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Stefan Elmer
Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Artemis Alexiadou, Terje Lohndal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Helen L Blake, Sharynne Mcleod, Sarah Verdon, Gail Fuller
PURPOSE: Proficiency in the language of the country of residence has implications for an individual's level of education, employability, income and social integration. This paper explores the relationship between the spoken English proficiency of residents of Australia on census day and their educational level, employment and income to provide insight into multilingual speakers' ability to participate in Australia as an English-dominant society. METHOD: Data presented are derived from two Australian censuses i...
September 14, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Soo Hee Oh, Junghak Lee
The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology...
September 2016: Journal of Audiology & Otology
Kia Dashtipour, Soujanya Poria, Amir Hussain, Erik Cambria, Ahmad Y A Hawalah, Alexander Gelbukh, Qiang Zhou
With the advent of Internet, people actively express their opinions about products, services, events, political parties, etc., in social media, blogs, and website comments. The amount of research work on sentiment analysis is growing explosively. However, the majority of research efforts are devoted to English-language data, while a great share of information is available in other languages. We present a state-of-the-art review on multilingual sentiment analysis. More importantly, we compare our own implementation of existing approaches on common data...
2016: Cognitive Computation
Alejandro Fernández-Coello, Viktória Havas, Montserrat Juncadella, Joanna Sierpowska, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Andreu Gabarrós
OBJECTIVE Most knowledge regarding the anatomical organization of multilingualism is based on aphasiology and functional imaging studies. However, the results have still to be validated by the gold standard approach, namely electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) during awake neurosurgical procedures. In this ESM study the authors describe language representation in a highly specific group of 13 multilingual individuals, focusing on how age of acquisition may influence the cortical organization of language. METHODS Thirteen patients who had a high degree of proficiency in multiple languages and were harboring lesions within the dominant, left hemisphere underwent ESM while being operated on under awake conditions...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Tara M Rutter, Annesa Flentje, James W Dilley, Suzanne Barakat, Nancy H Liu, Margaret S Gross, Ricardo F Muñoz, Yan Leykin
BACKGROUND: Prior research has found higher rates of mental health problems among sexual minority individuals. We examine treatment-seeking for depression, as well as its relationship with sexual orientation, in a large, multilingual, international sample. METHOD: Participants in an automated, quintilingual internet-based depression screening tool were screened for depression, and completed several background measures, including sexual orientation (with an option to decline to state) and past and current depression treatment seeking...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Lilli Kimppa, Teija Kujala, Yury Shtyrov
Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mirko Uljarević, Napoleon Katsos, Kristelle Hudry, Jenny L Gibson
BACKGROUND: Language and communication skills are essential aspects of child development, which are often disrupted in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cutting edge research in psycholinguistics suggests that multilingualism has potential to influence social, linguistic and cognitive development. Thus, multilingualism has implications for clinical assessment, diagnostic formulation, intervention and support offered to families. We present a systematic review and synthesis of the effects of multilingualism for children with neurodevelopmental disorders and discuss clinical implications...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Ann E Kurth, Nok Chhun, Charles M Cleland, Michele Crespo-Fierro, José A Parés-Avila, John A Lizcano, Robert G Norman, Michele G Shedlin, Barbara E Johnston, Victoria L Sharp
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in the United States disproportionately affects minorities, including Latinos. Barriers including language are associated with lower antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence seen among Latinos, yet ART and interventions for clinic visit adherence are rarely developed or delivered in Spanish. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to adapt a computer-based counseling tool, demonstrated to reduce HIV-1 viral load and sexual risk transmission in a population of English-speaking adults, for use during routine clinical visits for an HIV-positive Spanish-speaking population (CARE+ Spanish); the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was the theoretical framework guiding program development...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Sven Eirik Ruud, Per Hjortdahl, Bård Natvig
BACKGROUND: Emergency room (ER) use is increasing in several countries. Variability in the proportion of non-urgent ER visits was found to range from 5 to 90 % (median 32 %). Non-urgent emergency visits are considered an inappropriate and inefficient use of the health-care system because they may lead to higher expenses, crowding, treatment delays, and loss of continuity of health care provided by a general practitioner. Urgency levels of doctor-walk-in patient encounters were assessed based on their region of origin in a diverse Norwegian population...
