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Bone cancer

Kipp Weiskopf, Peter J Schnorr, Wendy W Pang, Mark P Chao, Akanksha Chhabra, Jun Seita, Mingye Feng, Irving L Weissman
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a multipotent stem cell that resides in the bone marrow and has the ability to form all of the cells of the blood and immune system. Since its first purification in 1988, additional studies have refined the phenotype and functionality of HSCs and characterized all of their downstream progeny. The hematopoietic lineage is divided into two main branches: the myeloid and lymphoid arms. The myeloid arm is characterized by the common myeloid progenitor and all of its resulting cell types...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Nilton Lavatori Correa, Lidia Vasconcellos de Sá, Rossana Corbo
: An increase in the incidence of second primary cancers (SPC) is the late effect of greatest concern that could occur in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI). The decision to treat a patient with RAI should therefore incorporate a careful risk-benefit analysis. The objective of this work is to adapt the risk estimation models developed by the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee (BEIR VII) to local epidemiological characteristics, to assess the carcinogenesis risk from radiation in a population of Brazilian DTC patients treated with RAI...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Caroline Wilson
The spread of breast cancer cells to bone and survival in this new metastatic environment is influenced not only by the genetic signature of the cells, but also multiple host cells and soluble factors produced locally (paracrine) or from distant sites (endocrine). Disrupting this metastatic process has been evaluated in clinical trials of the bone targeted agents bisphosphonates and denosumab and have shown that these agents reduce the recurrence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women only, suggesting the efficacy of the drugs are influenced by levels of reproductive endocrine hormones...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Sofia Sousa, Jorma Määttä
This overview addresses the recent research developments in the role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) in bone metastasis biology and management of breast and prostate cancer as well as in primary and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Immunosuppressive M2-type TAMs have been shown to associate with poor prognosis. Throughout their life cycle, macrophages (Macs) can adapt to environmental cues and influence the surroundings by secreting different cytokines and enzymes crucial to matrix remodelling, infection fighting, immune regulation and/or inflammation...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Florent Elefteriou
The bone marrow microenvironment is characterized by its multicellular nature, and perhaps less obviously by the high mobility of multiple transient and stationary cell lineages present in this environment. The trafficking of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells between the bone marrow and blood compartments is regulated by a number of bone marrow-derived factors. It is suspected that transformed metastatic cells "hijack" these processes to engraft into the skeleton and eventually cause the skeletal complications associated with metastatic disease...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Priyanka Prajapati, Daniel W Lambert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
A M Decker, Y Jung, F Cackowski, R S Taichman
Approximately 80% of prostate cancers exhibit some degree of bone metastasis. The role of the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in attracting metastatic cells and maintaining dormancy of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) is an increasingly important topic towards the development of novel prostate cancer therapies. This paper reviews aspects of the HSC niche that lead to prostate cancer cell homing and dormancy in the bone marrow. This review also discusses the role of DTCs in the niche environment and discusses the role of erythropoietin in targeting DTCs within the HSC niche...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Raphael Leblanc, Olivier Peyruchaud
Blood platelets have been known for more than a century as important partners for successful metastatic dissemination of solid tumors. Cancer cell-induced platelet activation is a key event responsible for prometastatic activity of platelets. Blocking platelet aggregation inhibits the progression of skeletal metastases through mechanisms that are not fully understood. The establishment and progression of bone metastases are strongly influenced by the bone remodeling process. Growth factors and cytokines released upon platelet activation may contribute to both skeletal tumor growth and osteolytic lesions...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Eugenio Zoni, Gabri van der Pluijm
The skeleton represents a common site of metastases for osteotropic cancers such as prostate and breast tumors and novel therapeutic targets and new markers for the monitoring of bone lesions are urgently needed. The formation of bone metastases is a complex process that starts at the level of the confined tumor and that is characterized by a dynamic crosstalk between the primary cancer and the future metastatic site, the bone. Factors released by the primary tumor contribute to prepare a fertile "soil", where a "pre-metastatic niche" is established prior to future colonization by cancer cells...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Alison Gartland, Janine T Erler, Thomas R Cox
Most deaths from solid cancers occur as a result of secondary metastasis to distant sites. Bone is the most frequent metastatic site for many cancer types and can account for up to 80% of cancer-related deaths in certain tumours. The progression from a discrete solid primary tumour to devastating and painful bone metastases is a complex process involving multiple cell types and steps. There is increasing evidence that modulation of the extracellular matrix plays an important role in the lethal transition from a primary to disseminated metastatic bone tumour...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Jessalyn M Ubellacker, Sandra S McAllister
