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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124940/core-levels-band-alignments-and-valence-band-states-in-cusbs2-for-solar-cell-applications
#1
Thomas J Whittles, Tim D Veal, Christopher N Savory, Adam W Welch, Francisco Willian de Souza Lucas, James T Gibbon, Max Birkett, Richard J Potter, David O Scanlon, Andriy Zakutayev, Vinod R Dhanak
The earth-abundant material CuSbS2 (CAS) has shown good optical properties as a photovoltaic solar absorber material, but has seen relatively poor solar cell performance. To investigate the reason for this anomaly, the core-levels of the constituent elements, surface contaminants, ionization potential, and valence band spectra are studied by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The ionization potential and electron affinity for this material (4.98 eV and 3.43 eV) are lower than for other common absorbers, including CuInxGa(1-x)Se2 (CIGS)...
November 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102637/assessment-of-reactive-oxygen-species-generated-by-electronic-cigarettes-using-acellular-and-cellular-approaches
#2
Jiayuan Zhao, Yipei Zhang, Jennifer D Sisler, Justine Shaffer, Stephen S Leonard, Anna M Morris, Yong Qian, Dhimiter Bello, Philip Demokritou
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have fast increased in popularity but the physico-chemical properties and toxicity of the generated emission remain unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are likely present in e-cig emission and can play an important role in e-cig toxicity. However, e-cig ROS generation is poorly documented. Here, we generated e-cig exposures using a recently developed versatile exposure platform and performed systematic ROS characterization on e-cig emissions using complementary acellular and cellular techniques: 1) a novel acellular Trolox-based mass spectrometry method for total ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection, 2) electron spin resonance (ESR) for hydroxyl radical detection in an acellular and cellular systems and 3) in vitro ROS detection in small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) using the dihydroethidium (DHE) assay...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097631/chronic-exposure-to-electronic-cigarette-e-cig-results-in-impaired-cardiovascular-function-in-mice
#3
I Mark Olfert, Evan DeVallance, Hannah Hoskinson, Kayla W Branyan, Stuart Clayton, Christopher R Pitzer, David Patrick Sullivan, Matthew J Breit, Zhong-Xin Wu, Powsiri Klinkhachorn, W Kyle Mandler, Brett H Erdreich, Barbara S Ducatman, Randy W Bryner, Piyali Dasgupta, Paul D Chantler
Proponents for electronic cigarettes(E-cigs) claim they are a safe alternative to smoking tobacco-based cigarettes,however little is known about the long-term effects of E-cig vapor exposure on vascular function.The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiovascular consequences of chronic E-cig exposure. Female mice (C57Bl/6 background strain)were randomly assigned to chronic daily exposure of E-cig vapor, standard cigarette smoke(using 3R4F-reference-cigarette), or filtered-air(N=15/group). Respective whole-body exposures consisted of 4 x 1-hour exposure blocks, separated by 30-minute intervals of fresh air breaks, resulting in intermittent daily exposure for a total of 4h/day, 5days/week for 8-months...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078169/menthol-evokes-ca-2-signals-and-induces-oxidative-stress-independently-of-the-presence-of-trpm8-menthol-receptor-in-cancer-cells
#4
Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Walter Blum, Katalin Jósvay, Bilal Çiğ, Thomas Henzi, Zoltán Oláh, Csaba Vizler, Beat Schwaller, László Pecze
Menthol is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol possessing remarkable biological properties including antipruritic, analgesic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and cooling effects. Here, we examined the menthol-evoked Ca(2+) signals in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. The effect of menthol (50-500µM) was predicted to be mediated by the transient receptor potential ion channel melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8). However, the intensity of menthol-evoked Ca(2+) signals did not correlate with the expression levels of TRPM8 in breast and prostate cancer cells indicating a TRPM8-independent signaling pathway...