2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
Maria Kambanaros, Michalis Michaelides, Kleanthes K Grohmann
BACKGROUND: Clinicians globally recognize as exceptionally challenging the development of effective intervention practices for bi- or multilingual children with specific language impairment (SLI). Therapy in both or all of an impaired child's languages is rarely possible. An alternative is to develop treatment protocols that facilitate the transfer of therapy effects from a treated language to an untreated language. AIMS: To explore whether cognates, words that share meaning and phonological features across languages, could be used to boost lexical retrieval in the context of multilingual SLI...
July 5, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Caroline H Vickers, Christopher Lindfelt, Teresa Dodd-Butera
BACKGROUND: Patient history-taking sequences may be repeated across medical speech events with different healthcare providers and subsequently co-constructed differently, which can lead to disparate patient history information with implications for patient care outcomes. Encounters that include language discordance between patients with limited English language proficiency and healthcare workers can also impact patient outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We examined the repetition of patient history-taking sequences in consultations in which healthcare providers used Spanish as a first and second language with monolingual Spanish-speaking patients...
July 2016: Nursing Research
Hong-Jae Park, Bong Joo Lee
This article explores the experiences of foreign residents during the period of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak in (South) Korea and discusses from a social work perspective the implications of their experiences and their needs. Data were obtained from interviews with 22 foreigners who either live and work or study in Korea. The data were then interpreted using a thematic analysis approach in a multilingual research context. The findings from the study show that foreign residents experienced a wide range of social and psychoemotional difficulties during the MERS health threat...
June 28, 2016: Social Work in Public Health
A Bukeyeva, V Riklefs, I Riklefs, V Tashkenbayeva, A Kassatova
There is a strong evidence in medical education literature that the learner-centred curriculum favouring the use of metacognition and self-learning is very proficient. However, ethnocultural and verbal environment may undermine learners' ability to utilise the learning strategies, leading to inefficient learning. This study aimed to investigate the personal preferences of learners in multilingual educational environment prompting the most efficient learning. The study uses qualitative focus group methodology to understand students' opinion on how educational environment influences the efficiency of medical school curriculum...
May 2016: Georgian Medical News
Jane Millar
SNOMED CT is the most comprehensive, multilingual clinical healthcare terminology in the world. It is a resource with comprehensive, scientifically validated clinical content. SNOMED CT enables consistent, processable representation of clinical content in electronic health records. When implemented in software applicationsSNOMED CT can be used to represent clinically relevant information consistently, reliabl comprehensively as an integral part of producing electronic health information. SNOMED CT supports the development of comprehensive high-quality clinical content in health records...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Kuldeep Singh Shekhawat, Arunima Chauhan, Anitha Ann Koshy, P Rekha, Hemanth Kumar
BACKGROUND: Oral health has a profound effect on the daily activities of geriatric group. India being a multilingual country, it is essential that instruments used to evaluate the quality of life is in local languages. However, the validation and translational aspect are important before involving a larger cohort of geriatrics. AIM: To assess the reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-m). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala, cross-sectional study...
April 2016: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Mary Montie, Jose Gabriel Galinato, Lance Patak, Marita Titler
INTRODUCTION: Despite a continuous increase of the limited English proficiency (LEP) population in the United States, disparities in the quality of care received in health care systems persist. METHOD: This qualitative study explores the perceptions of hospitalized LEP patients on their call light use, as well as their perceptions of a prototype of a new multilingual call light system, Eloquence™. Individual interviews were conducted with 10 Spanish-speaking patient participants...
June 2016: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
Anneke P Potgieter
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of normative data on linguistic development among child speakers of Southern African languages, especially in the case of the multilingual children who constitute the largest part of this population. This inevitably impacts on the accuracy of developmental assessments of such speakers. Already negative lay opinion on the effect of early multilingualism on language development rates could be exacerbated by the lack of developmental data, ultimately affecting choices regarding home and school language policies...
2016: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
Sonia Colina, Nicole Marrone, Maia Ingram, Daisey Sánchez
As international research studies become more commonplace, the importance of developing multilingual research instruments continues to increase and with it that of translated materials. It is therefore not unexpected that assessing the quality of translated materials (e.g., research instruments, questionnaires, etc.) has become essential to cross-cultural research, given that the reliability and validity of the research findings crucially depend on the translated instruments. In some fields (e.g., public health and medicine), the quality of translated instruments can also impact the effectiveness and success of interventions and public campaigns...
May 19, 2016: Evaluation & the Health Professions
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