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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326995/multipic-a-standardized-set-of-750-drawings-with-norms-for-six-european-languages
#1
Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Davide Crepaldi, Antje S Meyer, Boris New, Christos Pliatsikas, Eva Smolka, Marc Brysbaert
Numerous studies in psychology, cognitive neuroscience and psycholinguistics have used pictures of objects as stimulus materials. Currently, authors engaged in cross-linguistic work or wishing to run parallel studies at multiple sites where different languages are spoken must rely on rather small sets of black-and-white or colored line drawings. These sets are increasingly experienced as being too limited. Therefore, we constructed a new set of 750 colored pictures of concrete concepts. This set, MultiPic, constitutes a new valuable tool for cognitive scientists investigating language, visual perception, memory and/or attention in monolingual or multilingual populations...
March 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326989/perception-of-nonnative-accented-sentences-by-5-to-8-year-olds-and-adults-the-role-of-phonological-processing-skills
#2
Tessa Bent, Eriko Atagi
To acquire language and successfully communicate in multicultural and multilingual societies, children must learn to understand speakers with various accents and dialects. This study investigated adults' and 5- to 8-year-old children's perception of native- and nonnative-accented English sentences in noise. Participants' phonological memory and phonological awareness were assessed to investigate factors associated with individual differences in word recognition. Although both adults and children performed less accurately with nonnative talkers than native talkers, children showed greater performance decrements...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280057/discourses-of-prejudice-in-the-professions-the-case-of-sign-languages
#3
Tom Humphries, Poorna Kushalnagar, Gaurav Mathur, Donna Jo Napoli, Carol Padden, Christian Rathmann, Scott Smith
There is no evidence that learning a natural human language is cognitively harmful to children. To the contrary, multilingualism has been argued to be beneficial to all. Nevertheless, many professionals advise the parents of deaf children that their children should not learn a sign language during their early years, despite strong evidence across many research disciplines that sign languages are natural human languages. Their recommendations are based on a combination of misperceptions about (1) the difficulty of learning a sign language, (2) the effects of bilingualism, and particularly bimodalism, (3) the bona fide status of languages that lack a written form, (4) the effects of a sign language on acquiring literacy, (5) the ability of technologies to address the needs of deaf children and (6) the effects that use of a sign language will have on family cohesion...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277057/reasons-for-attending-a-general-emergency-outpatient-clinic-versus-a-regular-general-practitioner-a-survey-among-immigrant-and-native-walk-in-patients-in-oslo-norway
#4
Sven Eirik Ruud, Per Hjortdahl, Bård Natvig
OBJECTIVE: To explore reasons for attending a general emergency outpatient clinic versus a regular general practitioner (RGP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using a multilingual anonymous questionnaire. SETTING: Native and immigrant walk-in patients attending a general emergency outpatient clinic in Oslo (Monday-Friday, 08:00-23:00) during 2 weeks in September 2009. SUBJECTS: We included 1022 walk-in patients: 565 native Norwegians (55%) and 457 immigrants (45%)...
March 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264693/a-tailored-programme-to-implement-recommendations-for-multimorbid-patients-with-polypharmacy-in-primary-care-practices-process-evaluation-of-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#5
Cornelia Jäger, Jost Steinhäuser, Tobias Freund, Sarah Kuse, Joachim Szecsenyi, Michel Wensing
BACKGROUND: We developed and evaluated a tailored programme to implement three evidence-based recommendations for multimorbid patients with polypharmacy into primary care practices: structured medication counselling including brown bag reviews, the use of medication lists and medication reviews. No effect on the primary outcome was found. This process evaluation aimed to identify factors associated with outcomes by exploring nine hypotheses specified in the logic model of the tailored programme...
March 6, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263637/the-effect-of-simultaneous-text-on-the-recall-of-noise-degraded-speech
#6
Irina Grossman, Ramesh Rajan
Written and spoken language utilize the same processing system, enabling text to modulate speech processing. We investigated how simultaneously presented text affected speech recall in babble noise using a retrospective recall task. Participants were presented with text-speech sentence pairs in multitalker babble noise and then prompted to recall what they heard or what they read. In Experiment 1, sentence pairs were either congruent or incongruent and they were presented in silence or at 1 of 4 noise levels...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230411/the-bilingual-adaptation-how-minds-accommodate-experience
#7
Ellen Bialystok
According to some estimates, more than half of the world's population is multilingual to some extent. Because of the centrality of language use to human experience and the deep connections between linguistic and nonlinguistic processing, it would not be surprising to find that there are interactions between bilingualism and cognitive and brain processes. The present review uses the framework of experience-dependent plasticity to evaluate the evidence for systematic modifications of brain and cognitive systems that can be attributed to bilingualism...