October 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069879/the-surgical-impact-of-e-cigarettes-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-current-literature
#5
Megan Fracol, Robert Dorfman, Lindsay Janes, Swati Kulkarni, Kevin Bethke, Nora Hansen, John Kim
We report a case of a 51 year old female with a 25 pack year smoking history who underwent bilateral mastectomy and immediate tissue expander reconstruction for newly diagnosed right breast cancer. The patient reported herself as a non-smoker despite significant e-cigarette use, with resulting significant mastectomy skin flap necrosis and breast reconstruction failure. Little is known about the physiologic effect of e-cigarettes on wound healing and tissue perfusion. To this end, we provide an updated review of the impact of e-cigarettes on surgical outcomes...
October 26, 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062098/optically-induced-metastability-in-cu-in-ga-se2
#6
S A Jensen, A Kanevce, L M Mansfield, S Glynn, S Lany, D Kuciauskas
Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) is presently the most efficient thin-film photovoltaic technology with efficiencies exceeding 22%. An important factor impacting the efficiency is metastability, where material changes occur over timescales of up to weeks during light exposure. A previously proposed (V Se -V Cu ) divacancy model presents a widely accepted explanation. We present experimental evidence for the optically induced metastability transition and expand the divacancy model with first-principles calculations. Using photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, we identify a sub-bandgap optical transition that severely deteriorates the carrier lifetime...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057201/-essentially-all-models-are-wrong-but-some-are-useful-a-preliminary-conceptual-model-of-co-occurring-e-cig-and-alcohol-use
#7
Alexandra Hershberger, Melissa A Cyders
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As prevalence rates of electronic cigarette (e-cig) use increase, researchers and clinicians should not only be paying careful attention to the direct health effects of e-cigs, but also the potential impact e-cigs may have on alcohol use behaviors. We review the current state of the literature and propose a conceptual model for the relationship between e-cig and alcohol use, including important consequences, mechanisms, and moderators of this relationship. RECENT FINDINGS: The model is based in emerging literature examining the direct relationship between e-cig and alcohol use, as well as indirect evidence concerning potential mechanisms from research on cigarette and alcohol use...
June 2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053606/lung-toxicity-of-condensed-aerosol-from-e-cig-liquids-influence-of-the-flavor-and-the-in-vitro-model-used
#8
Rossella Bengalli, Emanuele Ferri, Massimo Labra, Paride Mantecca
The diffusion of e-cigarette (e-CIG) opens a great scientific and regulatory debate about its safety. The huge number of commercialized devices, e-liquids with almost infinite chemical formulations and the growing market demand for a rapid and efficient toxicity screen system that is able to test all of these references and related aerosols. A consensus on the best protocols for the e-CIG safety assessment is still far to be achieved, since the huge number of variables characterizing these products (e.g., flavoring type and concentration, nicotine concentration, type of the device, including the battery and the atomizer)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026594/subtypes-of-chronic-gastritis-in-patients-with-celiac-disease-before-and-after-gluten-free-diet
#9
Dolores Gabrieli, Fabiana Ciccone, Annalisa Capannolo, Angelo Viscido, Giorgio Valerii, Donatella Serva, Stefano Necozione, Gino Coletti, Giuseppe Calvisi, Dina Melideo, Giuseppe Frieri, Giovanni Latella
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) often manifests with dyspeptic symptoms and chronic gastritis is a common finding. AIM: To evaluate the frequency of lymphocytic gastritis (LG), chronic active gastritis (CAG), and chronic inactive gastritis (CIG) in patients with CD, before and after gluten-free diet (GFD). METHODS: A five-year prospective study including all consecutive patients with a new diagnosis of CD was conducted. Gastric and duodenal biopsy specimens taken both at the time of the CD diagnosis and at the first endoscopic control after 18-24 months on GFD were evaluated...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983782/electronic-cigarettes-their-constituents-and-potential-links-to-asthma
#10
REVIEW
Phillip W Clapp, Ilona Jaspers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vaping is gaining popularity in the USA, particularly among teens and young adults. While e-cigs are commonly represented as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, little is known regarding the health effects of their short- or long-term use, especially in individuals with pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. Flavored e-cig liquids (e-liquids) and e-cig aerosols contain airway irritants and toxicants that have been implicated in the pathogenesis and worsening of lung diseases...
