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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714914/online-vape-shop-customers-who-use-e-cigarettes-report-abstinence-from-smoking-and-improved-quality-of-life-but-a-substantial-minority-still-have-vaping-related-health-concerns
#1
Dinska Van Gucht, Karolien Adriaens, Frank Baeyens
(1) Background: Characteristics and usage patterns of vapers (e-cigarette users) have mainly been studied in web-based convenience samples or in visitors of brick-and-mortar vape shops. We extended this by targeting customers of one particular online vape shop in the Netherlands; (2) Methods: Customers were questioned on their smoking history, current smoking and vaping status, reasons for vaping, perceived harmfulness, and potential health changes due to vaping; (3) Results: Almost everyone (99%, 95% CI 0...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695727/ultrawide-spectral-response-of-cigs-solar-cells-integrated-with-luminescent-down-shifting-quantum-dots
#2
Ho-Jung Jeong, Ye-Chan Kim, Soo Kyung Lee, Yonkil Jeong, Jin-Won Song, Ju-Hyung Yun, Jae-Hyung Jang
Conventional Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells exhibit poor spectral response due to parasitic light absorption in the window and buffer layers at the short wavelength range between 300 and 520 nm. In this study, the CdSe/CdZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) acting as a luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layer were inserted between the MgF2 antireflection coating and the window layer of the CIGS solar cell to improve light harvesting in the short wavelength range. The LDS layer absorbs photons in the short wavelength range and re-emits photons in the 609 nm range, which are transmitted through the window and buffer layer and absorbed in the CIGS layer...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651446/acute-and-chronic-in-vivo-effects-of-exposure-to-nicotine-and-propylene-glycol-from-an-e-cigarette-on-mucociliary-clearance-in-a-murine-model
#3
Beth L Laube, Nima Afshar-Mohajer, Kirsten Koehler, Gang Chen, Philip Lazarus, Joseph M Collaco, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of an acute (1 week) and chronic (3 weeks) exposure to E-cigarette (E-cig) emissions on mucociliary clearance (MCC) in murine lungs. METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice (age 10.5 ± 2.4 weeks) were exposed for 20 min/day to E-cigarette aerosol generated by a Joyetech 510-T(®) E-cig containing either 0% nicotine (N)/propylene glycol (PG) for 1 week (n = 6), or 3 weeks (n = 9), or 2.4% N/PG for one week (n = 6), or 3 weeks (n = 9), followed by measurement of MCC...
June 26, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650184/effects-of-nicotine-versus-placebo-e-cigarette-use-on-symptom-relief-during-initial-tobacco-abstinence
#4
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz, Valerie C Michael
Because electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) containing nicotine may relieve smoking abstinence symptoms similar to nicotine replacement therapy medication, we used within-subjects designs to test these effects with a first-generation e-cig in nonquitting and quitting smokers. In Study 1, 28 nontreatment-seeking smokers abstained overnight prior to each of 3 sessions. Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) withdrawal (and craving item) relief was assessed following 4 exposures (each 10 puffs) over 2 hr to e-cigs that either did (36 mg/ml) or did not (i...
June 26, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646795/offsetting-the-impact-of-smoking-and-e-cigarette-vaping-on-the-cerebrovascular-system-and-stroke-injury-is-metformin-a-viable-countermeasure
#5
Mohammad A Kaisar, Heidi Villalba, Shikha Prasad, Taylor Liles, Ali Ehsan Sifat, Ravi K Sajja, Thomas J Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Recently published in vitro and in vivo findings strongly suggest that BBB impairment and increased risk for stroke by tobacco smoke (TS) closely resemble that of type-2 diabetes (2DM) and develop largely in response to common key modulators such oxidative stress (OS), inflammation and alterations of the endogenous antioxidative response system (ARE) regulated by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Preclinical studies have also shown that nicotine (the principal e-liquid's ingredient used in e-cigarettes) can also cause OS, exacerbation of cerebral ischemia and secondary brain injury...
June 17, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643701/self-anti-reflective-density-modulated-thin-films-by-hips-technique
#6
Filiz Keles, Emad Badradeen, Tansel Karabacak
A critical factor for an efficient light harvesting device is reduced reflectance in order to achieve high optical absorptance. In this regard, refractive index engineering becomes important to minimize reflectance. In this study, a new fabrication approach to obtain density-modulated CuIn x Ga(1-x)Se2 (CIGS) thin films with self-anti-reflective properties has been demonstrated. Density-modulated CIGS samples were fabricated by utilizing high pressure sputtering (HIPS) at Ar gas pressure of 2.75 × 10(-2) mbar along with conventional low pressure sputtering (LPS) at Ar gas pressure of 3...