March 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167006/development-and-evaluation-of-the-littlears-%C3%A2-early-speech-production-questionnaire-leespq
#8
Bianka Wachtlin, Joanna Brachmaier, Edda Amann, Vanessa Hoffmann, Annerose Keilmann
OBJECTIVE: Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, now instituted throughout the German-speaking countries, allow hearing loss to be detected and treated much earlier than ever before. With this earlier detection, arises the need for tools fit for assessing the very early speech and language production development of today's younger (0-18 month old) children. We have created the LittlEARS(®) Early Speech Production Questionnaire, with the aim of meeting this need. METHODS: 600 questionnaires of the pilot version of the LittlEARS(®) Early Speech Production Questionnaire were distributed to parents via pediatricians' practices, day care centers, and personal contact...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145941/lessons-learned-in-applying-the-international-society-for-pharmacoeconomics-and-outcomes-research-methodology-to-translating-canadian-emergency-department-information-system-presenting-complaints-list-into-german
#9
Dominik Brammen, Felix Greiner, Harald Dormann, Carsten Mach, Christian Wrede, Anne Ballaschk, Declan Stewart, Steven Walker, Christine Oesterling, Martin Kulla
OBJECTIVES: The patient's presenting complaint guides diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department, but there is no classification system available in German. The Canadian Emergency Department Information System (CEDIS) Presenting Complaint List (PCL) is available only in English and French. As translation risks the altering of meaning, the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) has set guidelines to ensure translational accuracy. The aim of this paper is to describe our experiences of using the ISPOR guidelines to translate the CEDIS PCL into German...
March 2, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137833/the-impact-of-bilingualism-on-brain-reserve-and-metabolic-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-dementia
#10
Daniela Perani, Mohsen Farsad, Tommaso Ballarini, Francesca Lubian, Maura Malpetti, Alessandro Fracchetti, Giuseppe Magnani, Albert March, Jubin Abutalebi
Cognitive reserve (CR) prevents cognitive decline and delays neurodegeneration. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may act as CR delaying the onset of dementia by ∼4.5 y. Much controversy surrounds the issue of bilingualism and its putative neuroprotective effects. We studied brain metabolism, a direct index of synaptic function and density, and neural connectivity to shed light on the effects of bilingualism in vivo in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Eighty-five patients with probable AD and matched for disease duration (45 German-Italian bilingual speakers and 40 monolingual speakers) were included...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133849/speaking-one-more-language-in-early-life-has-only-minor-effects-on-cognition-in-taiwanese-with-low-education-level-the-taishan-project
#11
Yi-Chien Liu, Yen-Ying Liu, Ping-Keung Yip, Mitsue Meguro, Kenichi Meguro
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence shows that bilingualism or multilingualism may have beneficial effects on preventing dementia. We performed a cross-sectional, community-based study in Taiwan. Some elders (older than 70 years) in Taiwan can speak Japanese because of the formal Japanese education they received before World War II, when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. After the war, Mandarin Chinese was adopted as the official language of Taiwan. We assessed whether constantly using three languages had an effect on dementia prevalence and cognitive function...
January 30, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077849/emigration-from-within
#12
Judit Szekacs-Weisz
Listening to the stories of people belonging to different generations in motion-both in our consulting rooms and our personal lives-served as introductory lectures into the fundamental aspects of changing context. Through these rich and diverse stories, one enters a territory which is not only multilingual but multidimensional: defined and shaped by historical, political, economic and socio-cultural transformations. Giving voice to these silent stories proved helpful for us when going behind walls that traditional analysis could not always penetrate, partly because, in many cases, analysts and analysands have been struggling with the same untouchable issues...
December 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077311/cortical-thickness-increases-after-simultaneous-interpretation-training
#13
Alexis Hervais-Adelman, Barbara Moser-Mercer, Micah M Murray, Narly Golestani
Simultaneous interpretation is a complex cognitive task that not only demands multilingual language processing, but also requires application of extreme levels of domain-general cognitive control. We used MRI to longitudinally measure cortical thickness in simultaneous interpretation trainees before and after a Master's program in conference interpreting. We compared them to multilingual control participants scanned at the same interval of time. Increases in cortical thickness were specific to trainee interpreters...
