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C Jensen, D Moore, C Mah, O Baclic, S Marchant-Short
Background: The Canadian Immunization Guide (CIG) is published online by the Public Health Agency of Canada and summarizes guidance on vaccines for human use into a single resource. Chapters are reviewed and updated on a regular basis. Vaccine administration is a critical part of any immunization program. Recently, the CIG chapter on vaccine administration practices was updated. Objective: To provide highlights of recent changes to the Vaccine Administration Practices chapter of the CIG...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
Silvia Freira, Marina Serra Lemos, Helena Fonseca, Geoffrey Williams, Marta Ribeiro, Fernanda Pena, Maria do Céu Machado
Motivational interviewing (MI) is an effective method to promote weight loss that can be delivered by non-mental health providers. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether MI was superior to conventional counseling to improve the anthropometric outcomes of adolescents with obesity/overweight. It was a controlled cluster randomized trial with parallel design in a school setting. The study included two groups: Motivational Interviewing Group (MIG) and control group (Conventional Intervention Group, CIG)...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Alexandra Hershberger, Miranda Connors, Miji Um, Melissa A Cyders
The current paper applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1988) to understand how impulsive personality traits and attitudes concerning e-cig use relate to the likelihood of electronic cigarette (e-cig) use. Seven hundred and fourteen participants (Mean age = 34.04, SD = 10.89, 48.6% female) completed cross-sectional measures of e-cig use attitudes (CEAC) and the Short UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale. A structural path analysis suggested that urgency and deficits in conscientiousness were significantly related to e-cig attitudes (CFI = 0...
April 2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Jianjun Li, Dongxiao Wang, Xiuling Li, Yu Zeng, Yi Zhang
As a promising candidate for low-cost and environmentally friendly thin-film photovoltaics, the emerging kesterite-based Cu2 ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells have experienced rapid advances over the past decade. However, the record efficiency of CZTSSe solar cells (12.6%) is still significantly lower than those of its predecessors Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cells. This record has remained for several years. The main obstacle for this stagnation is unanimously attributed to the large open-circuit voltage ( V OC ) deficit...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Uchenna Prosper Okonkwo, Sam Chidi Ibeneme, Ebere Yvonne Ihegihu, Afamefuna Victor Egwuonwu, Charles Ikechukwu Ezema, Fatai Adesina Maruf
BACKGROUND: Stroke results in varying levels of physical disabilities that may adversely impact balance with increased tendency to falls. This may intensify with cognitive impairments (CI), and impede functional recovery. Therefore, task-specific balance training (TSBT), which presents versatile task-specific training options that matches varied individual needs, was explored as a beneficial rehabilitation regime for stroke survivors with and without CI. It was hypothesized that there will be no significant difference in the balance control measures in stroke survivors with and without CI after a 12-month TSBT...
May 2, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Jie Chen, Mao-Wen Xu, Jinggao Wu, Chang Ming Li
Iodine edge-doped graphene can improve the capacity and stability of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Our theoretical calculations indicate that center-iodization can further significantly enhance the anode catalytic process. To experimentally prove the theoretical prediction, iodine-doped graphene materials were prepared by one-pot hydrothermal and ball-milling approaches to realize different doping-sites. Results show that the center-iodinated graphene (CIG) anode exhibits a remarkably high reversible capacity (1121 mA h g-1 after 180 cycles at 0...
May 2, 2018: Nanoscale
Kyungnam Kang, Sungchul Kim, Jungho Kim
We investigate the effect of multiple incoherent layers on the optical characteristics of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells, based on the equispaced thickness averaging method (ETAM). The studied multiple incoherent layers consist of a glass cover layer, surface flattening layer, and transparent conducting layer, whose respective thicknesses are larger than the coherence length of sunlight (∼0.6  μm). An independent equispaced thickness is added to each incoherent layer and the coherent simulation results, obtained by the finite element method, are averaged over a combination of the equispaced thicknesses...
