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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212302/the-importance-of-conditioned-stimuli-in-cigarette-and-e-cigarette-craving-reduction-by-e-cigarettes
#1
Martijn Van Heel, Dinska Van Gucht, Koen Vanbrabant, Frank Baeyens
This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202929/prohibition-of-e-cigarettes-in-the-us-are-prohibitions-where-alcohol-is-consumed-related-to-lower-alcohol-consumption
#2
Alexandra R Hershberger, Kenny A Karyadi, Melissa A Cyders
Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol...
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185897/effect-of-tobacco-and-electronic-cigarette-use-on-cough-reflex-sensitivity
#3
REVIEW
Peter V Dicpinigaitis
Multiple previous studies have shown that otherwise healthy tobacco cigarette smokers have suppressed cough reflex sensitivity compared with nonsmokers and furthermore, that smoking cessation, even after years of tobacco use, leads to prompt enhancement of cough reflex sensitivity. Thus, cough reflex sensitivity is demonstrated to be a dynamic phenomenon, responding to the presence or absence of influences such as tobacco smoke. These studies, however, were unable to identify whether it was the influence of nicotine, or one or more of the numerous components of tobacco cigarette smoke, that were responsible for this effect...
February 6, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168771/recent-updates-on-electronic-cigarette-aerosol-and-inhaled-nicotine-effects-on-periodontal-and-pulmonary-tissues
#4
REVIEW
Fawad Javed, Sergio V Kellesarian, Isaac K Sundar, Georgios E Romanos, Irfan Rahman
E-cigarette derived inhaled nicotine may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal and pulmonary diseases in particular via lung inflammation, injurious and dysregulated repair responses. Nicotine is shown to have anti-proliferative properties and affects fibroblasts in vitro, which may interfere in tissue myofibroblast differentiation in e-cig users. This will affect the ability to heal wounds by decreasing wound contraction. In periodontics, direct exposure to e-vapor has been shown to produce harmful effects in periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts in culture...
February 6, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128351/effect-of-the-kf-post-deposition-treatment-on-grain-boundary-properties-in-cu-in-ga-se2-thin-films
#5
N Nicoara, Th Lepetit, L Arzel, S Harel, N Barreau, S Sadewasser
Significant power conversion efficiency improvements have recently been achieved for thin-film solar cells based on a variety of polycrystalline absorbers, including perovskites, CdTe, and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS). The passivation of grain boundaries (GBs) through (post-deposition) treatments is a crucial step for this success. For the case of CIGS, the introduction of a potassium fluoride post-deposition treatment (KF-PDT) has boosted their power conversion efficiency to the best performance of all polycrystalline solar cells...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124554/tailoring-photoelectrochemical-performance-and-stability-of-cu-in-ga-se2-photocathode-via-tio2-coupled-buffer-layers
#6
Bonhyeong Koo, Sung-Wook Nam, Richard Haight, Suncheul Kim, Seungtaeg Oh, Minhyung Cho, Jihun Oh, Jeong Yong Lee, Byung Tae Ahn, Byungha Shin
We report on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance and stability of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)-based photocathodes for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water. Various functional overlayers, such as CdS, TiO2, ZnxSnyOz, and a combination of the aforementioned, were applied on the CIGS to improve the performance and stability. We identified that the insertion of TiO2 overlayer on p-CIGS/n-buffer layers significantly improves the PEC performance. A multilayered photocathode consisting of CIGS/CdS/TiO2/Pt exhibited the best current-potential characteristics among the tested photocathodes, which demonstrates a power-saved efficiency of 2...
February 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118024/e-cigarette-topics-shared-by-medical-professionals-a-comparison-of-tweets-from-the-united-states-and-united-kingdom
#7
Elizabeth M Glowacki, Allison J Lazard, Gary B Wilcox
Medical professionals are now relying on social media platforms like Twitter to express their recommendations for the use or avoidance of products like electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), which may have long-term health consequences for users. The goal of this study is to compare how physicians from the United States and the United Kingdom talk about e-cigs on Twitter and identify the topics that these groups perceive as salient. Comparing tweets from the U.S. and U.K. will allow for a better understanding of how medical professionals from these countries differ in their attitudes toward e-cigs...
