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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678836/tumor-suppressor-bap1-is-essential-for-thymic-development-and-proliferative-responses-of-t-lymphocytes
#1
Teresita L Arenzana, Steve Lianoglou, Akiko Seki, Celine Eidenschenk, Tommy Cheung, Dhaya Seshasayee, Thijs Hagenbeek, Arivazhagan Sambandam, Rajkumar Noubade, Ivan Peng, Justin Lesch, Jason DeVoss, Xiumin Wu, Wyne P Lee, Patrick Caplazi, Joshua Webster, Jinfeng Liu, Victoria C Pham, David Arnott, Jennie R Lill, Zora Modrusan, Anwesha Dey, Sascha Rutz
Loss of function of the nuclear deubiquitinating enzyme BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) is associated with a wide spectrum of cancers. We report that tamoxifen-induced BAP1 deletion in adult mice resulted in severe thymic atrophy. BAP1 was critical for T cell development at several stages. In the thymus, BAP1 was required for progression through the pre-T cell receptor checkpoint. Peripheral T cells lacking BAP1 demonstrated a defect in homeostatic and antigen-driven expansion. Deletion of BAP1 resulted in suppression of E2F target genes and defects in cell cycle progression, which was dependent on the catalytic activity of BAP1, but did not require its interaction with host cell factor-1 (HCF-1)...
April 20, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678471/hematologic-toxicity-from-radium-223-therapy-for-bone-metastases-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-risk-factors-and-practical-considerations
#2
REVIEW
Heather Jacene, Leonard Gomella, Evan Y Yu, Eric M Rohren
Radium-223 dichloride is an α-emitting radiopharmaceutical that localizes to bone matrix and is approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases. The cumulative impact of Ra-223 and other therapeutic agents for metastatic CRPC on myelosuppression in bone marrow is unknown. The phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ALSYMPCA trial of Ra-223 in patients with CRPC and symptomatic bone metastases demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677217/optimisation-of-three-dimensional-lower-jaw-resection-margin-planning-using-a-novel-black-bone-magnetic-resonance-imaging-protocol
#3
Astrid M Hoving, Joep Kraeima, Rutger H Schepers, Hildebrand Dijkstra, Jan Hendrik Potze, Bart Dorgelo, Max J H Witjes
BACKGROUND: MRI is the optimal method for sensitive detection of tumour tissue and pre-operative staging in oral cancer. When jawbone resections are necessary, the current standard of care for oral tumour surgery in our hospital is 3D virtual planning from CT data. 3D printed jawbone cutting guides are designed from the CT data. The tumour margins are difficult to visualise on CT, whereas they are clearly visible on MRI scans. The aim of this study was to change the conventional CT-based workflow by developing a method for 3D MRI-based lower jaw models...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677215/tracking-the-fate-of-adoptively-transferred-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-the-primary-breast-tumor-microenvironment
#4
Jaclyn Sceneay, Christoph M Griessinger, Sabrina H L Hoffmann, Shu Wen Wen, Christina S F Wong, Sophie Krumeich, Manfred Kneilling, Bernd J Pichler, Andreas Möller
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid progenitor cells that are expanded in cancer and act as potent suppressors of the anti-tumor immune response. MDSCs consist of two major subsets, namely monocytic (M-) MDSCs and granulocytic (G-) MDSCs that differ with respect to their phenotype, morphology and mechanisms of suppression. Here, we cultured bone marrow cells with IL-6 and GM-CSF in vitro to generate a population of bone marrow MDSCs (BM-MDSCs) similar to G-MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice in regards to phenotype, morphology and suppressive-function...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676642/immunomethylomics-a-novel-cancer-risk-prediction-tool
#5
Karl T Kelsey, John K Wiencke
