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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908297/prevention-of-breast-cancer-treatment-induced-bone-loss-in-premenopausal-women-treated-with-zoledronic-acid-final-5-year-results-from-the-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-probone-ii-trial
#1
Ioannis Kyvernitakis, Peter Herbert Kann, Friederike Thomasius, Olaf Hars, Peyman Hadji
PURPOSE: Premenopausal women receiving chemotherapy or endocrine treatment for early breast cancer are at increased risk for cancer treatment induced bone loss (CTIBL). The aim of the randomized, double-blind ProBONE II trial was to investigate whether a 2-year adjuvant treatment with 4 mg intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL) every 3 months versus placebo would prevent CTIBL after a five-year period. METHODS: Thirty-one of the 34 participants in the ZOL arm and thirty-four of the 36 participants in the placebo arm were followed-up to the 5-year visit and completed the study as planned...
June 13, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907935/circulating-mir-215-5p-and-mir-642a-5p-as-potential-biomarker-for-diagnosis-of-osteosarcoma-in-mexican-population
#2
Lucero Monterde-Cruz, Eric G Ramírez-Salazar, Genaro Rico-Martínez, Luis M Linares-González, Roberto Guzmán-González, Ernesto Delgado-Cedillo, Eréndira Estrada-Villaseñor, Margarita Valdés-Flores, Rafael Velázquez-Cruz, Alberto Hidalgo-Bravo
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone neoplasia affecting individuals in the second decade of life. The survival rate has not been improved during the last 25 years, in part because of the lack of specific markers. The microRNAs have been identified as important regulators of gene expression, experimental evidence suggests these molecules as key players in cancer development and progression. To identify miRNAs differentially expressed in serum from patients with osteosarcoma compared to healthy donors in Mexican population...
June 15, 2018: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907594/repositioning-dopamine-d2-receptor-agonist-bromocriptine-to-enhance-docetaxel-chemotherapy-and-treat-bone-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#3
Yang Yang, Kenza Mamouni, Xin Li, Yanhua Chen, Sravan Kavuri, Yuhong Du, Haian Fu, Omer Kucuk, Daqing Wu
Docetaxel resistance remains a major obstacle in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis. In this study, we demonstrate that the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) agonist bromocriptine effectively enhances docetaxel efficacy and suppresses skeletal growth of PCa in preclinical models. DRD2 is ubiquitously expressed in PCa cell lines, and DRD2 is significantly reduced in PCa tissues with high Gleason score. Bromocriptine has weak to moderate cytotoxicity in PCa cells, but effectively induces cell cycle arrest...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907569/arginine-methylation-of-smad7-by-prmt1-in-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-epithelial-stem-cell-generation
#4
Yoko Katsuno, Jian Qin, Juan A Oses-Prieto, Hongjun Wang, Olan Jackson-Weaver, Tingwei Zhang, Samy Lamouille, Jian Wu, A L L Burlingame, Jian Xu, Rik Derynck
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) is crucial for tissue differentiation in development, and drives essential steps in cancer and fibrosis. EMT is accompanied by reprogramming of gene expression, and has been associated with the epithelial stem cell state in normal and carcinoma cells. The cytokine TGF-β drives this program in cooperation with other signaling pathways and through TGF-β-activated Smad3 as major effector. TGF-β-induced Smad3 activation is inhibited by Smad7 and to a lesser extent by Smad6, and Smad6 and Smad7 both inhibit Smad1 and Smad5 activation in response to the TGF-β-related bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906493/the-tamoxifen-derivative-ridaifen-b-is-a-high-affinity-selective-cb-2-receptor-inverse-agonist-exhibiting-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-osteoclastogenic-effects
#5
Lirit N Franks, Benjamin M Ford, Toshifumi Fujiwara, Haibo Zhao, Paul L Prather
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) target estrogen receptors (ERs) to treat breast cancer and osteoporosis. Several SERMs exhibit anti-cancer activity not related to ERs. To discover novel anti-cancer drugs acting via ER-independent mechanisms, derivatives of the SERM tamoxifen, known as the "ridaifen" compounds, have been developed that exhibit reduced or no ER affinity, while maintaining cytotoxicity. Tamoxifen and other SERMs bind to cannabinoid receptors with moderate affinity. Therefore, ER-independent effects of SERMs might be mediated via cannabinoid receptors...
