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Gi Soon Park, Van Ben Chu, Byoung Woo Kim, Dong-Wook Kim, Hyung-Suk Oh, Yun Jeong Hwang, Byoung Koun Min
An optimization of band alignment at the p-n junction interface is realized on alcohol-based solution-processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells, achieving a power-conversion-efficiency (PCE) of 14.4%. To obtain a CIGS thin film suitable for interface engineering, a novel "3-step chalcogenization process" is designed for Cu2-xSe-derived grain growth and a double band gap grading structure. Considering S-rich surface of the CIGS thin film, an alternative ternary (Cd,Zn)S buffer layer is adopted to build favorable "spike" type conduction band alignment instead of "cliff" type...
March 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jacopo Parravicini, Maurizio Acciarri, Matteo Murabito, Alessia Le Donne, Andrea Gasparotto, Simona Binetti
Photoluminescence spectra of pure CIGS thin films with different Ga in-depth gradients are systematically investigated. Pure Na-free films are prepared with an innovative hybrid deposition technique, whose optical luminescence emission is analyzed as a function of the depth and is correlated to the radiative intrinsic defects of the material. Finally, the highlighted features are correlated with the performances of test solar cells prepared with the same growths.
March 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Amy L Slogrove, Michael Schomaker, Mary-Ann Davies, Paige Williams, Suna Balkan, Jihane Ben-Farhat, Nancy Calles, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Charlotte Duff, Tanoh François Eboua, Adeodata Kekitiinwa-Rukyalekere, Nicola Maxwell, Jorge Pinto, George Seage, Chloe A Teasdale, Sebastian Wanless, Josiane Warszawski, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Marcel Yotebieng, Venessa Timmerman, Intira J Collins, Ruth Goodall, Colette Smith, Kunjal Patel, Mary Paul, Diana Gibb, Rachel Vreeman, Elaine J Abrams, Rohan Hazra, Russell Van Dyke, Linda-Gail Bekker, Lynne Mofenson, Marissa Vicari, Shaffiq Essajee, Martina Penazzato, Gabriel Anabwani, Edith Q Mohapi, Peter N Kazembe, Makhosazana Hlatshwayo, Mwita Lumumba, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Luisa Galli, Annemarie van Rossum, Carlo Giaquinto, Magdalena Marczynska, Laura Marques, Filipa Prata, Luminita Ene, Liubov Okhonskaia, Pablo Rojo, Claudia Fortuny, Lars Naver, Christoph Rudin, Sophie Le Coeur, Alla Volokha, Vanessa Rouzier, Regina Succi, Annette Sohn, Azar Kariminia, Andrew Edmonds, Patricia Lelo, Samuel Ayaya, Patricia Ongwen, Laura F Jefferys, Sam Phiri, Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe, Shobna Sawry, Lorna Renner, Mariam Sylla, Mark J Abzug, Myron Levin, James Oleske, Miriam Chernoff, Shirley Traite, Murli Purswani, Ellen G Chadwick, Ali Judd, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs) continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Denglei Ma, Na Wang, Xiaotong Fan, Lan Zhang, Yi Luo, Rui Huang, Li Zhang, Yali Li, Guoguang Zhao, Lin Li
Cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) is the active ingredient extracted from Cornus officinalis. Our previous studies showed that CIG had protective effects on several brain injury models. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects and elucidate the mechanisms of CIG against traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI was induced in the right cerebral cortex of male adult rats. The neurological and cognitive functions were evaluated by modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and object recognition test (ORT), respectively...