February 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108428/identifying-topics-for-e-cigarette-user-generated-contents-a-case-study-from-multiple-social-media-platforms
#8
Yongcheng Zhan, Ruoran Liu, Qiudan Li, Scott James Leischow, Daniel Dajun Zeng
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) is an emerging product with a rapid-growth market in recent years. Social media has become an important platform for information seeking and sharing. We aim to mine hidden topics from e-cigarette datasets collected from different social media platforms. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to gain a systematic understanding of the characteristics of various types of social media, which will provide deep insights into how consumers and policy makers effectively use social media to track e-cigarette-related content and adjust their decisions and policies...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096730/methodology-for-developing-evidence-based-clinical-imaging-guidelines-joint-recommendations-by-korean-society-of-radiology-and-national-evidence-based-healthcare-collaborating-agency
#9
REVIEW
Sol Ji Choi, Woo Kyoung Jeong, Ae Jeong Jo, Jin A Choi, Min-Jeong Kim, Min Lee, Seung Eun Jung, Kyung Hyun Do, Hwan Seok Yong, Seungsoo Sheen, Miyoung Choi, Jung Hwan Baek
This paper is a summary of the methodology including protocol used to develop evidence-based clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs) in Korea, led by the Korean Society of Radiology and the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. This is the first protocol to reflect the process of developing diagnostic guidelines in Korea. The development protocol is largely divided into the following sections: set-up, process of adaptation, and finalization. The working group is composed of clinical imaging experts, and the developmental committee is composed of multidisciplinary experts to validate the methodology...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070620/nicotine-delivery-to-users-from-cigarettes-and-from-different-types-of-e-cigarettes
#10
Peter Hajek, Dunja Przulj, Anna Phillips, Rebecca Anderson, Hayden McRobbie
BACKGROUND: Delivering nicotine in the way smokers seek is likely to be the key factor in e-cigarette (EC) success in replacing cigarettes. We examined to what degree different types of EC mimic nicotine intake from cigarettes. METHODS: Twelve participants ('dual users' of EC and cigarettes) used their own brand cigarette and nine different EC brands. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 2-min intervals for 10 min and again at 30 min. RESULTS: Eleven smokers provided usable data...
March 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065790/comparison-of-cellular-and-transcriptomic-effects-between-electronic-cigarette-vapor-and-cigarette-smoke-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#11
Sébastien Anthérieu, Anne Garat, Nicolas Beauval, Mélissa Soyez, Delphine Allorge, Guillaume Garçon, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice
The use of electronic cigarette (e-cig) can be considered as an alternative to smoking. However, due to a lack of thorough toxicological studies, absolute safety of these products cannot be guaranteed. The aim of this in vitro work was to investigate the potential toxicity of e-vapors generated by a smoking machine in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells cultured at air-liquid interface, in comparison to cigarette smoke (CS). Although CS decreased strongly cell viability from 48min exposure, e-vapors induced no cytotoxicity up to 288min exposure...
January 5, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064201/a-method-for-classifying-user-reported-electronic-cigarette-liquid-flavors
#12
Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Erin Hammett, Shari Hrabovsky, Jonathan Foulds
BACKGROUND: Along with the growth in popularity of electronic cigarette devices (e-cigs), the variety of e-cig liquids (e-liquid) available to users has also grown. Although some studies have published data about the use of flavored e-liquid, there is no standardized way to group flavors making it difficult to interpret the data and replicate results across studies. The current study describes a method to classify user-reported e-liquid flavors and presents the resulting proportion of users in each flavor group in a large online survey of e-cig users...
January 6, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042597/the-effect-of-comparatively-framed-versus-similarity-framed-e-cigarette-and-snus-print-ads-on-young-adults-ad-and-product-perceptions
#13
Smita C Banerjee, Kathryn Greene, Yuelin Li, Jamie S Ostroff
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of comparative-framing [C-F; ads highlighting differences between the advertised product and conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products] versus similarity-framing (S-F; ads highlighting congruence with conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products) in e-cigarette and snus ads on young adult smokers' and non-smokers' ad- and product-related perceptions. METHODS: One thousand fifty one (1,051) young adults (18-24 years; 76% women; 50% smokers) from existing consumer panels were recruited in a within-subjects quasi-experiment...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027837/rapid-determination-of-six-carcinogenic-primary-aromatic-amines-in-mainstream-cigarette-smoke-by-two-dimensional-online-solid-phase-extraction-combined-with-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#14
Zhenying Bie, Wei Lu, You Zhu, Yusong Chen, Hubo Ren, Lishun Ji
A fully automated, rapid, and reliable method for simultaneous determination of six carcinogenic primary aromatic amines (AAs), including o-toluidine (o-TOL), 2, 6-dimethylaniline (2, 6-DMA), o-anisidine (o-ASD), 1-naphthylamine (1-ANP), 2-naphthylamine (2-ANP), and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), in mainstream cigarette smoke was established. The proposed method was based on two-dimensional online solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC-MS/MS). The particulate phase of the mainstream cigarette smoke was collected on a Cambridge filter pad and pretreated via ultrasonic extraction with 2% formic acid (FA), while the gas phase was trapped by 2% FA without pretreatment for determination...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997362/elucidating-the-relationship-between-crystallo-chemistry-and-optical-properties-of-cigs-nanocrystals
#15
Mahshid Ahmadi, Stevin S Pramana, Chris Boothroyd, Yeng Ming Lam
The performance of solar cells fabricated using Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 nanocrystal (NC) inks synthesized using the hot injection method has yielded efficiencies up to 12% recently. The efficiency of these devices is highly dependent on the chemical composition and crystallographic quality of the NCs. The former has been extensively discussed as it can be easily correlated to the optical properties of the film, but detailed crystallographic structure of these NCs has scarcely been discussed and it can influence both the optical and electrical properties...