January 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060713/multiview-boosting-with-information-propagation-for-classification
#14
Jing Peng, Alex J Aved, Guna Seetharaman, Kannappan Palaniappan
Multiview learning has shown promising potential in many applications. However, most techniques are focused on either view consistency, or view diversity. In this paper, we introduce a novel multiview boosting algorithm, called Boost.SH, that computes weak classifiers independently of each view but uses a shared weight distribution to propagate information among the multiple views to ensure consistency. To encourage diversity, we introduce randomized Boost.SH and show its convergence to the greedy Boost.SH solution in the sense of minimizing regret using the framework of adversarial multiarmed bandits...
January 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034410/a-review-of-electronic-medical-record-keeping-on-mobile-medical-service-trips-in-austere-settings
#15
REVIEW
Christopher Dainton, Charlene H Chu
INTRODUCTION: Electronic medical records (EMRs) may address the need for decision and language support for Western clinicians on mobile medical service trips (MSTs) in low resource settings abroad, while providing improved access to records and data management. However, there has yet to be a review of this emerging technology used by MSTs in low-resource settings. The aim of this study is to describe EMR systems designed specifically for use by mobile MSTs in remote settings, and accordingly, determine new opportunities for this technology to improve quality of healthcare provided by MSTs...
February 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033326/languages-are-still-a-major-barrier-to-global-science
#16
Tatsuya Amano, Juan P González-Varo, William J Sutherland
While it is recognized that language can pose a barrier to the transfer of scientific knowledge, the convergence on English as the global language of science may suggest that this problem has been resolved. However, our survey searching Google Scholar in 16 languages revealed that 35.6% of 75,513 scientific documents on biodiversity conservation published in 2014 were not in English. Ignoring such non-English knowledge can cause biases in our understanding of study systems. Furthermore, as publication in English has become prevalent, scientific knowledge is often unavailable in local languages...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003235/patients-perception-of-ded-and-its-relation-with-time-to-diagnosis-and-quality-of-life-an-international-and-multilingual-survey
#17
Marc Labetoulle, Maurizio Rolando, Christophe Baudouin, Gysbert van Setten
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To improve understanding of patients' experience and perception of dry eye disease (DED) and its impact on quality of life (QoL). METHODS: This survey was observational, non-interventional and cross-sectional. The survey was conducted online on 706 patients with DED from five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK). All patients met the following inclusion criteria: 40 years or older with DED diagnosed by a healthcare professional (HCP), not wearing contact lenses and using tear substitutes daily for at least 6 months...
December 21, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940365/the-role-of-language-skills-and-internationalization-in-nursing-degree-programmes-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Anja Garone, Piet Van de Craen
Globalization and internationalization have had major influences on higher education, including nursing education. Since the signing of the Bologna declaration, many institutions in Europe have adopted English as the "scientific lingua franca", and have instated courses and entire degree programmes taught in English. Several countries in the European Union also offer nursing degree programmes in English. With the rise of multilingualism in Europe, new challenges have become apparent in multilingual education...
February 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932909/cigesmed-for-divers-establishing-a-citizen-science-initiative-for-the-mapping-and-monitoring-of-coralligenous-assemblages-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#19
Vasilis Gerovasileiou, Thanos Dailianis, Emmanouela Panteri, Nikitas Michalakis, Giulia Gatti, Maria Sini, Charalampos Dimitriadis, Yiannis Issaris, Maria Salomidi, Irene Filiopoulou, Alper Doğan, Laure Thierry de Ville d'Avray, Romain David, Melih Ertan Ҫinar, Drosos Koutsoubas, Jean-Pierre Féral, Christos Arvanitidis
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, inventorying and monitoring of marine biodiversity has significantly benefited from the active engagement of volunteers. Although several Citizen Science projects concern tropical reef ecosystems worldwide, none of the existing initiatives has yet specifically focused on their Mediterranean equivalents. Mediterranean coralline reefs, known as "coralligenous", are bioherms primarily built by calcifying rhodophytes on hard substrates under dim-light conditions; they are considered hotspots of biodiversity and are extremely popular among divers due to their complex structure, conspicuous biological wealth and high aesthetic value...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876454/will-the-global-hiv-response-fail-gay-and-bisexual-men-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#20
George Ayala, Glenn-Milo Santos
INTRODUCTION: Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men are among the small number of groups for whom HIV remains uncontrolled worldwide. Although there have been recent and notable decreases in HIV incidence across several countries, prevalence and incidence is consistently higher or rising among men who have sex with men when compared with other groups. METHODS: In 2014, MSMGF (the Global Forum on MSM & HIV) conducted its third biennial Global Men's Health and Rights Study, an international, multilingual, web-based cross-sectional survey of men who have sex with men recruited through online convenience sampling...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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