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Multilingualism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783764/intensity-of-multilingual-language-use-predicts-cognitive-performance-in-some-multilingual-older-adults
#1
Anna Pot, Merel Keijzer, Kees de Bot
Cognitive advantages for bilinguals have inconsistently been observed in different populations, with different operationalisations of bilingualism, cognitive performance, and the process by which language control transfers to cognitive control. This calls for studies investigating which aspects of multilingualism drive a cognitive advantage, in which populations and under which conditions. This study reports on two cognitive tasks coupled with an extensive background questionnaire on health, wellbeing, personality, language knowledge and language use, administered to 387 older adults in the northern Netherlands, a small but highly multilingual area...
May 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751834/a-method-to-develop-vocabulary-checklists-in-new-languages-and-their-validity-to-assess-early-language-development
#2
Elizabeth L Prado, John Phuka, Eugenia Ocansey, Kenneth Maleta, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Brietta M Oaks, Anna Lartey, Kathryn G Dewey
BACKGROUND: Since the adoption of United Nations' Sustainable Goal 4.2 to ensure that all children have access to quality early child development (ECD) so that they are ready for primary education, the demand for valid ECD assessments has increased in contexts where they do not yet exist. The development of early language ability is important for school readiness. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of a method to develop vocabulary checklists in new languages to assess early language development, based on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741210/language-barriers-and-epistemic-injustice-in-healthcare-settings
#3
Yael Peled
Contemporary realities of global population movement increasingly bring to the fore the challenge of quality and equitable health provision across language barriers. While this linguistic challenge is not unique to immigration contexts and is likewise shared by health systems responding to the needs of aboriginal peoples and other historical linguistic minorities, the expanding multilingual landscape of receiving societies renders this challenge even more critical, owing to limited or even non-existing familiarity of modern and often monolingual health systems with the particular needs of new linguistic minorities...
May 9, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730047/leveraging-wikipedia-knowledge-to-classify-multilingual-biomedical-documents
#4
Marcos Antonio Mouriño García, Roberto Pérez Rodríguez, Luis Anido Rifón
This article presents a classifier that leverages Wikipedia knowledge to represent documents as vectors of concepts weights, and analyses its suitability for classifying biomedical documents written in any language when it is trained only with English documents. We propose the cross-language concept matching technique, which relies on Wikipedia interlanguage links to convert concept vectors between languages. The performance of the classifier is compared to a classifier based on machine translation, and two classifiers based on MetaMap...
May 2, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710193/a-systematic-review-of-semantic-feature-analysis-therapy-studies-for-aphasia
#5
Evangelia Antonia Efstratiadou, Ilias Papathanasiou, Rachel Holland, Anastasia Archonti, Katerina Hilari
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review treatment studies of semantic feature analysis (SFA) for persons with aphasia. The review documents how SFA is used, appraises the quality of the included studies, and evaluates the efficacy of SFA. Method: The following electronic databases were systematically searched (last search February 2017): Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus, E-journals, Health Policy Reference Centre, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, and SocINDEX...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702365/aac-services-for-multilingual-populations-south-african-service-provider-perspectives
#6
Kerstin M Tönsing, Karin van Niekerk, Georg I Schlünz, Ilana Wilken
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, many persons in need of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) come from multilingual backgrounds. There is as yet a limited evidence base (locally and internationally) for the provision of AAC services to multilingual populations. The perspectives of service providers can assist in gaining an understanding of current practices and the factors that influence these. AIMS: The study aimed to obtain the perspectives of AAC service providers about practices in providing AAC systems and AAC intervention to clients from multilingual backgrounds...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678053/automatic-annotation-of-french-medical-narratives-with-snomed-ct-concepts
#7
Christophe Gaudet-Blavignac, Vasiliki Foufi, Eric Wehrli, Christian Lovis
Medical data is multimodal. In particular, it is composed of both structured data and narrative data (free text). Narrative data is a type of unstructured data that, although containing valuable semantic and conceptual information, is rarely reused. In order to assure interoperability of medical data, automatic annotation of free text with SNOMED CT concepts via Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools is proposed. This task is performed using a hybrid multilingual syntactic parser. A preliminary evaluation of the annotation shows encouraging results and confirms that semantic enrichment of patient-related narratives can be accomplished by hybrid NLP systems, heavily based on syntax and lexicosemantic resources...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676677/lessons-learnt-about-conducting-a-multilingual-nutrition-survey-in-switzerland-results-from-menuch-pilot-survey
#8
Angeline Chatelan, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Sabine Bucher, Stefan Siegenthaler, Nathalie Metzger, Christine Anne Zuberbühler, Esther Camenzind-Frey, Andrea Reggli, Murielle Bochud, Sigrid Beer-Borst
This paper informs about the implementation of the first trilingual Swiss nutrition pilot survey and lessons learnt in terms of recruitment, participation, data collection feasibility, and data management. The population-based cross-sectional nutrition pilot survey took place between June and November 2013. Six trained dietitians interviewed 276 adults aged 18-75 years residing in the cantons of Bern (German), Vaud (French) or Ticino (Italian). Food consumption was assessed with two non-consecutive computer-assisted 24-Hour Dietary Recalls (24HDR), applying a trilingual version of GloboDiet® adapted to specific requirements of Switzerland...
