5) the ability of technologies to address the needs of deaf children and (6) the effects that use of a sign language will have on family cohesion...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277057/reasons-for-attending-a-general-emergency-outpatient-clinic-versus-a-regular-general-practitioner-a-survey-among-immigrant-and-native-walk-in-patients-in-oslo-norway
#11
Sven Eirik Ruud, Per Hjortdahl, Bård Natvig
OBJECTIVE: To explore reasons for attending a general emergency outpatient clinic versus a regular general practitioner (RGP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using a multilingual anonymous questionnaire. SETTING: Native and immigrant walk-in patients attending a general emergency outpatient clinic in Oslo (Monday-Friday, 08:00-23:00) during 2 weeks in September 2009. SUBJECTS: We included 1022 walk-in patients: 565 native Norwegians (55%) and 457 immigrants (45%)...
March 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264693/a-tailored-programme-to-implement-recommendations-for-multimorbid-patients-with-polypharmacy-in-primary-care-practices-process-evaluation-of-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#12
Cornelia Jäger, Jost Steinhäuser, Tobias Freund, Sarah Kuse, Joachim Szecsenyi, Michel Wensing
BACKGROUND: We developed and evaluated a tailored programme to implement three evidence-based recommendations for multimorbid patients with polypharmacy into primary care practices: structured medication counselling including brown bag reviews, the use of medication lists and medication reviews. No effect on the primary outcome was found. This process evaluation aimed to identify factors associated with outcomes by exploring nine hypotheses specified in the logic model of the tailored programme...
March 6, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263637/the-effect-of-simultaneous-text-on-the-recall-of-noise-degraded-speech
#13
Irina Grossman, Ramesh Rajan
Written and spoken language utilize the same processing system, enabling text to modulate speech processing. We investigated how simultaneously presented text affected speech recall in babble noise using a retrospective recall task. Participants were presented with text-speech sentence pairs in multitalker babble noise and then prompted to recall what they heard or what they read. In Experiment 1, sentence pairs were either congruent or incongruent and they were presented in silence or at 1 of 4 noise levels...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230411/the-bilingual-adaptation-how-minds-accommodate-experience
#14
Ellen Bialystok
According to some estimates, more than half of the world's population is multilingual to some extent. Because of the centrality of language use to human experience and the deep connections between linguistic and nonlinguistic processing, it would not be surprising to find that there are interactions between bilingualism and cognitive and brain processes. The present review uses the framework of experience-dependent plasticity to evaluate the evidence for systematic modifications of brain and cognitive systems that can be attributed to bilingualism...
March 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167006/development-and-evaluation-of-the-littlears-%C3%A2-early-speech-production-questionnaire-leespq
#15
Bianka Wachtlin, Joanna Brachmaier, Edda Amann, Vanessa Hoffmann, Annerose Keilmann
OBJECTIVE: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, now instituted throughout the German-speaking countries, allow hearing loss to be detected and treated much earlier than ever before. With this earlier detection, arises the need for tools fit for assessing the very early speech and language production development of today's younger (0-18 month old) children. We have created the LittlEARS(®) Early Speech Production Questionnaire, with the aim of meeting this need. METHODS: 600 questionnaires of the pilot version of the LittlEARS(®) Early Speech Production Questionnaire were distributed to parents via pediatricians' practices, day care centers, and personal contact...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145941/lessons-learned-in-applying-the-international-society-for-pharmacoeconomics-and-outcomes-research-methodology-to-translating-canadian-emergency-department-information-system-presenting-complaints-list-into-german
#16
Dominik Brammen, Felix Greiner, Harald Dormann, Carsten Mach, Christian Wrede, Anne Ballaschk, Declan Stewart, Steven Walker, Christine Oesterling, Martin Kulla
OBJECTIVES: The patient's presenting complaint guides diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department, but there is no classification system available in German. The Canadian Emergency Department Information System (CEDIS) Presenting Complaint List (PCL) is available only in English and French. As translation risks the altering of meaning, the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) has set guidelines to ensure translational accuracy. The aim of this paper is to describe our experiences of using the ISPOR guidelines to translate the CEDIS PCL into German...
March 2, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137833/the-impact-of-bilingualism-on-brain-reserve-and-metabolic-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-dementia
#17
Daniela Perani, Mohsen Farsad, Tommaso Ballarini, Francesca Lubian, Maura Malpetti, Alessandro Fracchetti, Giuseppe Magnani, Albert March, Jubin Abutalebi
Cognitive reserve (CR) prevents cognitive decline and delays neurodegeneration. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may act as CR delaying the onset of dementia by ∼4.5 y. Much controversy surrounds the issue of bilingualism and its putative neuroprotective effects. We studied brain metabolism, a direct index of synaptic function and density, and neural connectivity to shed light on the effects of bilingualism in vivo in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Eighty-five patients with probable AD and matched for disease duration (45 German-Italian bilingual speakers and 40 monolingual speakers) were included...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133849/speaking-one-more-language-in-early-life-has-only-minor-effects-on-cognition-in-taiwanese-with-low-education-level-the-taishan-project
#18
Yi-Chien Liu, Yen-Ying Liu, Ping-Keung Yip, Mitsue Meguro, Kenichi Meguro
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence shows that bilingualism or multilingualism may have beneficial effects on preventing dementia. We performed a cross-sectional, community-based study in Taiwan. Some elders (older than 70 years) in Taiwan can speak Japanese because of the formal Japanese education they received before World War II, when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. After the war, Mandarin Chinese was adopted as the official language of Taiwan. We assessed whether constantly using three languages had an effect on dementia prevalence and cognitive function...
January 30, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077849/emigration-from-within
#19
Judit Szekacs-Weisz
Listening to the stories of people belonging to different generations in motion-both in our consulting rooms and our personal lives-served as introductory lectures into the fundamental aspects of changing context. Through these rich and diverse stories, one enters a territory which is not only multilingual but multidimensional: defined and shaped by historical, political, economic and socio-cultural transformations. Giving voice to these silent stories proved helpful for us when going behind walls that traditional analysis could not always penetrate, partly because, in many cases, analysts and analysands have been struggling with the same untouchable issues...
December 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077311/cortical-thickness-increases-after-simultaneous-interpretation-training
#20
Alexis Hervais-Adelman, Barbara Moser-Mercer, Micah M Murray, Narly Golestani
Simultaneous interpretation is a complex cognitive task that not only demands multilingual language processing, but also requires application of extreme levels of domain-general cognitive control. We used MRI to longitudinally measure cortical thickness in simultaneous interpretation trainees before and after a Master's program in conference interpreting. We compared them to multilingual control participants scanned at the same interval of time. Increases in cortical thickness were specific to trainee interpreters...
April 2017: Neuropsychologia
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