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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534675/gallium-in-depth-profile-in-bromine-etched-copper-indium-galium-di-selenide-cigs-thin-films-inspected-using-raman-spectroscopy
#1
Jacopo Parravicini, Maurizio Acciarri, Alberto Lomuscio, Matteo Murabito, Alessia Le Donne, Andrea Gasparotto, Simona Binetti
In the thin film solar cells domain, copper indium galium (di)selenide (CIGS) is a material with well-established photovoltaic purpose. Here the presence of a suitable [Ga]/([Ga]+[In]) (GGI) in-depth profile has proved to play a key role in the performance of cells. The implementation of a routine method based on reliable but easily available experimental techniques is mandatory to obtain information on the GGI profile of any CIGS layer, in order to achieve high efficiency chalcogenide layers. In this vein, we here propose and systematically test a simple method for the GGI profile determination based on repeated bromine etching of CIGS thin films followed by Raman analysis of the A1 peak position...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522559/pulmonary-toxicity-of-e-cigarettes
#2
Lauren F Chun, Farzad Moazed, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay, Jeffrey Earl Gotts
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or e-cigs) are designed to heat and aerosolize mixtures of vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine and flavoring additives, thus delivering nicotine by inhalation in the absence of combustion. These devices were originally developed to facilitate smoking cessation and have been available in the United States for over a decade. Since 2010, e-cig use has expanded rapidly, especially among adolescents, despite a paucity of short and long-term safety data. Patterns of use have shifted to include never-smokers and many dual users of e-cigs and combustible tobacco products...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515485/e-cigarettes-induce-toxicological-effects-that-can-raise-the-cancer-risk
#3
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Clara Babot Marquillas, Annamaria Buschini, Mirca Lazzaretti, Laura Marchi, Vladimiro Cardenia, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Maura Lodovici, Caterina Cipriani, Antonello Lorenzini, Eleonora Croco, Silvia Marchionni, Paola Franchi, Marco Lucarini, Vincenzo Longo, Clara Maria Della Croce, Andrea Vornoli, Annamaria Colacci, Monica Vaccari, Andrea Sapone, Moreno Paolini
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are devices designed to deliver nicotine in a vaping solution rather than smoke and without tobacco combustion. Perceived as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, e-cigs are aggressively marketed as lifestyle-choice consumables, thanks to few restrictions and a lack of regulatory guidelines. E-cigs have also gained popularity among never-smokers and teenagers, becoming an emergent public health issue. Despite the burgeoning worldwide consumption of e-cigs, their safety remains largely unproven and it is unknown whether these devices cause in vivo toxicological effects that could contribute to cancer...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512594/rapid-determination-of-six-low-molecular-carbonyl-compounds-in-tobacco-smoke-by-the-apci-ms-ms-coupled-to-data-mining
#4
Wuduo Zhao, Qidong Zhang, Binbin Lu, Shihao Sun, Shusheng Zhang, Jianxun Zhang
A simple method was established for the rapid determination of low molecular carbonyl compounds by the combination of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) and data mining. The ionization was carried out in positive mode, and six low molecular carbonyl compounds of acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, butanone, and butyraldehyde were analyzed by both full scan mode and daughter scan mode. To overcome the quantitative difficulties from isomer of acetone/propionaldehyde and butanone/butyraldehyde, the quantitation procedure was performed with the characteristic ion of [CH3O](+) under CID energy of 5 and 15 eV...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496528/long-term-study-of-children-with-rome-iii-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-managed-symptomatically-in-a-biopsychosocial-model
#5
Shailender Madani, Suchi Parikh, Rohit S Madani, Amornluck Krasaelap
BACKGROUND: Our study evaluated progression of and identified potential factors contributing to outcomes of ROME III defined-functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children treated symptomatically in a biopsychosocial model of care with a long-term follow-up. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of pediatric patients who were diagnosed with ROME III defined-FGIDs including functional abdominal pain, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and abdominal migraine...