April 20, 2018: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661749/a-website-supporting-sensitive-religious-and-cultural-advance-care-planning-acptalk-formative-and-summative-evaluation
#9
Amanda Pereira-Salgado, Patrick Mader, Clare O'Callaghan, Leanne Boyd
BACKGROUND: Advance care planning (ACP) promotes conversations about future health care needs, enacted if a person is incapable of making decisions at end-of-life that may be communicated through written documentation such as advance care directives. To meet the needs of multicultural and multifaith populations in Australia, an advance care planning website, ACPTalk, was funded to support health professionals in conducting conversations within diverse religious and cultural populations...
April 16, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658743/which-button-will-i-press-preference-for-correctly-ordered-counting-sequences-in-18-month-olds
#10
Martin Ho Kwan Ip, Kana Imuta, Virginia Slaughter
Correct counting respects the stable order principle whereby the count terms are recited in a fixed order every time. The 4 experiments reported here tested whether precounting infants recognize and prefer correct stable-ordered counting. The authors introduced a novel preference paradigm in which infants could freely press two buttons to activate videos of counting events. In the "correct" counting video, number words were always recited in the canonical order ("1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6"). The "incorrect" counting video was identical except that the number words were recited in a random order (e...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625571/language-concordant-automated-telephone-queries-to-assess-medication-adherence-in-a-diverse-population-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-convergent-validity-with-pharmacy-claims
#11
Neda Ratanawongsa, Judy Quan, Margaret A Handley, Urmimala Sarkar, Dean Schillinger
BACKGROUND: Clinicians have difficulty accurately assessing medication non-adherence within chronic disease care settings. Health information technology (HIT) could offer novel tools to assess medication adherence in diverse populations outside of usual health care settings. In a multilingual urban safety net population, we examined the validity of assessing adherence using automated telephone self-management (ATSM) queries, when compared with non-adherence using continuous medication gap (CMG) on pharmacy claims...
April 6, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616451/assessing-the-impact-of-language-access-regulations-on-the-provision-of-pharmacy-services
#12
Linda Weiss, Maya Scherer, Tongtan Chantarat, Theo Oshiro, Patrick Padgen, Jose Pagan, Peri Rosenfeld, H Shonna Yin
Approximately 25 million people in the United States are limited English proficient (LEP). Appropriate language services can improve care for LEP individuals, and health care facilities receiving federal funds are required to provide such services. Recognizing the risk of inadequate comprehension of prescription medication instructions, between 2008 and 2012, New York City and State passed a series of regulations that require chain pharmacies to provide translated prescription labels and other language services to LEP patients...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588635/individualising-chronic-care-management-by-analysing-patients-needs-a-mixed-method-approach
#13
P Timpel, C Lang, J Wens, J C Contel, A Gilis-Januszewska, K Kemple, P E Schwarz
Background: Modern health systems are increasingly faced with the challenge to provide effective, affordable and accessible health care for people with chronic conditions. As evidence on the specific unmet needs and their impact on health outcomes is limited, practical research is needed to tailor chronic care to individual needs of patients with diabetes. Qualitative approaches to describe professional and informal caregiving will support understanding the complexity of chronic care...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Integrated Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516434/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-prostate-cancer-survivors-perceived-engagement-in-treatment-decision-making
#14
Nynikka R Palmer, Steven E Gregorich, Jennifer Livaudais-Toman, Jane Jih, Celia P Kaplan
OBJECTIVE: We examined prostate cancer patients' perceived engagement in treatment decision-making and associated factors by race/ethnicity in a multiethnic sample. METHOD: We identified patients through the California Cancer Registry. Patients completed a cross-sectional telephone interview in English, Spanish, Cantonese, or Mandarin. Multivariable logistic regression models, stratified by race/ethnicity, estimated the associations of patient demographic and health status characteristics on (1) doctor asked patient to help decide treatment plan and (2) patient and doctor worked out a treatment plan together...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501908/challenges-and-solutions-implementing-an-sms-text-message-based-survey-casi-and-adherence-reminders-in-an-international-biomedical-hiv-prep-study-mtn-017
#15
