Read by QxMD icon Read

Depression and occupational impairment

Osvaldo P Almeida, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Keith D Hill, Leon Flicker
BACKGROUND: Older adults with depression have increased risk of frailty and death. OBJECTIVE: To determine if history of depression hinders future physical and functional capacity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective longitudinal cohort study of 1148 men aged 70-87 years who were living in the Perth metropolitan community in 2001-2004 and completed a follow-up assessment of physical and functional capacity in 2011-2012. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: Outcomes were collected in 2011-2012 and included 4 measures of physical function (timed up-and-go, timed sit-to-stand, functional reach, and step test) and the assessment of basic (activities of daily living) and instrumental activities of daily living...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Alonso Montoya, Jeremie Lebrec, Karen Mary Keane, Irene Fregenal, Antonio Ciudad, Ángel Moríñigo, Luis Agüera-Ortiz, Irene Romera, Inmaculada Gilaberte, Mark Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Goals of treating major depressive disorder (MDD) include achieving remission and avoiding relapse. It is possible that patients may have a broader view of remission than what is captured via clinician-rated scales. This patient perspective may, in turn, have an impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: The association between a broader conceptualization of remission, based on the Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ) score at baseline, and being in symptomatic remission after 6 months was evaluated in subjects (N = 613) with MDD in symptomatic remission at baseline (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAMD-17] ≤7)...
October 19, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Chang Liu, Yanlan Huang, Joyce C Pressley
BACKGROUND: While driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle (MV) crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and/or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash. METHODS: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008-2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations/errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger vehicles who were tested for both alcohol and drugs (n = 79,932)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Christoph Kröger, Inga Frantz, Pauline Friel, Nina Heinrichs
Background and Objectives: Currently, there is a large number of refugees that are coming to Germany from (civil) war zones. The aim of this study was to estimate the extent of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms amongst asylum seekers in Germany. Methods: In the summer of 2015, 280 adult refugees (88,2% men) were interviewed with the support of translators in the Lower Saxony State Refugee Reception Center, Brunswick. Data was categorized due to country of origin (Balkan States, Middle East, Northern Africa, Rest of Africa)...
September 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Farrukh Jamal, Quazi S Haque, Sangram Singh
BACKGROUND: Diverse group of agro-chemicals are indiscriminately sprayed by the farmers for pest control to enhance crop yield. About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase- like organophosphates (OPs). OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed pesticide sprayers of mango plantation in rural Malihabad, Lucknow, in terms of neuro-cognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and hematological factors...
2016: Open Biochemistry Journal
Glenda M MacQueen, Katherine A Memedovich
Cognitive dysfunction is a recognized feature of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Cognitive impairment is associated with poor overall functional outcome and is therefore an important feature of illness to optimize for patients' occupational and academic outcomes. While generally people with BD appear to have a greater degree of cognitive impairment than those with MDD, direct comparisons of both patient groups within a single study are lacking. There are a number of methods for the assessment of cognitive function, but few are currently used in clinical practice...
September 29, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Maurizio S Riga, Vicent Teruel-Martí, Connie Sánchez, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
Vortioxetine (VOR) is a multimodal antidepressant drug. VOR is a 5-HT3-R, 5-HT7-R and 5-HT1D-R antagonist, 5-HT1B-R partial agonist, 5-HT1A-R agonist, and serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitor. VOR shows pro-cognitive activity in animal models and beneficial effects on cognitive dysfunction in major depressive patients. Here we compared the effects of 14-day treatments with VOR and escitalopram (ESC, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) on neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Ten groups of rats (5 standard, 5 depleted of 5-HT with p-chlorophenylalanine -pCPA-, used as model of cognitive impairment) were fed with control food or with two doses of VOR-containing food...
September 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
L Rayner, A Simpson, F Matcham, S Shetty, O Lahoti, G Groom, M Hotopf
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and drug and alcohol dependence in a limb reconstruction population and examine associations with demographic and functional variables. METHODS: As part of routine clinical care, data were collected from 566 patients attending a tertiary referral centre for limb reconstruction between April 2012 and February 2016. Depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol and drug dependence were measured using standardised self-report screening tools...
October 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
K W Miskowiak, J Z Petersen, C V Ott, U Knorr, L V Kessing, P Gallagher, L Robinson
OBJECTIVE: The poor relationship between subjective and objective cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder (BD) is well-established. However, beyond simple correlation, this has not been explored further using a methodology that quantifies the degree and direction of the discrepancy. This study aimed to develop such a methodology to explore clinical characteristics predictive of subjective-objective discrepancy in a large BD patient cohort. METHODS: Data from 109 remitted BD patients and 110 healthy controls were pooled from previous studies, including neuropsychological test scores, self-reported cognitive difficulties, and ratings of mood, stress, socio-occupational capacity, and quality of life...