June 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905754/a-novel-signal-on-photoelectrochemical-sensor-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-based-on-a-tio-2-g-c-3-n-4-heterojunction
#6
Feng Xia Wang, Cui Ye, Shi Mo, Liu Li Liao, Xiao Fang Zhang, Yu Ling, Lu Lu, Hong Qun Luo, Nian Bing Li
The use of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a biomarker in some diseases including hepatitis, obstructive jaundice, osteoblastic bone cancer, and osteomalacia is important in clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, ALP activity detection is an essential hot topic in environmental monitoring, biomedical research, and other research fields. In this study, a novel "signal-on" photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on the ALP-catalyzed phosphorylation reaction was designed to sensitively detect ALP activity...
June 15, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905027/increased-risk-of-bone-tumors-after-growth-hormone-treatment-in-childhood-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-france
#7
Amélie Poidvin, Jean-Claude Carel, Emmanuel Ecosse, Dominique Levy, Jean Michon, Joël Coste
The association between growth hormone (GH) treatment and cancer risk has not been thoroughly evaluated and there are questions about any increased risk of bone tumors. We examined cancer risk and especially bone tumor risk in a population-based cohort study of 6874 patients treated with recombinant GH in France for isolated GH deficiency, short stature associated with low birth weight or length or idiopathic short stature. Adult mortality and morbidity data obtained from national databases and from questionnaires...
June 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904105/an-interdisciplinary-consensus-on-the-management-of-bone-metastases-from-renal-cell-carcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Viktor Grünwald, Berit Eberhardt, Axel Bex, Anne Flörcken, Thomas Gauler, Thorsten Derlin, Martin Panzica, Hans Roland Dürr, Knut Achim Grötz, Rachel H Giles, Christian von Falck, Anno Graser, Alexander Muacevic, Michael Staehler
Bone is a major site of haematogenous tumour cell spread in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and most patients with RCC will develop painful and functionally disabling bone metastases at advanced disease stages. The prognosis of these patients is generally poor and the treatment is, therefore, aimed at palliation. However, RCC-associated bone metastases can be curable in select patients. Current data support a multimodal management strategy that includes wide resection of lesions, radiotherapy, systemic therapy, and other local treatment options, which can improve quality of life and survival...
June 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903560/fluorescence-and-near-infrared-light-transillumination
#9
REVIEW
Bennett T Amaechi, Adepitan A Owosho, Daniel Fried
This article describes the current applications of various technologies based on either autofluorescence or near-infrared light illumination, tailored to aid practitioners in detecting and quantitatively monitoring oral diseases such as dental caries and oral cancer at the earliest stage of their formation, or in the conservative surgical excision of necrotic bones in diseases such as chronic osteomyelitis, osteoradionecrosis, and medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. The data discussed are primarily based on published scientific studies and reviews from case reports, clinical trials, and in vitro and in vivo studies...