William Brown, Rebecca Giguere, Alan Sheinfil, Mobolaji Ibitoye, Ivan Balan, Titcha Ho, Benjamin Brown, Luis Quispe, Wichuda Sukwicha, Javier R Lama, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Ross D Cranston
BACKGROUND: We implemented a text message-based Short Message Service computer-assisted self-interviewing (SMS-CASI) system to aid adherence and monitor behavior in MTN-017, a phase 2 safety and acceptability study of rectally-applied reduced-glycerin 1% tenofovir gel compared to oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets. We sought to implement SMS-based daily reminders and product use reporting, in four countries and five languages, and centralize data management/automated-backup...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486494/language-assessment-for-children-with-a-range-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-across-four-languages-in-south-africa
#16
MaryAnn Romski, Juan Bornman, Rose A Sevcik, Kerstin Tönsing, Andrea Barton-Hulsey, Refilwe Morwane, Ani Whitmore, Robyn White
Purpose: The purpose of this study is (a) to examine the applicability of a culturally and linguistically adapted measure to assess the receptive and expressive language skills of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) in South Africa and then (b) to explore the contributions of 2 additional language measures. Method: In Part 1, 100 children with NDD who spoke Afrikaans, isiZulu, Setswana, or South African English were assessed on the culturally and linguistically adapted Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL)...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476315/bias-in-dyslexia-screening-in-a-dutch-multicultural-population
#17
Anick Verpalen, Fons Van de Vijver, Ad Backus
We set out to address the adequacy of dyslexia screening in Dutch and non-western immigrant children, using the Dutch Dyslexia Screening Test (DST-NL) and outcomes of the Dutch dyslexia protocol, both of which are susceptible to cultural bias. Using the protocol as standard, we conducted an ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) analysis in Dutch and immigrant third, fifth, and seventh graders, combining a cross-sectional and longitudinal design. Sensitivity and specificity increased with grade, but were non-significant for various subtests in the lowest grade, suggesting considerable non-convergence between the two measures...
April 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462305/health-insurance-and-care-seeking-behaviours-of-female-migrants-in-accra-ghana
#18
Samantha R Lattof
People working in Ghana's informal sector have low rates of enrolment in the publicly funded National Health Insurance Scheme. Informal sector workers, including migrant girls and women from northern Ghana working as head porters (kayayei), report challenges obtaining insurance and seeking formal health care. This article analyses how health insurance status affects kayayei migrants' care-seeking behaviours. This mixed-methods study involved surveying 625 migrants using respondent-driven sampling and conducting in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of 48 migrants...
May 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461475/octodrine-new-questions-and-challenges-in-sport-supplements
#19
Valeria Catalani, Mariya Prilutskaya, Ahmed Al-Imam, Shanna Marrinan, Yasmine Elgharably, Mire Zloh, Giovanni Martinotti, Robert Chilcott, Ornella Corazza
Background : Octodrine is the trade name for Dimethylhexylamine (DMHA), a central nervous stimulant that increases the uptake of dopamine and noradrenaline. Originally developed as a nasal decongestant in the 1950's, it has recently been re-introduced on the market as a pre-workout and 'fat-burner' product but its use remains unregulated. Our work provides the first observational cross-sectional analytic study on Octodrine as a new drug trend and its associated harms after a gap spanning seven decades. Methods : A comprehensive multilingual assessment of literature, websites, drug fora and other online resources was carried out with no time restriction in English, German, Russian and Arabic...
February 20, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444243/implementing-pharmacogenomics-decision-support-across-seven-european-countries-the-ubiquitous-pharmacogenomics-u-pgx-project
#20
Kathrin Blagec, Rudolf Koopmann, Mandy Crommentuijn-van Rhenen, Inge Holsappel, Cathelijne H van der Wouden, Lidija Konta, Hong Xu, Daniela Steinberger, Enrico Just, Jesse J Swen, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Matthias Samwald
Clinical pharmacogenomics (PGx) has the potential to make pharmacotherapy safer and more effective by utilizing genetic patient data for drug dosing and selection. However, widespread adoption of PGx depends on its successful integration into routine clinical care through clinical decision support tools, which is often hampered by insufficient or fragmented infrastructures. This paper describes the setup and implementation of a unique multimodal, multilingual clinical decision support intervention consisting of digital, paper-, and mobile-based tools that are deployed across implementation sites in seven European countries participating in the Ubiquitous PGx (U-PGx) project...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
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