June 23, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642230/a-review-of-pulmonary-toxicity-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-the-context-of-smoking-a-focus-on-inflammation
#7
Peter G Shields, Micah Berman, Theodore M Brasky, Jo L Freudenheim, Ewy A Mathe, Joseph McElroy, Min-Ae Song, Mark D Wewers
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) is increasing rapidly, but their effects on lung toxicity are largely unknown. Smoking is a well-established cause of lung cancer and respiratory disease, in part through inflammation. It is plausible that e-cig use might affect similar inflammatory pathways. E-cigs are used by some smokers as an aid for quitting or smoking reduction, and by never smokers (e.g., adolescents and young adults). The relative effects for impacting disease risk may differ for these groups...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640864/targeting-breast-cancer-cells-by-mrs1477-a-positive-allosteric-modulator-of-trpv1-channels
#8
Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Bilal Çiğ, Walter Blum, Csaba Vizler, Andrea Buhala, Annamária Marton, Róbert Katona, Katalin Jósvay, Beat Schwaller, Zoltán Oláh, László Pecze
There is convincing epidemiological and experimental evidence that capsaicin, a potent natural transient receptor potential cation channel vanilloid member 1 (TRPV1) agonist, has anticancer activity. However, capsaicin cannot be given systemically in large doses, because of its induction of acute pain and neurological inflammation. MRS1477, a dihydropyridine derivative acts as a positive allosteric modulator of TRPV1, if added together with capsaicin, but is ineffective, if given alone. Addition of MRS1477 evoked Ca2+ signals in MCF7 breast cancer cells, but not in primary breast epithelial cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630770/knowledge-on-irradiation-medical-imaging-prescriptions-and-clinical-imaging-referral-guidelines-among-physicians-in-a-sub-saharan-african-country-cameroon
#9
Boniface Moifo, Ulrich Tene, Jean Roger Moulion Tapouh, Odette Samba Ngano, Justine Tchemtchoua Youta, Augustin Simo, Joseph Gonsu Fotsin
BACKGROUND: Clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs) are suitable tools to enhance justification of imaging procedures. OBJECTIVE: To assess physicians' knowledge on irradiation, their self-perception of imaging prescriptions, and the use of CIGs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire of 21 items was self-administered between July and August 2016 to 155 referring physicians working in seven university-affiliated hospitals in Yaoundé and Douala (Cameroon)...
2017: Radiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629159/intercomparison-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-and-ground-based-narrow-band-spectrometers-applied-to-crop-trait-monitoring-in-organic-potato-production
#10
Marston Héracles Domingues Franceschini, Harm Bartholomeus, Dirk van Apeldoorn, Juha Suomalainen, Lammert Kooistra
Vegetation properties can be estimated using optical sensors, acquiring data on board of different platforms. For instance, ground-based and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne spectrometers can measure reflectance in narrow spectral bands, while different modelling approaches, like regressions fitted to vegetation indices, can relate spectra with crop traits. Although monitoring frameworks using multiple sensors can be more flexible, they may result in higher inaccuracy due to differences related to the sensors characteristics, which can affect information sampling...
June 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620309/inhibition-of-the-trpm2-and-trpv1-channels-through-hypericum-perforatum-in-sciatic-nerve-injury-induced-rats-demonstrates-their-key-role-in-apoptosis-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-of-sciatic-nerve-and-dorsal-root-ganglion
#11
Fuat Uslusoy, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Bilal Çiğ
Sciatic nerve injury (SNI) results in neuropathic pain, which is characterized by the excessive Ca(2+) entry, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis processes although involvement of antioxidant Hypericum perforatum (HP) through TRPM2 and TRPV1 activation has not been clarified on the processes in SNI-induced rat, yet. We investigated the protective property of HP on the processes in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGN) of SNI-induced rats. The rats were divided into five groups as control, sham, sham+HP, SNI, and SNI+HP...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551002/development-of-a-computer-interpretable-clinical-guideline-model-for-decision-support-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatremia
#12
Arturo González-Ferrer, M Ángel Valcárcel, Martín Cuesta, Joan Cháfer, Isabelle Runkle
INTRODUCTION: Hyponatremia is the most common type of electrolyte imbalance, occurring when serum sodium is below threshold levels, typically 135mmol/L. Electrolyte balance has been identified as one of the most challenging subjects for medical students, but also as one of the most relevant areas to learn about according to physicians and researchers. We present a computer-interpretable guideline (CIG) model that will be used for medical training to learn how to improve the diagnosis of hyponatremia applying an expert consensus document (ECDs)...