July 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903421/patient-and-hospital-level-predictors-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-vre-bacteremia-in-ontario-canada
#10
Jennie Johnstone, Cynthia Chen, Laura Rosella, Kwaku Adomako, Michelle E Policarpio, Freda Lam, Chatura Prematunge, Gary Garber
BACKGROUND: Data are limited on risk factors for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteremia. METHODS: All patients with a confirmed VRE bacteremia in Ontario, Canada, between January 2009 and December 2013 were linked to provincial healthcare administrative data sources and frequency matched to 3 controls based on age, sex, and aggregated diagnosis group. Associations between predictors and VRE bacteremia were estimated by generalized estimating equations and summarized using odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902558/programmatic-comparison-and-dissemination-of-an-audit-of-single-fraction-radiotherapy-prescribing-practices-for-bone-metastases-is-associated-with-a-meaningful-and-lasting-change-in-practice-on-a-population-level
#11
Robert Olson, Matthew Chan, Neelam Minhas, Gurkirat Kandola, Manpreet Tiwana, Shilo Lefresne, Ross Halperin, Devin Schellenberg, Elaine Wai, Nissar Ahmed, Scott Tyldesley
PURPOSE: There is ample evidence that single fraction radiation therapy (SFRT) is equally efficacious as more costly and morbid multi-fraction regimens. We previously demonstrated that an audit-based intervention increased the use of SFRT in all regional cancer centers the year following. However, other investigators have demonstrated interventions were only associated with a transient one-year change in prescribing practices. We sought to determine if our intervention resulted in a more lasting impact...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901632/alloreactive-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-immunotherapy-treatment-of-a-patient-with-metastatic-prostate-cancer-a-case-report
#12
Junfeng Shi, Yi Chen, Yuetong Chen, Yunzhu Shen, Huanyu Zhao, Hui Sun, Jinfei Chen
RATIONALE: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunotherapy is an autologous cellular immune therapy that has been approved for treating patients with malignant tumors. However, there is still limited information regarding the impact of CTL on metastatic prostate cancer (PC) patients with bone metastatic lesions. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 82-year-old male patient complained of interrupted urination, urination pain, and significant dysuria on November 24, 2014. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and postoperative pathological examination showed prostatic adenocarcinoma, and a SPECT/CT scan demonstrated multiple bone metastases...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901223/generating-synthetic-cts-from-magnetic-resonance-images-using-generative-adversarial-networks
#13
Hajar Emami, Ming Dong, Siamak P Nejad-Davarani, Carri Glide-Hurst
PURPOSE: While MR-only treatment planning using synthetic CTs (synCTs) offers potential for streamlining clinical workflow, a need exists for an efficient and automated synCT generation in the brain to facilitate near real-time MR-only planning. This work describes a novel method for generating brain synCTs based on generative adversarial networks (GANs), a deep learning model that trains two competing networks simultaneously, and compares it to a deep convolutional neural network (CNN)...
June 14, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900797/mandibular-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-a-rock-hyrax-procavia-capensis
#14
Adam D Naylor, Linda R Morrison, Simon J Girling, Dipl ZooMed
  A 9-yr-old, entire female captive rock hyrax ( Procavia capensis) was presented with a 1-wk history of sialorrhea. On clinical examination, a mass was identified, encompassing the rostral mandible and intermandibular area, with associated mucosal ulceration, marked gingival recession, and loosening or loss of adjacent teeth. Skull radiography and cytology of fine-needle aspirates of the mass were suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. Based on a suspected poor prognosis, the animal was humanely euthanized...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900053/quantitative-and-functional-alterations-of-6-sulfo-lacnac-dendritic-cells-in-multiple-myeloma
#15
Baptiste Lamarthée, Frédéric de Vassoigne, Florent Malard, Nicolas Stocker, Inès Boussen, Clémence Médiavilla, Ruoping Tang, Fanny Fava, Laurent Garderet, Zora Marjanovic, Eolia Brissot, Mohamad Mohty, Béatrice Gaugler
Multiple myeloma (MM) results from expansion of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Previous studies have shown that monocytes play a crucial role in MM pathophysiology. A 6-sulfo LacNAc-expressing population of dendritic cells (Slan-DCs) that overlaps with intermediate and non-classical monocytes in terms of phenotype has been described. Slan-DCs represent a circulating and tissue proinflammatory myeloid population which has been shown to play a role in different cancer contexts, and which exhibits a remarkable plasticity...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899399/hedgehog-signalling-in-the-tumourigenesis-and-metastasis-of-osteosarcoma-and-its-potential-value-in-the-clinical-therapy-of-osteosarcoma
#16
Zhihong Yao, Lei Han, Yongbin Chen, Fei He, Bin Sun, Santosh Kamar, Ya Zhang, Yihao Yang, Cao Wang, Zuozhang Yang
The Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway is involved in cell differentiation, growth and tissue polarity. This pathway is also involved in the progression and invasion of various human cancers. Osteosarcoma, a subtype of bone cancer, is commonly seen in children and adolescents. Typically, pulmonary osteosarcoma metastases are especially difficult to control. In the present paper, we summarise recent studies on the regulation of osteosarcoma progression and metastasis by downregulating Hh signalling. We also summarise the crosstalk between the Hh pathway and other cancer-related pathways in the tumourigenesis of various cancers...