April 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Thomas Feurer, Benjamin Bissig, Thomas P Weiss, Romain Carron, Enrico Avancini, Johannes Löckinger, Stephan Buecheler, Ayodhya N Tiwari
Multi-junction solar cells show the highest photovoltaic energy conversion efficiencies, but the current technologies based on wafers and epitaxial growth of multiple layers are very costly. Therefore, there is a high interest in realizing multi-junction tandem devices based on cost-effective thin film technologies. While the efficiency of such devices has been limited so far because of the rather low efficiency of semitransparent wide bandgap top cells, the recent rise of wide bandgap perovskite solar cells has inspired the development of new thin film tandem solar devices...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Gaurav Kapil, Teresa S Ripolles, Kengo Hamada, Yuhei Ogomi, Takeru Bessho, Takumi Kinoshita, Jakapan Chantana, Kenji Yoshino, Qing Shen, Taro Toyoda, Takashi Minemoto, Takurou N Murakami, Hiroshi Segawa, Shuzi Hayase
Frequently observed high Voc loss in tin-lead mixed perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is considered to be one of the serious bottle-necks in spite of the high attainable Jsc due to wide wavelength photon harvesting. An amicable solution to minimize the Voc loss up to 0.50 V has been demonstrated by introducing an n-type interface with spike structure between the absorber and electron transport layer inspired by highly efficient CIGS solar cells. Introduction of a conduction band offset of ~0.15 eV with a thin PCBM layer (~ 25 nm) on the top of perovskite absorber resulted into improved Voc of 0...
April 27, 2018: Nano Letters
Ana Isabel Gomes, Luisa Barros, Ana Isabel Pereira, Magda Sofia Roberto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot study of a parental school-based intervention to promote healthy eating behaviours in young children. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental longitudinal design with three conditions (complete intervention (CIG), minimal intervention (MIG), control (CG)), with repeated measures at baseline, immediately after the intervention, 6 months and 1 year after intervention. SETTING: Fourteen public and state-funded kindergartens near Lisbon, Portugal...
April 23, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Paul M Cinciripini, Jennifer A Minnix, Charles E Green, Jason D Robinson, Jeffrey M Engelmann, Francesco Versace, David W Wetter, Sanjay Shete, Maher Karam-Hage
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the availability of several efficacious smoking cessation treatments, less than 25% of smokers who quit remain abstinent 1 year post treatment. This study aimed to determine if varenicline and bupropion combination treatment would result in higher abstinence rates than varenicline alone. DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, parallel groups smoking cessation clinical trial in which participants were exposed to 12 weeks of treatment and followed for 12 months...
April 21, 2018: Addiction
Taewoo Eom, Jeong Eun Park, Sang Yong Park, Jeong Hoon Park, Jackson Bweupe, Donggun Lim
Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin film solar cells have been regarded as a candidate for energy conversion devices owing to their high absorption coefficient, high temperature stability, and low cost. ZnO:Al thin film is commonly used in CIGS solar cells as a window layer. In this study, ZnO:Al films were deposited on glass under various post-heat temperature using RF sputtering to observe the characteristics of ZnO:Al films such as Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and resistivity; subsequently, the ZnO:Al films were applied to a CIGS solar cell as a window...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Andrew Higham, Declan Bostock, George Booth, Josiah V Dungwa, Dave Singh
Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are used to help smoking cessation. However, these devices contain harmful chemicals, and there are safety concerns. We have investigated the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response and viability of COPD bronchial epithelial cells (BECs). Methods: BECs from COPD patients and controls were exposed to e-cig vapor extract (ECVE) and the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL8), and lactate dehydrogenase release were measured...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
M Flori Sassano, Eric S Davis, James E Keating, Bryan T Zorn, Tavleen K Kochar, Matthew C Wolfgang, Gary L Glish, Robert Tarran
The e-liquids used in electronic cigarettes (E-cigs) consist of propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG), nicotine, and chemical additives for flavoring. There are currently over 7,700 e-liquid flavors available, and while some have been tested for toxicity in the laboratory, most have not. Here, we developed a 3-phase, 384-well, plate-based, high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to rapidly triage and validate the toxicity of multiple e-liquids. Our data demonstrated that the PG/VG vehicle adversely affected cell viability and that a large number of e-liquids were more toxic than PG/VG...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
Karin C Lødrup Carlsen, Håvard O Skjerven, Kai-Håkon Carlsen
Electronic cigarettes (E-cig), also referred to as Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS), were initially developed in 2003 to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco smoking. Since then, E-cig have become widely available in many countries and are used by many young people who would be unlikely to take up cigarette smoking. However, the adverse effects on child health remain largely unknown. E-cigs are available through regulated sale in many countries, but easily accessible by the internet in others. Adverse effects may be ascribed to the nicotine itself, to the accompanying substances in the aerosol (often referred to as vapour) or to temperature modifications of the content...