April 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470280/photoelectrochemical-water-reduction-over-wide-gap-ag-cu-in-ga-s2-thin-film-photocathodes
#6
Wilman Septina, Minori Sugimoto, Ding Chao, Qing Shen, Shigeru Nakatsuka, Yoshitaro Nose, Takashi Harada, Shigeru Ikeda
The effects of partial replacement of Cu with Ag in a Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) thin film on its structural, optical, electrostructural, and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties were investigated, in order to improve its performance for PEC water reduction under sunlight illumination. Results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed the successful partial replacement of Cu with Ag to form solid-solutions with different Ag/(Ag + Cu) ratios (A(x)CIGS, x = Ag/(Ag + Cu) = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4), as confirmed by a gradual change in the (112) reflections to smaller 2θ angles with increasing Ag/(Ag + Cu) ratio...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448114/comparison-of-ag-in-ga-se2-mo-and-cu-in-ga-se2-mo-interfaces-in-solar-cells
#7
Xianfeng Zhang, Masakazu Kobayashi, Akira Yamada
The structural and electrical properties of the junction at Ag(In,Ga)Se2AIGS/Mo, and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 CIGS/Mo layers were characterized. The region between the CIGS and Mo featured a MoSe2 layer with a layered hexagonal structure and thickness of 10-15 nm. The c-axis of the MoSe2 was oriented perpendicular to the Mo layer, and the c -value was 12.6 Å. However, no such layer was observed at the interface between AIGS and Mo. This result was also confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray diffraction measurements of the MoSe2 layer...
May 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443340/e-cigs-are-they-cool-talking-to-teens-about-e-cigarettes
#8
Vania Modesto-Lowe, Camille Alvarado
Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes as they are commonly called, have gained wide acceptance among adolescents, especially those with sweet flavors such as bubble gum and cheesecake. Although health effects of e-cigarettes have not been well characterized, their use increases a teen's exposure to nicotine and may serve as a gateway to traditional cigarettes. This article outlines the basics of e-cigarettes and potential health hazards, followed by selected literature on teens' perceptions of e-cigarettes, as well as motivational interviewing strategies that can be used in talking to teens about using electronic cigarettes...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430435/cu-in-halide-perovskite-solar-absorbers
#9
Xin-Gang Zhao, Dongwen Yang, Yuanhui Sun, Tianshu Li, Lijun Zhang, Liping Yu, Alex Zunger
The long-term chemical instability and the presence of toxic Pb in otherwise stellar solar absorber APbX3 made of organic molecules on the A site and halogens for X have hindered their large-scale commercialization. Previously explored ways to achieve Pb-free halide perovskites involved replacing Pb(2+) with other similar M(2+) cations in ns(2) electron configuration, e.g., Sn(2+) or by Bi(3+) (plus Ag(+)), but unfortunately this showed either poor stability (M = Sn) or weakly absorbing oversized indirect gaps (M = Bi), prompting concerns that perhaps stability and good optoelectronic properties might be contraindicated...