June 13, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895968/exosome-mediated-transfer-of-lncrunx2-as1-from-multiple-myeloma-cells-to-mscs-contributes-to-osteogenesis
#17
Bingzong Li, Hongxia Xu, Huiying Han, Sha Song, Xiaojuan Zhang, Lu Ouyang, Chen'ao Qian, Yating Hong, Yingchun Qiu, Wenqi Zhou, Moli Huang, Wenzhuo Zhuang
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the decreased osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Communication between cancer cells and cancer stromal cells is a driving factor in tumor progression. Understanding the myeloma-stroma interactions is critical to the development of effective strategies that can reverse bone diseases. Here we identified that bioactive lncRNA RUNX2-AS1 in myeloma cells could be packed into exosomes and transmitted to MSCs, thus repressing the osteogenesis of MSCs. RUNX2-AS1, which arises from the antisense strand of RUNX2, was enriched in MSCs derived from MM patients (MM-MSCs)...
June 12, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895955/multiple-myeloma-clonal-evolution-in-homogeneously-treated-patients
#18
Jill Corre, Alice Cleynen, Sébastien Robiou du Pont, Laure Buisson, Niccolo Bolli, Michel Attal, Nikhil Munshi, Hervé Avet-Loiseau
Clonal evolution drives tumor progression, chemoresistance and relapse in cancer. Little is known about clonal selection induced by therapeutic pressure in multiple myeloma. To address this issue, we performed large targeted sequencing of bone marrow plasma cells in 43 multiple myeloma patients at diagnosis and at relapse from exactly the same intensive treatment. The most frequently mutated genes at diagnosis were KRAS (35%), NRAS (28%), DIS3 (16%), BRAF, and LRP1B (12% each). At relapse, the mutational burden was unchanged...
June 12, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895858/a-homozygous-fancm-frameshift-pathogenic-variant-causes-male-infertility
#19
Hao Yin, Hui Ma, Sajjad Hussain, Huan Zhang, Xuefeng Xie, Long Jiang, Xiaohua Jiang, Furhan Iqbal, Ihtisham Bukhari, Hanwei Jiang, Asim Ali, Liangwen Zhong, Tao Li, Suixing Fan, Beibei Zhang, Jianing Gao, Yang Li, Jabeen Nazish, Teka Khan, Manan Khan, Muhammad Zubair, Qiaomei Hao, Hui Fang, Jun Huang, Mahmoud Huleihel, Jiahao Sha, Tej K Pandita, Yuanwei Zhang, Qinghua Shi
PURPOSE: Fanconi anemia (FA) genes play important roles in spermatogenesis. In mice, disruption of Fancm impairs male fertility and testicular integrity, but whether FANCM pathogenic variants (PV) similarly affect fertility in men is unknown. Here we characterize a Pakistani family having three infertile brothers, two manifesting oligoasthenospermia and one exhibiting azoospermia, born to first-cousin parents. A homozygous PV in FANCM (c.1946_1958del, p.P648Lfs*16) was found cosegregating with male infertility...
June 12, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895558/novel-trifluoromethylated-enobosarm-analogues-with-potent-anti-androgenic-activity-in-vitro-and-tissue-selectivity-in-vivo
#20
Dafydd Alwyn Dart, Sahar Kandil, Serena Tommasini-Ghelfi, Gilberto Serrano de Almeida, Charlotte L Bevan, Andrew D Westwell, Andrew D Westwell
Prostate cancer often develops anti-androgen resistance, possibly via androgen receptor (AR) mutations which change antagonists to agonists. Novel therapies with increased anticancer activity, whilst overcoming current drug resistance are urgently needed. Enobosarm has anabolic effects on muscle and bone whilst having no effect on the prostate. Here we describe the activity of novel chemically modified enobosarm analogues. The rational addition of bis-trifluoromethyl groups into ring B of enobosarm, profoundly modified their activity, pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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