There is emerging evidence that the immune biology associated with lung and other solid tumors, as well as patient immune genetic traits, contributes to individual survival. At this time, dramatic advances in immunologic approaches to the study and management of human cancers are taking place, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, major obstacles for therapies are the profound immune alterations in blood and in the tumor microenvironment that arise in tandem with the cancer. Although there is a significant current effort underway across the cancer research community to probe the tumor environment to uncover the dynamics of the immune response, little similar work is being done to understand the dynamics of immune alterations in peripheral blood, despite evidence showing the prognostic relevance of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for these cancers...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675944/advanced-mr-diffusion-imaging-and-chemotherapy-related-changes-in-cerebral-white-matter-microstructure-of-survivors-of-childhood-bone-and-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#6
Charlotte Sleurs, Jurgen Lemiere, Daan Christiaens, Thibo Billiet, Ronald Peeters, Stefan Sunaert, Anne Uyttebroeck, Sabine Deprez
With the increase of survival rates of pediatric cancer patients, the number of children facing potential cognitive sequelae has grown. Previous adult studies suggest that white matter (WM) microstructural changes may contribute to cognitive impairment. This study aims to investigate WM microstructure in childhood bone and soft tissue sarcoma. Differences in (micro-)structure can be investigated using diffusion MRI (dMRI). The typically used diffusion tensor model (DTI) assumes Gaussian diffusion, and lacks information about fiber populations...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675790/patterns-of-breast-cancer-relapse-in-accordance-to-biological-subtype
#7
Atanas Ignatov, Holm Eggemann, Elke Burger, Tanja Ignatov
PURPOSE: To evaluate the pattern of recurrence of breast cancer according to its biological subtype in a large cohort of patients treated with therapy representative of current practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients treated between 2000 and 2016 with known biological subtype were eligible. Data were prospectively collected. Primary endpoint was the subtype-dependent pattern and time of recurrence. Loco-regional and distant site and time of recurrence were assessed...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674728/physiological-function-of-phospholipase-d2-in-anti-tumor-immunity-regulation-of-cd8-t-lymphocyte-proliferation
#8
Van Ngo Thai Bich, Tsunaki Hongu, Yuki Miura, Naohiro Katagiri, Norihiko Ohbayashi, Yumi Yamashita-Kanemaru, Akira Shibuya, Yuji Funakoshi, Yasunori Kanaho
Two major phospholipase D (PLD) isozymes in mammals, PLD1 and PLD2, hydrolyze the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine to choline and the lipid messenger phosphatidic acid. Although their roles in cancer cells have been well studied, their functions in tumor microenvironment have not yet been clarified. Here, we demonstrate that PLD2 in cytotoxic CD8+ T cells plays a crucial role in anti-tumor immunity by regulating their cell proliferation. We found that growth of tumors formed by subcutaneously transplanted cancer cells is enhanced in Pld2-knockout mice...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674506/diagnostic-and-prognostic-roles-of-circulating-exosomal-micrornas-in-acquired-aplastic-anemia-and-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#9
Valentina Giudice, Lauren G Banaszak, Fernanda Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Sachiko Kajigaya, Reema Panjwani, Maria Del Pilar Fernandez Ibanez, Olga Rios, Christopher K Bleck, Erin S Stempinski, Diego Quinones Raffo, Danielle M Townsley, Neal S Young
Exosomal microRNAs modulate cancer cell metabolism and the immune response. Specific exosomal microRNAs have been reported to be reliable biomarkers of several solid and hematologic malignancies. We examined the possible diagnostic and prognostic values of exosomal microRNAs in two human bone marrow failure diseases, aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. After screening of 372 microRNAs in a discovery set (n=42) of plasma exosome samples, we constructed a custom microRNA PCR plate, including 42 microRNAs, for validation in a larger cohort (n=99), and we identified 25 differentially expressed exosomal microRNAs uniquely or frequently present in aplastic anemia and/or myelodysplastic syndromes...