September 20, 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Dominic Murphy, Lucy Spencer-Harper, Carron Carson, Emily Palmer, Kate Hill, Nicola Sorfleet, Simon Wessely, Walter Busuttil
OBJECTIVES: Military-related trauma can be difficult to treat. Evaluating longer term responses to treatment and identifying which individuals may need additional support could inform clinical practice. We assessed 1-year outcomes in UK veterans treated for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). DESIGN: Within-participant design. SETTING: The intervention was offered by Combat Stress, a mental health charity for veterans in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included 401 veterans who completed a standardised 6-week residential treatment...
September 16, 2016: BMJ Open
P Brenner, F Piehl
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory condition with a prominent progressive neurodegenerative facet that typically affects young- or middle-aged adults. Although physical disabilities have been in the foreground by being easier to assess, there is an increasing interest in mental disabilities and psychiatric co-morbidities, which have a disproportionally high impact on important outcome measures such as quality of life and occupational disability. In particular, cognitive impairment, depression and mental fatigue, which mutually interact with each other, seem to be of importance in this context...
September 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Vickie Auclair, Philippe-Olivier Harvey, Martin Lepage
Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Lisa M McTeague, Madeleine S Goodkind, Amit Etkin
Intact cognitive control or executive function has characteristic patterns in both behavior and functional neurocircuitry. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that a frontal-cingulate-parietal-insular (i.e., "multiple demand") network forms a common functional substrate undergirding successful adaptation to diverse cognitive processing demands. Separate work on intact neurocognitive performance implicates a higher order factor that largely explains performance across domains and may reflect trait cognitive control capacity...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
A Weinstein, A Livny-Ezer, A Weizman
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. Regular cannabis use has been associated with a range of acute and chronic mental health problems, such as anxiety, depression, psychotic symptoms and neurocognitive impairments and their neural mechanisms need to be examined. This review summarizes and critically evaluates brain-imaging studies of cannabis in recreational and regular cannabis users between January 2000 and January 2016. The search has yielded eligible 103 structural and functional studies...
August 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Inbal Reuveni, Dan Rotem, Segman Ronen, Evron Ron, Laufer Sofia, Goelman Gadi, Bonne Omer, Canetti Laura
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) reported to affect 3-8 % of women of reproductive age and resulting in marked emotional and occupational impairment. Despite its prevalence, the etiology of PMDD is largely unknown, and patients remain mostly undiagnosed and poorly treated. It has been suggested that PMDD is a manifestation of underlying depressive disorder which is associated with the inability to regulate emotions in an adaptive manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that women with PMDD would exhibit increased difficulty with emotional regulation...
August 18, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Kim Hinkelmann, Julian Hellmann-Regen, Katja Wingenfeld, Linn K Kuehl, Marie Mews, Juliane Fleischer, Isabella Heuser, Christian Otte
BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown disturbed glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in depressed patients. In contrast, only few studies targeted mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) function with inconclusive results. We examined the effects of the MR antagonist spironolactone on cortisol secretion in depressed patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: Forty-eight unmedicated depressed patients (mean age 41.6years) and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy participants (40.7years) received the MR antagonist spironolactone (300mg) or placebo with three days apart in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject cross-over design...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Raymond W Lam, Diane McIntosh, JianLi Wang, Murray W Enns, Theo Kolivakis, Erin E Michalak, Jitender Sareen, Wei-Yi Song, Sidney H Kennedy, Glenda M MacQueen, Roumen V Milev, Sagar V Parikh, Arun V Ravindran
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) conducted a revision of the 2009 guidelines by updating the evidence and recommendations. The scope of the 2016 guidelines remains the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, with a target audience of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. METHODS: Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Verena R Cimarolli, Seojung Jung
OBJECTIVES: Unaddressed functional limitations in nursing home (NH) residents can lead to unnecessary, excess disability that negatively affects residents' quality of life. In order to enhance functioning, NH residents can receive rehabilitation such as occupational therapy (OT). However, little is known about factors that may aid or hinder full therapy utilization in NH residents. Hence, our study investigated sensory impairments (vision and hearing) and other important health-related variables (eg, cognitive functioning) as predictors of intensity of OT utilization...
October 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
G Camelia Adams, Lloyd Balbuena, XiangFei Meng, Gordon J G Asmundson
BACKGROUND: Despite several studies suggesting higher depression severity and dysfunction occurring in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) comorbid with social anxiety disorder (SAD), a clear understanding of the specific risks associated with this comorbidity is lacking. In this study we compared the disease characteristics and level of disability of individuals with MDD-SAD with other comorbidities between depression and anxiety. METHODS: Data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) (N=20,013) were used...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Xin Yan Liu, Li Li, Jia Qing Xiao, Chang Zhi He, Xiu Lin Lyu, Lei Gao, Xiao Wei Yang, Xin Gang Cui, Li Hua Fan
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the feasibility and efficacy of cognitive training for older adults in rural settings and with low education levels, who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Forty-five older adults (ages >65 years) with MCI were assigned to treatment or control groups, at a 2:1 ratio. Cognitive training occurred in the treatment group for 2 months. The cognitive abilities of the participants were assessed at pre-training, metaphase, and post-training time points, using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D)...
May 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"