October 5, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954048/electronic-cigarette-awareness-use-and-perception-of-harmfulness-in-brazil-findings-from-a-country-that-has-strict-regulatory-requirements
#11
Tânia Maria Cavalcante, André Salem Szklo, Cristina de Abreu Perez, James F Thrasher, Moyses Szklo, Janine Ouimet, Shannon Gravely, Geoffrey T Fong, Liz Maria de Almeida
Given the uncertainties regarding electronic cigarettes' (e-cigs) impact on health, in 2009 Brazil prohibited sales, importation or advertisements of these products until manufacturers are able to show they are safe and/or effective in smoking cessation. This study sought to analyze: (1) awareness of electronic cigarettes, ever-use and recent use; (2) perception of harmfulness of electronic cigarettes when compared with conventional cigarettes; and (3) correlates of awareness and perception of harmfulness. This is a cross-sectional study among Brazilian smokers (≥ 18 years) using the Wave 2 replenishment sample of the Brazilian International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey...
September 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931907/full-space-device-optimization-for-solar-cells
#12
Ahmer A B Baloch, Shahzada P Aly, Mohammad I Hossain, Fedwa El-Mellouhi, Nouar Tabet, Fahhad H Alharbi
Advances in computational materials have paved a way to design efficient solar cells by identifying the optimal properties of the device layers. Conventionally, the device optimization has been governed by single or double descriptors for an individual layer; mostly the absorbing layer. However, the performance of the device depends collectively on all the properties of the material and the geometry of each layer in the cell. To address this issue of multi-property optimization and to avoid the paradigm of reoccurring materials in the solar cell field, a full space material-independent optimization approach is developed and presented in this paper...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925522/grandmaternal-smoking-increases-asthma-risk-in-grandchildren-a-nationwide-swedish-cohort
#13
C J Lodge, L Bråbäck, A J Lowe, S C Dharmage, D Olsson, B Forsberg
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in exposures prior to conception as possible risk factors for offspring asthma. Although partially supported by evidence from limited human studies, current evidence is inconsistent, and based on recall of exposure status. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate grandmaternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of asthma in grandchildren using prospectively collected population-based data. METHODS: Information on grandmaternal and maternal smoking during pregnancy and grandchild use of asthma medications was collected from national Swedish registries...
September 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913388/dataset-representing-the-effect-of-indirect-band-gap-region-of-cd-free-algaas-buffer-layer-in-cu-in-ga-se-photovoltaic-cell
#14
Sadia Islam Shachi, Ali Newaz Bahar
The dataset of physical properties for the proposed CIGS solar cell with Cd-free AlGaAs buffer layer has been depicted in this data article. The cell performance outcome due to different AlGaAs buffer layer band gap is reported along with optimum solar cell performance parameters for instance, open circuit voltage [Formula: see text], short circuit current density ([Formula: see text], fill factor [Formula: see text], efficiency [Formula: see text], as well as collection efficiency [Formula: see text].
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861656/an-opportune-and-unique-research-to-evaluate-the-public-health-impact-of-electronic-cigarettes
#15
Ahmad Besaratinia, Stella Tommasi
In response to the growing public health concern regarding the risks or benefits of electronic cigarettes (e-cig) use relative to smoking, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has recently introduced the first standardized- and well- characterized e-cig device to the research community (see, https://www.drugabuse.gov/funding/supplemental-information-nida-e-cig ). E-cig are promoted as safe alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes and/or as aides to smoking cessation. E-cig are highly popular among cigarette smokers who are unable/unwilling to quit but are willing to switch to putatively less-harmful tobacco substitutes...
