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F W Grimstad, Ajay K Nangia, B Luke, J E Stern, W Mak
STUDY QUESTION: Does ICSI improve outcomes in ART cycles without male factor, specifically in couples with a history of tubal ligation as their infertility diagnosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of ICSI showed no significant improvement in fertilization rate and resulted in lower pregnancy and live birth (LB) rates for women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation and no male factor. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Prior studies have suggested that ICSI use does not improve fertilization, pregnancy or LB rates in couples with non-male factor infertility...
October 13, 2016: Human Reproduction
Anthony Cunningham, Sandra Slayford, Carl Vas, Jodie Gee, Sandra Costigan, Krishna Prasad
With the rapidly rising popularity and substantial evolution of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the past 5-6 years, how these devices are used by vapers and consumers' exposure to aerosol emissions need to be understood. We used puffing topography to measure directly product use. We adapted a cigarette puffing topography device for use with e-cigarettes. We performed validation using air and e-cigarette aerosol under multiple regimes. Consumer puffing topography was measured for 60 vapers provided with rechargeable "cig-a-like" or larger button-activated e-cigarettes, to use ad-libitum in two sessions...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Brenda B León-Gómez, Esther Colell, Joan R Villalbí, Gregorio Barrio, Antonia Domingo-Salvany
BACKGROUND: Studies assessing Spanish smoke-free laws have found a decrease in second-hand smoke exposure, but the impact of such laws on general smoking trends is not clear. This study proposes to analyse trends in the prevalence of smoking in Spain, including changes by educational level, following the implementation of smoke-free regulations (2005 and 2010). METHODS: Seven editions of the Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs from 1999 to 2011 were used to analyse the standardised prevalence of daily smokers, the proportion of ex-daily smokers, and the average cigarettes smoked daily in both sexes and by educational level, among the population aged 15-64...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Paul T Harrell, Syeda Mahrukh H Naqvi, Andrew D Plunk, Ming Ji, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. METHODS: The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013)...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Alessio Bottrighi, Paolo Terenziani
CONTEXT: Several different computer-assisted management systems of computer interpretable guidelines (CIGs) have been developed by the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine community. Each CIG system is characterized by a specific formalism to represent CIGs, and usually provides a manager to acquire, consult and execute them. Though there are several commonalities between most formalisms in the literature, each formalism has its own peculiarities. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our work is to provide a flexible support to the extension or definition of CIGs formalisms, and of their acquisition and execution engines...
September 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Alexandra R Hershberger, Kenny A Karyadi, Melissa A Cyders
Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Tim J Cole, Atul Singhal, Mary S Fewtrell, Jonathan Ck Wells
BACKGROUND: Early rapid weight gain is associated with later overweight, which implies that weight centile crossing tracks over time. OBJECTIVE: Centile crossing is defined in terms of the change or deviation in weight z score during 1 mo, and the correlations between successive deviations are explored at different ages. DESIGN: Two Cambridge (United Kingdom) growth cohorts were used: Widdowson (1094 infants born during 1959-1965) and the Cambridge Infant Growth Study (CIGS; 255 infants born during 1984-1987), each with weights measured monthly in the first year...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Erin Hammett, Shari Hrabovsky, Jonathan Foulds
BACKGROUND: Some jurisdictions have passed legislation that bans electronic cigarette (e-cig) use (vaping) in public places similarly to smoking. Many other jurisdictions have not yet determined how to regulate vaping in public places. This study examined the proportion of current e-cig users who find their vaping restricted in public places and further evaluated factors associated with the differences between restricted and unrestricted vapers. METHODS: 3960 experienced exclusive e-cig users completed an online survey from December 2012 to May 2014 about their e-cig use...
September 5, 2016: Tobacco Control
Ala'a Alkerwi, Burcu Baydarlioglu, Nicolas Sauvageot, Saverio Stranges, Paul Lemmens, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Relationships between food consumption/nutrient intake and tobacco smoking have been described in the literature. However, little is known about the association between smoking and overall diet quality. This study examined the associations between eight diet quality indices, namely, the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, Energy Density Score (EDS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), Recommended Food Score (RFS), non-Recommended Food Score (non-RFS), and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and smoking status with a focus on smoking intensity...
August 24, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ching-Heng Lin, Ying-Chih Lo, Pei-Yuan Hung, Der-Ming Liou
BACKGROUND: As a result of the disease's high prevalence, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health problem. A clinical decision support system that integrates with computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) should improve clinical outcomes and help to ensure patient safety. OBJECTIVES: The openEHR guideline definition language (GDL) is a formal language used to represent CIGs. This study explores the feasibility of using a GDL approach for CKD; it also attempts to identify any potential gaps between the ideal concept and reality...