July 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534675/gallium-in-depth-profile-in-bromine-etched-copper-indium-galium-di-selenide-cigs-thin-films-inspected-using-raman-spectroscopy
#13
Jacopo Parravicini, Maurizio Acciarri, Alberto Lomuscio, Matteo Murabito, Alessia Le Donne, Andrea Gasparotto, Simona Binetti
In the thin film solar cells domain, copper indium galium (di)selenide (CIGS) is a material with well-established photovoltaic purpose. Here the presence of a suitable [Ga]/([Ga]+[In]) (GGI) in-depth profile has proved to play a key role in the performance of cells. The implementation of a routine method based on reliable but easily available experimental techniques is mandatory to obtain information on the GGI profile of any CIGS layer, in order to achieve high efficiency chalcogenide layers. In this vein, we here propose and systematically test a simple method for the GGI profile determination based on repeated bromine etching of CIGS thin films followed by Raman analysis of the A1 peak position...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522559/pulmonary-toxicity-of-e-cigarettes
#14
Lauren F Chun, Farzad Moazed, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay, Jeffrey Earl Gotts
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or e-cigs) are designed to heat and aerosolize mixtures of vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine and flavoring additives, thus delivering nicotine by inhalation in the absence of combustion. These devices were originally developed to facilitate smoking cessation and have been available in the United States for over a decade. Since 2010, e-cig use has expanded rapidly, especially among adolescents, despite a paucity of short and long-term safety data. Patterns of use have shifted to include never-smokers and many dual users of e-cigs and combustible tobacco products...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515485/e-cigarettes-induce-toxicological-effects-that-can-raise-the-cancer-risk
#15
Donatella Canistro, Fabio Vivarelli, Silvia Cirillo, Clara Babot Marquillas, Annamaria Buschini, Mirca Lazzaretti, Laura Marchi, Vladimiro Cardenia, Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada, Maura Lodovici, Caterina Cipriani, Antonello Lorenzini, Eleonora Croco, Silvia Marchionni, Paola Franchi, Marco Lucarini, Vincenzo Longo, Clara Maria Della Croce, Andrea Vornoli, Annamaria Colacci, Monica Vaccari, Andrea Sapone, Moreno Paolini
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are devices designed to deliver nicotine in a vaping solution rather than smoke and without tobacco combustion. Perceived as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, e-cigs are aggressively marketed as lifestyle-choice consumables, thanks to few restrictions and a lack of regulatory guidelines. E-cigs have also gained popularity among never-smokers and teenagers, becoming an emergent public health issue. Despite the burgeoning worldwide consumption of e-cigs, their safety remains largely unproven and it is unknown whether these devices cause in vivo toxicological effects that could contribute to cancer...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512594/rapid-determination-of-six-low-molecular-carbonyl-compounds-in-tobacco-smoke-by-the-apci-ms-ms-coupled-to-data-mining
#16
Wuduo Zhao, Qidong Zhang, Binbin Lu, Shihao Sun, Shusheng Zhang, Jianxun Zhang
A simple method was established for the rapid determination of low molecular carbonyl compounds by the combination of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) and data mining. The ionization was carried out in positive mode, and six low molecular carbonyl compounds of acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, butanone, and butyraldehyde were analyzed by both full scan mode and daughter scan mode. To overcome the quantitative difficulties from isomer of acetone/propionaldehyde and butanone/butyraldehyde, the quantitation procedure was performed with the characteristic ion of [CH3O](+) under CID energy of 5 and 15 eV...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496528/long-term-study-of-children-with-rome-iii-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-managed-symptomatically-in-a-biopsychosocial-model
#17
Shailender Madani, Suchi Parikh, Rohit S Madani, Amornluck Krasaelap
BACKGROUND: Our study evaluated progression of and identified potential factors contributing to outcomes of ROME III defined-functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in children treated symptomatically in a biopsychosocial model of care with a long-term follow-up. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of pediatric patients who were diagnosed with ROME III defined-FGIDs including functional abdominal pain, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and abdominal migraine...
April 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470280/photoelectrochemical-water-reduction-over-wide-gap-ag-cu-in-ga-s2-thin-film-photocathodes
#18
Wilman Septina, Minori Sugimoto, Ding Chao, Qing Shen, Shigeru Nakatsuka, Yoshitaro Nose, Takashi Harada, Shigeru Ikeda
The effects of partial replacement of Cu with Ag in a Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) thin film on its structural, optical, electrostructural, and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties were investigated, in order to improve its performance for PEC water reduction under sunlight illumination. Results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed the successful partial replacement of Cu with Ag to form solid-solutions with different Ag/(Ag + Cu) ratios (A(x)CIGS, x = Ag/(Ag + Cu) = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4), as confirmed by a gradual change in the (112) reflections to smaller 2θ angles with increasing Ag/(Ag + Cu) ratio...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448114/comparison-of-ag-in-ga-se2-mo-and-cu-in-ga-se2-mo-interfaces-in-solar-cells
#19
Xianfeng Zhang, Masakazu Kobayashi, Akira Yamada
The structural and electrical properties of the junction at Ag(In,Ga)Se2AIGS/Mo, and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 CIGS/Mo layers were characterized. The region between the CIGS and Mo featured a MoSe2 layer with a layered hexagonal structure and thickness of 10-15 nm. The c-axis of the MoSe2 was oriented perpendicular to the Mo layer, and the c -value was 12.6 Å. However, no such layer was observed at the interface between AIGS and Mo. This result was also confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray diffraction measurements of the MoSe2 layer...
May 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443340/e-cigs-are-they-cool-talking-to-teens-about-e-cigarettes
#20
Vania Modesto-Lowe, Camille Alvarado
Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes as they are commonly called, have gained wide acceptance among adolescents, especially those with sweet flavors such as bubble gum and cheesecake. Although health effects of e-cigarettes have not been well characterized, their use increases a teen's exposure to nicotine and may serve as a gateway to traditional cigarettes. This article outlines the basics of e-cigarettes and potential health hazards, followed by selected literature on teens' perceptions of e-cigarettes, as well as motivational interviewing strategies that can be used in talking to teens about using electronic cigarettes...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
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