October 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861448/modeling-and-performance-analysis-dataset-of-a-cigs-solar-cell-with-zns-buffer-layer
#16
Md Billal Hosen, Ali Newaz Bahar, Md Karamot Ali, Md Asaduzzaman
This article represents the baseline data of the several semiconductor materials used in the model of a CIGS thin film solar cell with an inclusion of ZnS buffer layer. As well, input parameters, contact layer data and operating conditions for CIGS solar cell simulation with ZnS buffer layer have been described. The schematic diagram of photovoltaic solar cell has been depicted. Moreover, the most important performance measurement graph, J-V characteristic curve, resulting from CIGS solar cell simulation has been analyzed to estimate the optimum values of fill factor and cell efficiency...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843083/tobacco-toxicant-exposure-in-cigarette-smokers-who-use-or-do-not-use-other-tobacco-products
#17
Nicole L Nollen, Matthew S Mayo, Lauren Clark, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Samir S Khariwala, Kim Pulvers, Neal L Benowitz, Jasjit S Ahluwalia
BACKGROUND: Non-cigarette other tobacco products (OTP; e.g., cigarillos, little cigars) are typically used in combination with cigarettes, but limited data exists on the tobacco toxicant exposure profiles of dual cigarette-OTP (Cig-OTP) users. This study examined biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure in cigarette smokers who used or did not use OTP. METHODS: 111 Cig-OTP and 111 cigarette only (Cig Only) users who smoked equivalent cigarettes per day were matched on age (< 40, >=40), race (African American, White), and gender...
October 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829112/si-doping-effects-in-cu-in-ga-se2-thin-films-and-applications-for-simplified-structure-high-efficiency-solar-cells
#18
Shogo Ishizuka, Takashi Koida, Noboru Taguchi, Shingo Tanaka, Paul Fons, Hajime Shibata
We found that elemental Si-doped Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) polycrystalline thin films exhibit a distinctive morphology due to the formation of grain boundary layers several tens of nanometers thick. The use of Si-doped CIGS films as the photoabsorber layer in simplified structure buffer-free solar cell devices is found to be effective in enhancing energy conversion efficiency. The grain boundary layers formed in Si-doped CIGS films are expected to play an important role in passivating CIGS grain interfaces and improving carrier transport...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828852/cu-in-ga-se2-solar-cells-with-amorphous-in2o3-based-front-contact-layers
#19
Takashi Koida, Yuko Ueno, Jiro Nishinaga, Hirohumi Higuchi, Hideki Takahashi, Masayuki Iioka, Hajime Shibata, Shigeru Niki
Amorphous (a-) In2O3-based front contact layers composed of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) and transparent oxide semiconductor (TOS) layers were proved to be effective in enhancing the short-circuit current density (Jsc) of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells with a glass/Mo/CIGS/CdS/TOS/TCO structure, while maintaining high fill factor (FF) and open-circuit voltage (Voc). An n-type a-In-Ga-Zn-O layer was introduced between the CdS and TCO layers. Unlike unintentionally doped ZnO broadly used as TOS layers in CIGS solar cells, the grain-boundary(GB)-free amorphous structure of the a-In-Ga-Zn-O layers allowed high electron mobility with superior control over the carrier density (N)...
August 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815224/a-picture-is-worth-a-thousand-words-electronic-cigarette-content-on-instagram-and-pinterest
#20
Alexander S Lee, Joy L Hart, Clara G Sears, Kandi L Walker, Allison Siu, Courteney Smith
INTRODUCTION: This study examined electronic cigarette (e-cig) content in visual materials posted on the social-media platforms Instagram and Pinterest. Both platforms allow users to upload pictures to the internet and share them globally. Users can search for pictures tagged with specific keywords and phrases. METHODS: Using content analysis, this study identified themes in image postings of e-cigs on social media. During five weeks of data collection, keywords were used to identify pictures related to e-cigs...
July 2017: Tobacco Prevention & Cessation
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