Systemic factors including cytokines, cell-free nucleic acids, microvesicles, and platelets are appreciated as important regulators of adenocarcinoma progression. Research findings using pre-clinical mouse models have revealed that many such systemically acting factors are either secreted by or responsive to peripheral tumors and impact bone and bone marrow (collectively referred to as the bone microenvironment) to initiate processes that ultimately govern disease progression, even in the absence of detectable bone metastases...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
François Le Pape, Geoffrey Vargas, Philippe Clézardin
Breast cancer frequently metastasises to the skeleton, interfering with the normal bone remodelling process and inducing bone degradation. Bone degradation is caused by osteoclasts, the normal bone-resorbing cells. Osteoclast-mediated bone degradation subsequently leads to the release of bone-derived factors that promote skeletal tumour growth. Osteoclasts themselves stimulate tumour growth. This Review describes the molecular mechanisms through which osteoclasts and breast cancer cells collaborate with each other, triggering the formation of osteolytic bone metastasis...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Robert Coleman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Ingunn Holen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Kazuhiko Yoshimatsu, Gakuji Osawa, Hajime Yokomizo, Yuki Yano, Sachiyo Okayama, Akiko Sakuma, Masaya Satake, Yasufumi Yamada, Shinichi Asaka, Takebumi Usui, Kentaro Yamaguchi, Shunichi Shiozawa, Takeshi Shimakawa, Takao Katsube, Yoshihiko Naritaka
A 78-year-old man visited our hospital with a prolapsed hemorrhoid. He was referred to the dermatology unit due to the thickness and redness of the perianal skin. He was diagnosed as having extra mammary Paget's disease by skin biopsy. After a biopsy of the anal polyp was performed to investigate the primary site, he was diagnosed with early anal canal cancer with Pagetoid spread and underwent a radical operation. Abdominoperineal resection with skin(D2 prx D3 lymphadenectomy) was performed with perineal reconstruction using a gracilis muscle graft...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Kazuhiko Yoshimatsu, Hajime Yokomizo, Yuki Yano, Sachiyo Okayama, Masaya Satake, Yasufumi Yamada, Shunichi Shiozawa, Takeshi Shimakawa, Takao Katsube, Shungo Endo, Hiroyuki Kato, Yoshihiko Naritaka
A 57-year-old woman had been diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer at surgery for ovarian cancer, and underwent simultaneous radical resection. Because of the pathological diagnosis of sigmoid cancer with ovarian metastasis, adjuvant chemotherapy was scheduled, with Leucovorin(LV)25 mg. This was immediately followed with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU)500 mg, via a 2-hour systemic intravenous infusion daily for 5 consecutive days, with courses repeated at 5 weeks, followed by maintenance once every 1 or 2 weeks for 2 years...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Aya Matsuoka, Akira Hirano, Akinori Hattori, Kaoru Ogura, Hiroaki Inoue, Hiroko Yukawa, Shiho Sakaguchi, Natsuko Tanaka, Asaka Kodera, Mari Kamimura, Yoshihiko Naritaka, Tadao Shimizu
A 71-year-old woman diagnosed with left breast cancer underwent mastectomy and axillary dissection in 1987. Pathological findings showed invasive ductal carcinoma that was ER and PgR positive and HER2 negative.5 -FU and tamoxifen were administered for 2 years as adjuvant therapy.Bone metastasis was found in 2002, and endocrine therapy was started, using anastrozole, exemestane, letrozole, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and fulvestrant.However, liver, lung, pleural, penetiral, and lymph-node metastases were observed, and the following chemotherapy regimen was administered: CAF, capecitabine, paclitaxel, vinorelbine, gemcitabine, methotrexate plus mitomycin C, and eribulin...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Shu Wen Wen, Jaclyn Sceneay, Luize G Lima, Christina Sf Wong, Melanie Becker, Sophie Krumeich, Richard J Lobb, Vanessa Castillo, Ke Ni Wong, Sarah Ellis, Belinda S Parker, Andreas Moller
Small membranous secretions from tumor cells, termed exosomes, contribute significantly to intercellular communication and subsequent reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment. Here we use optical imaging to determine that exogenously administered fluorescently-labeled exosomes derived from highly metastatic murine breast cancer cells, distributed predominantly to the lung of syngeneic mice, a frequent site of breast cancer metastasis. At the sites of accumulation, exosomes were taken up by CD45+ bone marrow-derived cells...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Research
Nicholas E Mamrak, Akiko Shimamura, Niall G Howlett
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal and X-linked genetic disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), and increased cancer risk during early adulthood. The median lifespan for FA patients is approximately 33years. The proteins encoded by the FA genes function together in the FA-BRCA pathway to repair DNA damage and to maintain genome stability. Within the past two years, five new FA genes have been identified-RAD51/FANCR, BRCA1/FANCS, UBE2T/FANCT, XRCC2/FANCU, and REV7/FANCV-bringing the total number of disease-causing genes to 21...
October 13, 2016: Blood Reviews
Jamal El-Saghir, Farah Nassar, Nadim Tawil, Marwan El-Sabban
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are membrane nano-vesicles secreted by a multitude of cells that harbor biological constituents such as proteins, lipids, mRNA and microRNA. Exosomes can potentially transfer their cargo to other cells, implicating them in many patho-physiological processes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), residents of the bone marrow and metastatic niches, potentially interact with cancer cells and/or their derived exosomes. In this study, we investigated whether exosomes derived from adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) cells act as intercellular messengers delivering leukemia-related genes that modulate the properties of human MSCs in favor of leukemia...
October 19, 2016: Retrovirology
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