April 19, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674122/4-fluorobenzaldehyde-limonene-based-thiosemicarbazone-induces-apoptosis-in-pc-3-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#10
Bruna Dos Santos Rodrigues, Renato Ivan de Ávila, Polyana Lopes Benfica, Ludmila Pires Bringel, Cecília Maria Alves de Oliveira, Fábio Vandresen, Cleuza Conceição da Silva, Marize Campos Valadares
AIMS: This study evaluated parameters of toxicity and antiproliferative effects of (+)-N(1)-4-fluorobenzaldehyde-N(4)-{1-methyl-1-[(1R)-4-methylcyclohexene-3-il]-ethyl}-thiossemicarbazone (4-FTSC) in PC-3 adenocarcinoma prostate cells. MAIN METHODS: Cytotoxicity of 4-FTSC in PC-3 cells was evaluated using MTT assay. Morphology examination of PC-3 cells treated with 4-FTSC was also performed as well as the cell death mechanisms induced were investigated using flow cytometry...
April 16, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673712/update-on-systemic-prostate-cancer-therapies-management-of-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-in-the-era-of-precision-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Philipp Nuhn, Johann S De Bono, Karim Fizazi, Stephen J Freedland, Maurizio Grilli, Philip W Kantoff, Guru Sonpavde, Cora N Sternberg, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
CONTEXT: Introduction of novel agents for the management of advanced prostate cancer provides a range of treatment options with notable benefits for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). At the same time, understanding of optimal patient selection, effective sequential use, and development of resistance patterns remains incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To review current systemic therapies and recent advances in drug development for mCRPC and strategies to aid in patient selection and optimal sequencing...
April 16, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673038/pelvic-insufficiency-fractures-frequently-occur-following-preoperative-chemo-radiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer-a-nationwide-mri-study
#12
Jesper Beck Jørgensen, Peter Bondeven, Lene Hjerrild Iversen, Søren Laurberg, Bodil Ginnerup Pedersen
AIM: The aim of this prospective case-control study was to evaluate the rate of pelvic insufficiency fractures (PIF) in Denmark using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3-year follow-up. All patients had rectal cancer and had undergone surgery with or without preoperative chemo-radiotherapy (CRT). METHOD: Patients registered with primary rectal cancer in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database, who underwent rectal cancer resection from April 2011 through August 2012, were invited to participate in a national MRI study aiming to detect local recurrence and evaluate quality of the surgical treatment...
April 19, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672456/questions-and-perspectives-on-involvement-of-s1pr1-in-cancer-induced-bone-pain-and-neuroinflammation
#13
Jin-Lu Huang, Yao Fu, Cheng Guo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671926/cancer-as-a-tissue-the-significance-of-cancer-stromal-interactions-in-the-development-morphogenesis-and-progression-of-human-upper-digestive-tract-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Hiroshi Yokozaki, Yu-Ichiro Koma, Manabu Shigeoka, Mari Nishio
We review the significance of cancer-stromal interactions (CSIs) in the development, morphogenesis and progression of human gastric and esophageal cancer based on the data obtained from co-culture experiments. Orthotopic fibroblasts in the gastric cancer stroma not only promoted their growth by cancer cells but were also responsible for the mobility, morphogenesis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cancer cells through CSI. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells could be part of the origin of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of the gastric cancer providing an advantageous microenvironment for the restoration of cancer stem cells with the induction of the EMT...
April 19, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671532/vitamin-d-screening-and-supplementation-in-community-dwelling-adults-common-questions-and-answers
#15
Michael L LeFevre, Nicholas M LeFevre
Measurement of vitamin D levels and supplementation with oral vitamin D have become commonplace, although clinical trials have not demonstrated health benefits. The usefulness of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to assess adequate exposure to vitamin D is hampered by variations in measurement technique and precision. Serum levels less than 12 ng per mL reflect inadequate vitamin D intake for bone health. Levels greater than 20 ng per mL are adequate for 97.5% of the population. Routine vitamin D supplementation does not prolong life, decrease the incidence of cancer or cardiovascular disease, or decrease fracture rates...