September 2, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
Hong Zhang, Howe Liu, Qing Lin, Guohui Zhang, David C Mason
BACKGROUND: Homeostasis imbalance of intracellular Ca(2+) is one of the key pathophysiological factors in skeletal muscle injuries. Such imbalance can cause significant change in the metabolism of Ca(2+)-related biomarkers in skeletal muscle, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and creatine kinase (CK). Measurements of these biomarkers can be used to evaluate the degree of damage to human skeletal muscle cells (HSKMCs) injury. Rolling manipulation is the most popular myofascial release technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Esther Papaseit, Magí Farré, Silvia Graziano, Roberta Pacifici, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Oscar García-Algar, Simona Pichini
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cig) known as electronic nicotine devices recently gained popularity among smokers. Despite many studies investigating their safety and toxicity, few examined the delivery of e-cig-derived nicotine and its metabolites in alternative biological fluids. METHODS: We performed a randomized, crossover, and controlled clinical trial in nine healthy smokers. Nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HCOT) were measured in plasma and oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after consumption of two consecutive e-cig administrations or two consecutive tobacco cigarettes...
August 25, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Cecilia Dieci, Valentina Lodde, Rémi Labreque, Isabelle Dufort, Irene Tessaro, Marc-André Sirard, Alberto M Luciano
STUDY QUESTION: Does the gene expression profile of cumulus cells (CC) accompanying oocytes with different degrees of chromatin compaction within the germinal vesicle (GV) reflect the oocyte's quality and response in culture during in-vitro embryo production (IVP). SUMMARY ANSWER: The transcriptomic profile of the cumulus cells is related to oocyte competence, setting the stage for the development of customized pre-maturation strategies to improve IVP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocytes complete the acquisition of their competence during antral follicle development...
August 24, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Margareta I Hellgren, Per-Anders Jansson, Hans Wedel, Ulf Lindblad
AIMS: We hypothesised that the expected increase in insulin resistance over three years' time in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or impaired fasting glucose could be attenuated by an intervention with focus on physical activity in ordinary primary care. METHODS: We conducted a randomised controlled trial with 96 participants over three years. Examination of the participants included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, body weight and height, blood samples, an oral glucose tolerance test, and questionnaires about diet and lifestyle...
August 22, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Woo-Jung Lee, Hye-Jung Yu, Jae-Hyung Wi, Dae-Hyung Cho, Won Seok Han, Jisu Yoo, Yeonjin Yi, Jung-Hoon Song, Yong-Duck Chung
We fabricated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells with a chemical bath deposition (CBD)-ZnS buffer layer grown with varying ammonia concentrations in aqueous solution. The solar cell performance was degraded with increasing ammonia concentration, due to actively dissolved Zn atoms during CBD-ZnS precipitation. These formed interfacial defect states, such as hydroxide species in the CBD-ZnS film, and interstitial and antisite Zn defects at the p-n heterojunction. After light/UV soaking, the CIGS solar cell performance drastically improved, with a rise in fill factor...
August 31, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Benjamin Bissig, Carlos Guerra-Nunez, Romain Carron, Shiro Nishiwaki, Fabio La Mattina, Fabian Pianezzi, Paolo A Losio, Enrico Avancini, Patrick Reinhard, Stefan G Haass, Martina Lingg, Thomas Feurer, Ivo Utke, Stephan Buecheler, Ayodhya N Tiwari
Quantum efficiency measurements of state of the art Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells reveal current losses in the near infrared spectral region. These losses can be ascribed to inadequate optical absorption or poor collection of photogenerated charge carriers. Insight on the limiting mechanism is crucial for the development of more efficient devices. The electron beam induced current measurement technique applied on device cross-sections promises an experimental access to depth resolved information about the charge carrier collection probability...
October 2016: Small
Sang Youn Chae, Se Jin Park, Oh-Shim Joo, Yongseok Jun, Byoung Koun Min, Yun Jeong Hwang
UNLABELLED: A highly stable monolithic tandem solar cell was developed by combining the heterogeneous photovoltaic technologies of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and solution-processed CuInxGa1-xSeyS1-y (CIGS) thin film solar cells. The durability of the tandem cell was dramatically enhanced by replacing the redox couple from to [Co(bpy)3](2+) /[Co(bpy)3](3+)), accompanied by a well-matched counter electrode ( PEDOT: PSS) and sensitizer (Y123). A 1000 h durability test of the DSSC/CIGS tandem solar cell in ambient conditions resulted in only a 5% decrease in solar cell efficiency...
2016: Scientific Reports
Elizabeth G Klein, Micah Berman, Natalie Hemmerich, Cristen Carlson, SuSandi Htut, Michael Slater
OBJECTIVES: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are heavily marketed online. The purpose of our study was to perform a systematic identification and evaluation of claims made within ENDS retailer and manufacturer websites, and the legal status of such claims. METHODS: We employed a systematic search protocol with popular search engines using 6 terms: (1) e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigs; (3) e-juice; (4) e-liquid; (5) e-hookah; and (6) vape pen...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Community Practitioner: the Journal of the Community Practitioners' & Health Visitors' Association
Yan-Bo Luo, Xiao-Jing Chen, Hong-Fei Zhang, Xing-Yi Jiang, Xue Li, Xiang-Yu Li, Feng-Peng Zhu, Yong-Qiang Pang, Hong-Wei Hou
In this study, a silica/primary secondary amine (SiO2/PSA) was used as an in-pipette-tip solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS). We investigated several parameters including an extraction procedure of total particulate matter, type and amount of sorbent and on-line gel permeation chromatography parameters to obtain optimum conditions for a new strategy to target analytes...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
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