February 10, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Khulud A Al-Aali, Mohammed Alrabiah, Aws S ArRejaie, Tariq Abduljabbar, Fahim Vohra, Zohaib Akram
BACKGROUND: To the author's knowledge, there has been no study that has assessed clinical, radiographic, and immunological peri-implant parameters among individuals vaping e-cigarette (e-cig). PURPOSE: This pilot study aimed to compare clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β levels among individuals vaping e-cigs and never smoker (NS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven individuals vaping e-cigs (group-1) and 45 NS (group-2) were included...
March 25, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Kourosh Honarmand Ebrahimi
RSAD2 (cig-5), also known as viperin (virus inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum associated, interferon inducible), is a member of the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) superfamily of enzymes. Since the discovery of this enzyme more than a decade ago, numerous studies have shown that it exhibits antiviral activity against a wide range of viruses. However, there is no clear picture demonstrating the mechanism by which RSAD2 restricts the replication process of different viruses, largely because there is no direct evidence describing its in vivo enzymatic activity...
April 25, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Karl A Wagner, Jason W Flora, Matt S Melvin, Karen C Avery, Regina M Ballentine, Anthony P Brown, Willie J McKinney
U.S. FDA draft guidance recommends reporting quantities of designated harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in e-cigarette e-liquids and aerosols. The HPHC list comprises potential matrix-related compounds, flavors, nicotine, tobacco-related impurities, leachables, thermal degradation products, and combustion-related compounds. E-cigarettes contain trace levels of many of these constituents due to tobacco-derived nicotine and thermal degradation. However, combustion-related HPHCs are not likely to be found due to the relatively low operating temperatures of most e-cigarettes...
June 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Jiayuan Zhao, Jordan Nelson, Oluwabunmi Dada, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Ilias G Kavouras, Philip Demokritou
Users of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are exposed to particles and other gaseous pollutants. However, major knowledge gaps on the physico-chemical properties of such exposures and contradictory data in published literature prohibit health risk assessment. Here, the effects of product brand, type, e-liquid flavoring additives, operational voltage, and user puffing patterns on emissions were systematically assessed using a recently developed, versatile, e-cig exposure generation platform and state-of-the-art analytical methods...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Mohammed Q Al Rifaiy, Osama A Qutub, Mohammed N Alasqah, Zeyad H Al-Sowygh, Sameer A Mokeem, Ali Alrahlah
BACKGROUND: There are no studies that have assessed the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in reducing peri-implant inflammatory response in individuals vaping electronic cigarettes (e-cigs). This study explored the effectiveness of aPDT as an adjunct to mechanical debridement (MD) in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis (p-iM) in individuals vaping e-cigs. METHODS: Vaping individuals with p-iM were divided into 2 groups: (a) Group-I: receiving MD with aPDT (test group); and (b) Group-II: MD only (control group)...
March 14, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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