February 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671075/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-castration-sensitive-prostate-cancer-bone-oligometastases
#16
Giuseppe Fanetti, Giulia Marvaso, Delia Ciardo, Annaisabel Rese, Rosalinda Ricotti, Elena Rondi, Stefania Comi, Federica Cattani, Dario Zerini, Cristiana Fodor, Ottavio de Cobelli, Roberto Orecchia, Barbara A Jereczek-Fossa
To evaluate outcome in patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) on bone oligometastases from castration-sensitive prostate cancer after primary treatment. We retrospectively collected data of patients with less than five lesions at time of SBRT and hormone-naïve disease at the first extra-regional localization, treated between 03/2012 and 11/2016. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was measured every 3 months after SBRT. Imaging was performed in case of progression. Survival analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier (log-rank test) approach...
April 18, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670999/mechanisms-involved-in-normal-and-pathological-osteoclastogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Kyung-Hyun Park-Min
Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that play an essential role in bone remodeling. Defects in osteoclasts result in unbalanced bone remodeling and are linked to many bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, primary bone cancer, and skeletal metastases. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) is a classical inducer of osteoclast formation. In the presence of macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, RANKL and co-stimulatory signals synergistically regulate osteoclastogenesis. However, recent discoveries of alternative pathways for RANKL-independent osteoclastogenesis have led to a reassessment of the traditional mechanisms that regulate osteoclast formation...
April 18, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670722/stafne-s-bone-defect-in-a-metastatic-prostate-cancer-patient-a-diagnostic-conundrum
#18
Wagner-Gomes da Silva, Aristilia-Tahara Kemp, Alan-Roger Dos Santos-Silva, Maria Del Pilar-Estevez Diz, Thais-Bianca Brandão
Stafne's bone defect (SBD) is an uncommon bone alteration that affects the mandible and usually presents as an asymptomatic radiolucency located in the posterior region of body or angle of the mandible, below the alveolar canal. Although clinical and radiographic features are more often sufficient for the diagnosis, other lesions and bone alterations have been described in the differential diagnosis and may lead to a misinterpretation and an incorrect diagnosis. Herein, we report a case of an 89-yearold man with metastatic prostate cancer to multiple bones, presenting an asymptomatic solitary well-defined radiolucent image on the right side of the posterior body of the mandible, in close contact with its inferior border...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670613/innate-immunity-in-the-persistent-inflammation-immunosuppression-and-catabolism-syndrome-and-its-implications-for-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Horiguchi, Tyler J Loftus, Russell B Hawkins, Steven L Raymond, Julie A Stortz, McKenzie K Hollen, Brett P Weiss, Elizabeth S Miller, Azra Bihorac, Shawn D Larson, Alicia M Mohr, Scott C Brakenridge, Hironori Tsujimoto, Hideki Ueno, Frederick A Moore, Lyle L Moldawer, Philip A Efron
Clinical and technological advances promoting early hemorrhage control and physiologic resuscitation as well as early diagnosis and optimal treatment of sepsis have significantly decreased in-hospital mortality for many critically ill patient populations. However, a substantial proportion of severe trauma and sepsis survivors will develop protracted organ dysfunction termed chronic critical illness (CCI), defined as ≥14 days requiring intensive care unit (ICU) resources with ongoing organ dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670288/structural-basis-of-ligand-binding-modes-at-the-neuropeptide-y-y-1-receptor
#20
Zhenlin Yang, Shuo Han, Max Keller, Anette Kaiser, Brian J Bender, Mathias Bosse, Kerstin Burkert, Lisa M Kögler, David Wifling, Guenther Bernhardt, Nicole Plank, Timo Littmann, Peter Schmidt, Cuiying Yi, Beibei Li, Sheng Ye, Rongguang Zhang, Bo Xu, Dan Larhammar, Raymond C Stevens, Daniel Huster, Jens Meiler, Qiang Zhao, Annette G Beck-Sickinger, Armin Buschauer, Beili Wu
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and have important roles in food intake, anxiety and cancer biology 1,2 . The NPY-Y receptor system has emerged as one of the most complex networks with three peptide ligands (NPY, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide) binding to four receptors in most mammals, namely the Y1 , Y2 , Y4 and Y5 receptors, with different affinity and selectivity 3 . NPY is the most powerful stimulant of food intake and this effect is primarily mediated by the Y1 receptor (Y1 R) 4 ...
April 18, 2018: Nature
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