May 4, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422510/halide-perovskites-for-tandem-solar-cells
#10
Jin-Wook Lee, Yao-Tsung Hsieh, Nicholas De Marco, Sang-Hoon Bae, Qifeng Han, Yang Yang
Perovskite solar cells have become one of the strongest candidates for next-generation solar energy technologies. A myriad of beneficial optoelectronic properties of the perovskite materials have enabled superb power conversion efficiencies (PCE) exceeding 22% for a single-junction device. The high PCE achievable via low processing costs and relatively high variability in optical properties have opened new possibilities for perovskites in tandem solar cells. In this Perspective, we will discuss current research trends in fabricating tandem perovskite-based solar cells in combination with a variety of mature photovoltaic devices such as organic, silicon, and Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS) solar cells...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406026/multiple-color-generating-cu-in-ga-s-se-2-thin-film-solar-cells-via-dichroic-film-incorporation-for-power-generating-window-applications
#11
Gang Yeol Yoo, Jae-Seung Jeong, Soyoung Lee, Youngki Lee, Hee Chang Yoon, Van Ben Chu, Gi Soon Park, Yun Jeong Hwang, Woong Kim, Byoung Koun Min, Young Rag Do
There are four prerequisites when applying all types of thin-film solar cells to power-generating window photovoltaics (PVs): high power-generation efficiency, longevity and high durability, semitransparency or partial-light transmittance, and colorful and aesthetic value. Solid-type thin-film Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) or Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) PVs nearly meet the first two criteria, making them promising candidates for power-generating window applications if they can transmit light to some degree and generate color with good aesthetic value...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401252/evaluation-of-ventricular-septal-defect-with-special-reference-to-the-spontaneous-closure-rate-subaortic-ridge-and-aortic-valve-prolapse-ii
#12
Ayse Guler Eroglu, Sezen Ugan Atik, Esma Sengenc, Gulnaz Cig, Irfan Levent Saltik, Funda Oztunc
The medical records of 2283 patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD) were reviewed to determine spontaneous closure, left ventricular-to-right atrial shunt, subaortic ridge, and aortic valve prolapse. One thousand eight hundred and twenty-three patients had been followed 1 month to 26 years (median 4 years) by echocardiography. Most of 460 patients could not be followed due to transportation of the institution. VSD was perimembranous in 68.8% (1255), trabecular muscular in 21.7% (395), muscular outlet in 6% (109), muscular inlet in 2...
April 12, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389330/a-comparison-of-nicotine-dependence-among-exclusive-e-cigarette-and-cigarette-users-in-the-path-study
#13
Guodong Liu, Emily Wasserman, Lan Kong, Jonathan Foulds
Electronic cigarettes ("e-cigs") have recently gained in popularity, but their health risks, including dependence potential are unclear. This study analyzed the adult database from the Wave 1 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a nationally representative survey of tobacco use in the United States, to assess the relative level of dependence among adult, exclusive everyday users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. Of the total 32,320 observations from the Wave 1 PATH adult database, 3586 (5...
April 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383488/breakthrough-to-non-vacuum-deposition-of-single-crystal-ultra-thin-homogeneous-nanoparticle-layers-a-better-alternative-to-chemical-bath-deposition-and-atomic-layer-deposition
#14
Yu-Kuang Liao, Yung-Tsung Liu, Dan-Hua Hsieh, Tien-Lin Shen, Ming-Yang Hsieh, An-Jye Tzou, Shih-Chen Chen, Yu-Lin Tsai, Wei-Sheng Lin, Sheng-Wen Chan, Yen-Ping Shen, Shun-Jen Cheng, Chyong-Hua Chen, Kaung-Hsiung Wu, Hao-Ming Chen, Shou-Yi Kuo, Martin D B Charlton, Tung-Po Hsieh, Hao-Chung Kuo
Most thin-film techniques require a multiple vacuum process, and cannot produce high-coverage continuous thin films with the thickness of a few nanometers on rough surfaces. We present a new "paradigm shift" non-vacuum process to deposit high-quality, ultra-thin, single-crystal layers of coalesced sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) with controllable thickness down to a few nanometers, based on thermal decomposition. This provides high-coverage, homogeneous thickness, and large-area deposition over a rough surface, with little material loss or liquid chemical waste, and deposition rates of 10 nm/min...
April 6, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374745/evolution-of-opto-electronic-properties-during-film-formation-of-complex-semiconductors
#15
M D Heinemann, R Mainz, F Österle, H Rodriguez-Alvarez, D Greiner, C A Kaufmann, T Unold
Optical and electrical properties of complex semiconducting alloys like Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) are strongly influenced by the reaction pathways occurring during their deposition process. This makes it desirable to observe and control these properties in real-time during the deposition. Here we show for the first time the evolution of the band gap and the sub-band-gap defect absorption of CIGS thin film as well as surface roughness during a three-stage co-evaporation process by means of an optical analysis technique, based on white light reflectometry (WLR)...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355200/electronic-cigarette-use-was-not-associated-with-quitting-of-conventional-cigarettes-in-youth-smokers
#16
Man Ping Wang, William H Li, Yongda Wu, Tai Hing Lam, Sophia S Chan
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between electronic cigarette (e-cig) use and smoking cessation among smokers who called the Youth Quitline in Hong Kong. METHODS: This longitudinal study collected data on youth smokers' (N=189) use and perception of e-cigs, conventional cigarette smoking behavior and socio-demographic characteristics at baseline. Self-reported past 7-day point prevalence of abstinence (PPA) was assessed at the 6-month telephone follow-up...