February 28, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Gagandeep Kaur, Rakeysha Pinkston, Benathel Mclemore, Waneene C Dorsey, Sanjay Batra
Knowledge of the long-term toxicological and immunological effects of e-cigarette (e-cig) aerosols remains elusive due to the relatively short existence of vaping. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of articles published in public databases and analysed the research evidence in order to provide critical information regarding e-cig safety. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (or e-cigs) are an alternative to traditional cigarettes for the delivery of nicotine and are typically filled with glycerol or propylene glycol-based solutions known as e-liquids...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Eighty percent of adolescents living with perinatally and behaviourally acquired HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), a continent with marked economic inequality. As part of our global project describing adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APH), we aimed to assess whether inequality in outcomes exists by country income group (CIG) for APH within SSA. METHODS: Through the CIPHER cohort collaboration, individual retrospective data from 7 networks and 25 countries in SSA were included...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Yun Jung Jang, Jihye Lee, Jeung-Hyun Jeong, Kang-Bong Lee, Donghwan Kim, Yeonhee Lee
To enhance the conversion performance of solar cells, a quantitative and depth-resolved elemental analysis of photovoltaic thin films is required. In this study, we determined the average concentration of the major elements (Cu, In, Ga, and Se) in fabricated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films, using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and wavelengthdispersive electron probe microanalysis. Depth profiling results for CIGS thin films with different cell efficiencies were obtained using secondary ion mass spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy to compare the atomic concentrations...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
C H Wu, P W Wu, J H Chen, J Y Kao, C Y Hsu
Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films were fabricated by a two-step process method using sputtering from Cu0.7Ga0.3 and In targets. The metallic precursor structures of In/CuGa/In were prepared, and CuGa film was adjusted to the thicknesses of 150, 200, 250 and 300 nm, in order to optimize the CIGS film. After selenization, three independent CIGS (112), CIGS (220/204) and CIGS (312/116) began to crystallize at ~280 °C and phase peaks continued growing until 560 °C. Experimental results showed that with a single stage selenization method, the excessive stoichiometry of the CIGS films was obtained...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Nasim Rezaei, Olindo Isabella, Zeger Vroon, Miro Zeman
A 3-D optical modelling was calibrated to calculate the light absorption and the total reflection of fabricated CIGS solar cells. Absorption losses at molybdenum (Mo) / CIGS interface were explained in terms of plasmonic waves. To quench these losses, we assumed the insertion of a lossless dielectric spacer between Mo and CIGS, whose optical properties were varied. We show that such a spacer with low refractive index and proper thickness can significantly reduce absorption in Mo in the long wavelength regime and improve the device's rear reflectance, thus leading to enhanced light absorption in the CIGS layer...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Damaris J Rohsenow, Jennifer W Tidey, Rosemarie A Martin, Suzanne M Colby, Thomas Eissenberg
OBJECTIVES: Switching from combustible tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) may or may not help smokers to reduce cigarette consumption and toxicant exposure. This pilot study investigated the effects of asking smokers to switch to e-cigs for 6weeks on smoking, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, dependence, and motivation to quit smoking. METHODS: Non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=18) were given free e-cigs and instructed to use them instead of smoking cigarettes for 6weeks...
January 11, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Puja Pradhan, Puruswottam Aryal, Dinesh Attygalle, Abdel-Rahman Ibdah, Prakash Koirala, Jian Li, Khagendra P Bhandari, Geethika K Liyanage, Randy J Ellingson, Michael J Heben, Sylvain Marsillac, Robert W Collins, Nikolas J Podraza
Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) has been applied for in-situ monitoring of the first stage of copper indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin film deposition by the three-stage co-evaporation process used for fabrication of high efficiency thin film photovoltaic (PV) devices. The first stage entails the growth of indium-gallium selenide (In1-xGax)₂Se₃ (IGS) on a substrate of Mo-coated soda lime glass maintained at a temperature of 400 °C. This is a critical stage of CIGS deposition because a large fraction of the final film thickness is deposited, and as a result precise compositional control is desired in order to achieve the optimum performance of the resulting CIGS solar cell...
January 16, 2018: Materials
Szymon Andrzej Zmorzynski, Iwona Korszen-Pilecka, Magdalena Wojcierowska-Litwin, Barbara Kwiatkowska-Drabik, Malgorzata Luterek, Sylwia Chocholska, Dorota Koczkodaj, Sylwia Popek, Malgorzata Michalak-Wojnowska, Grazyna Swiderska-Kolacz, Joanna Januszewska, Iwona Surowiec, Waldemar Tomczak, Marek Hus, Anna Dmoszynska, Marcin Pasiarski, Katarzyna Poniewierska-Jasak, Katarzyna Cieplinska, Olga Jankowska-Lecka, Agata Anna Filip
INTRODUCTION: Significant and accessible predictive factors for bortezomib treatment in plasma cell myeloma (PCM) are still lacking. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism (P72R) results in proline (P) or arginine (R) at 72 amino acid position, which causes synthesis of proteins with distinct functions. The aims of our study were to: 1) analyze whether this polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of PCM; 2) study whether the P72R polymorphism affects overall survival (OS) among PCM patients; 3) assess the possible association of the P72R polymorphism with sensitivity to bortezomib in cell cultures derived from PCM patients...