January 27, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990434/cornel-iridoid-glycoside-improves-locomotor-impairment-and-decreases-spinal-cord-damage-in-rats
#16
Wen-Jing Tang, Deng-Lei Ma, Cui-Cui Yang, Li Zhang, Ya-Li Li, Lan Zhang, Lin Li
Purpose. This study was to investigate the effects of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) on spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Methods. The thoracic cord (at T9) of rats was injured by clip compression for 30 sec. Locomotor function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale. Neuroanatomic stereological parameters as well as Nogo-A, p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), and ROCKII expression were measured by histological processing, immunohistochemistry, and stereological analyses. The axons passing through the lesion site were detected by BDA tracing...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934030/enhanced-photocurrents-with-zns-passivated-cu-in-ga-se-s-2-photocathodes-synthesized-using-a-nonvacuum-process-for-solar-water-splitting
#17
Sang Youn Chae, Se Jin Park, Sung Gyu Han, Hyejin Jung, Chae-Woong Kim, Chaehwan Jeong, Oh-Shim Joo, Byoung Koun Min, Yun Jeong Hwang
Chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) semiconductors are potential candidates for use in photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation due to their excellent optical absorption properties and high conduction band edge position. In the present research, CIGS thin film was successfully prepared on a transparent substrate (F:SnO2 glass) using a solution-based process and applied for a photocathode in solar water splitting, which shows control of the surface state associated with sulfurization/selenization process significantly influences on the PEC activity...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914687/braf-nras-kit-tert-gnaq-gna11-mutation-profile-analysis-of-head-and-neck-mucosal-melanomas-a-study-of-42-cases
#18
Şule Öztürk Sari, İsmaİl Yilmaz, Orhun Çiğ Taşkin, Gİzem Narli, Fatma Şen, Şenol Çomoğlu, Pinar Firat, Bİlge Bİlgİç, Dİlek Yilmazbayhan, Yasemİn Özlük, Nesİmİ Büyükbabanİ
Head and neck mucosal melanoma (HNMuM), which occurs mostly in the sinonasal and oral cavity, constitutes less than 1% of all malignant melanomas. Treatment options fail to improve the prognosis of this aggressive tumour that has low overall survival rates. Thus, development of new targeted therapies is essential. Unfortunately, limited data exist regarding their molecular profile. BRAF, NRAS, KIT, TERT and GNAQ/GNA11 oncogene mutations were investigated in 42 HNMuMs (28 sinonasal, 13 oral, 1 nasopharyngeal)...
January 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910020/cytoplasmic-immunoglobulin-light-chain-revelation-and-interphase-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-in-myeloma
#19
Sarah Moore, Jeffrey M Suttle, Mario Nicola
The cytogenetic analysis of plasma cell myeloma (PCM) allows stratification of patients so that prognosis may be determined and appropriate therapeutic options can be discussed. Owing to the patchy nature of the disease in the bone marrow (BM), the low proliferative activity of plasma cells and the cryptic nature of some PCM-associated cytogenetic changes, karyotypic analysis in this disease should be augmented with targeted interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Immunofluorescent revelation of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin light chains, together with interphase FISH (cIg-FISH), allows the identification of plasma cells within a sample so that they may be scored preferentially...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892577/light-soaking-effects-and-capacitance-profiling-in-cu-in-ga-se2-thin-film-solar-cells-with-chemical-bath-deposited-zns-buffer-layers
#20
Hye-Jung Yu, Woo-Jung Lee, Jae-Hyung Wi, Dae-Hyung Cho, Won Seok Han, Yong-Duck Chung, Tae-Soo Kim, Jung-Hoon Song
We fabricated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells with chemical-bath deposited (CBD) ZnS buffer layers with different deposition times. The conversion efficiency and the fill factor of the CIGS solar cells reveal a strong dependence on the deposition time of CBD-ZnS films. In order to understand the detailed relationship between the heterojunction structure and the electronic properties of CIGS solar cells with different deposition times of CBD-ZnS films, capacitance-voltage (C-V) profiling measurements with additional laser illumination were performed...
December 7, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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