March 29, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347441/assessment-of-a-personalized-and-distributed-patient-guidance-system
#17
Mor Peleg, Yuval Shahar, Silvana Quaglini, Tom Broens, Roxana Budasu, Nick Fung, Adi Fux, Gema García-Sáez, Ayelet Goldstein, Arturo González-Ferrer, Hermie Hermens, M Elena Hernando, Val Jones, Guy Klebanov, Denis Klimov, Daniel Knoppel, Nekane Larburu, Carlos Marcos, Iñaki Martínez-Sarriegui, Carlo Napolitano, Àngels Pallàs, Angel Palomares, Enea Parimbelli, Belén Pons, Mercedes Rigla, Lucia Sacchi, Erez Shalom, Pnina Soffer, Boris van Schooten
OBJECTIVES: The MobiGuide project aimed to establish a ubiquitous, user-friendly, patient-centered mobile decision-support system for patients and for their care providers, based on the continuous application of clinical guidelines and on semantically integrated electronic health records. Patients would be empowered by the system, which would enable them to lead their normal daily lives in their regular environment, while feeling safe, because their health state would be continuously monitored using mobile sensors and self-reporting of symptoms...
May 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337465/inflammatory-response-and-barrier-dysfunction-by-different-e-cigarette-flavoring-chemicals-identified-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-in-e-liquids-and-e-vapors-on-human-lung-epithelial-cells-and-fibroblasts
#18
Janice Gerloff, Isaac K Sundar, Robert Freter, Emily R Sekera, Alan E Friedman, Risa Robinson, Todd Pagano, Irfan Rahman
Recent studies suggest that electronic cigarette (e-cig) flavors can be harmful to lung tissue by imposing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. The potential inflammatory response by lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts exposed to e-cig flavoring chemicals in addition to other risk-anticipated flavor enhancers inhaled by e-cig users is not known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the release of the proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-8 [IL-8]) and epithelial barrier function in response to different e-cig flavoring chemicals identified in various e-cig e-liquid flavorings and vapors by chemical characterization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
March 1, 2017: Applied in Vitro Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330186/a-comprehensive-study-of-one-step-selenization-process-for-cu-in1-x-ga-x-se2-thin-film-solar-cells
#19
Shih-Chen Chen, Sheng-Wen Wang, Shou-Yi Kuo, Jenh-Yih Juang, Po-Tsung Lee, Chih Wei Luo, Kaung-Hsiung Wu, Hao-Chung Kuo
In this work, aiming at developing a rapid and environmental-friendly process for fabricating CuIn1-x Ga x Se2 (CIGS) solar cells, we demonstrated the one-step selenization process by using selenium vapor as the atmospheric gas instead of the commonly used H2Se gas. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics indicate that there exists an optimal location with superior crystalline quality in the CIGS thin films obtained by one-step selenization. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the Ga lateral distribution in the one-step selenized CIGS thin film is intimately correlated to the blue-shifted PL spectra...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327447/effect-of-motivational-interviewing-on-depression-scale-scores-of-adolescents-with-obesity-and-overweight
#20
Silvia Freira, Marina Serra Lemos, Geoffrey Williams, Marta Ribeiro, Fernanda Pena, Maria do Céu Machado
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of motivational interview (MI) with conventional care on the depression scale scores of adolescents with obesity/overweight. It was a controlled cluster randomized trial with parallel design, including two groups: intervention group [Motivational Interview Group (MIG)], control group [Conventional Intervention Group (CIG)]. INTERVENTION: three face-to-face 30min' interviews three months apart (only MIG interviews were based on MI principles)...
June 2017: Psychiatry Research
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