January 15, 2018: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Masayuki Itoh, Kazutetsu Aoshiba, Yoriko Herai, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Tamiko Takemura
A 46-year-old healthy man developed respiratory distress, night sweats, fever, and weight loss after using electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) for approximately 1 month. He presented to the hospital when the symptoms worsened 2 months after onset. The findings of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid examination and the following transbronchial lung biopsy examination led to the diagnosis of acute alveolitis: intra-alveolar fibrosis accompanied with exudate containing abundant lipid-laden macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils...
January 2018: Respirology Case Reports
Peter Hajek, Dunja Przulj, Anna Phillips-Waller, Rebecca Anderson, Hayden McRobbie
AIMS: Little is known about features of e-cigarettes (EC) that facilitate or hinder the switch from smoking to vaping. We tested eight brands of EC to determine how nicotine delivery and other product characteristics influence user's initial reactions. METHODS: Fifteen vapers tested each product after overnight abstinence from both smoking and vaping. At each session, participant's vaped ad lib for 5 min. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 30 min after starting vaping...
January 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Karolien Adriaens, Dinska Van Gucht, Frank Baeyens
(1) Background: Many smokers completely switch to vaping (switchers), whereas others use e-cigarettes (e-cigs) alongside tobacco cigarettes (dual users). To the extent that dual users substantially lower the number of cigarettes, they will reduce health risks from smoking. However, from a medical point of view, exclusive vaping is preferable to dual use; (2) Methods: Using an online questionnaire we assessed behavioral, cognitive and attitudinal aspects of e-cig use in smoking and ex-smoking vapers; (3) Results: Our sample consisted of 19% dual users and 81% switchers...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Esra Yüksel, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Mehmet Şahin, Bilal Çiğ
Fibromyalgia (FM) results in pain characterized by low selenium (Se) levels, excessive Ca2+ influx, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and acidic pH. TRPM2 and TRPV1 are activated by ROS and acid; nevertheless, their roles have not been elucidated in FM. Therefore, we investigated the contribution of TRPM2 and TRPV1 to pain, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in a rat model of FM and the therapeutic potential of Se. Thirty-six rats were divided into four groups: control, Se, FM, and FM + Se. The Se treatment reduced the FM-induced increase in TRPM2 and TRPV1 currents, pain intensity, intracellular free Ca2+, ROS, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in the sciatic (SciN) and dorsal root ganglion (DRGN) neurons...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
S Huyghe, A Verest, A Thijssen, W Ombelet
There is limited literature on the influence of smoking and BMI on success rates after intrauterine insemination (IUI). As a result of a prospective cohort study we could investigate data from 1401 IUI cycles with partner semen and 1264 IUI cycles with donor semen, primary outcome being clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). Univariate statistical analysis showed significant influence of female BMI on clinical pregnancy in the partner insemination group (CPR of 6,5%, 8%, 16,3% and 9,4% for a female BMI < 20, 20-24...
June 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Amanda Y Kong, Jessica L Eaddy, Susan L Morrison, Donna Asbury, Kristine M Lindell, Kurt M Ribisl
Objectives: This is the first statewide census of the product availability, price promotions, and product messaging of vape shops. Methods: A comprehensive list of New Hampshire vape shops was developed through a previously validated online search method. Store audits were conducted in 55 stores between January and February 2016 using the Vape Shop Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (V-STARS). Results: Modifiable devices and cig-alikes were sold in 92...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Stella Tommasi, Steven E Bates, Rachel Z Behar, Prue Talbot, Ahmad Besaratinia
OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarettes (e-cig), which are promoted as safe alternatives to tobacco cigarettes or as aides to smoking cessation, are becoming increasingly popular among adult chronic smokers and adolescents experimenting with tobacco products. Despite the known presence of toxicants and carcinogens in e-cig liquid and vapor, the possible carcinogenic effects of e-cig use in humans are unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have utilized two validated in vitro model systems to investigate whether e-cig vapor induces mutation in mouse or human cells...
October 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Laura A Gibson, MeLisa R Creamer, Alison B Breland, Aida Luz Giachello, Annette Kaufman, Grace Kong, Terry F Pechacek, Jessica K Pepper, Eric K Soule, Bonnie Halpern-Felsher
Measuring perceptions associated with e-cigarette use can provide valuable information to help explain why youth and adults initiate and continue to use e-cigarettes. However, given the complexity of e-cigarette devices and their continuing evolution, measures of perceptions of this product have varied greatly. Our goal, as members of the working group on e-cigarette measurement within the Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) network, is to provide guidance to researchers developing surveys concerning e-cigarette perceptions...
April 2018: Addictive Behaviors
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