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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150988/patterns-and-correlates-of-grip-strength-in-older-americans
#1
Kimberly Forrest, Adelle Williams, Marcy Leeds, Joseph Robare, Thomas Bechard
BACKGROUND: Muscle strength is a sensitive indicator of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Loss of muscle strength contributes to a decline in physical functioning. Hand grip strength is a simple measurement but correlated with total body muscle strength. This study evaluated the patterns and correlates of grip strength among older adults in the United States. METHODS: The grip strength data were analyzed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
November 16, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150952/ck-2127107-amplifies-skeletal-muscle-response-to-nerve-activation-in-humans
#2
Jinsy A Andrews, Timothy M Miller, Vipin Vijayakumar, Randall Stoltz, Joyce K James, Lisa Meng, Andrew A Wolff, Fady I Malik
INTRODUCTION: Three studies evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of CK-2127107 (CK-107), a next-generation fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA), in healthy subjects. We tested the hypothesis that CK-107 would amplify the force-frequency response of muscle in humans. METHODS: To assess the force-frequency response, subjects received single doses of CK-107 and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 4-period, crossover study...
November 18, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150935/generation-of-insulin-producing-cells-from-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-pva-scaffold-by-optimized-differentiation-protocol
#3
Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Masoud Soleimani, Yousef Mortazavi, Samad Nadri, Ali Salimi
The studies have been done on patient-specific human adipose-derived from mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) like a series of autologous growth factors and nanofibrous scaffolds (3D culture) will probably have many benefits for regenerative medicine in type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM) patients in the future. For this purpose, we established a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffold and a differentiation protocol by adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) that induces the hADSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). The Characteristics of the derived IPCs in 3D culture were compared with conventional culture (2D) groups evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150800/beat-to-beat-estimation-of-stroke-volume-using-impedance-cardiography-and-artificial-neural-network
#4
S M M Naidu, Prem C Pandey, Uttam R Bagal, Suhas P Hardas
Impedance cardiography is a low-cost noninvasive technique, based on monitoring of the thoracic impedance, for estimation of stroke volume (SV). Impedance cardiogram (ICG) is the negative of the first derivative of the impedance signal. A technique for beat-to-beat SV estimation using impedance cardiography and artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed. A three-layer feed-forward ANN with error back-propagation algorithm is optimized by examining the effects of number of neurons in the hidden layer, activation function, training algorithm, and set of input parameters...
November 18, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150791/16-channel-flexible-system-to-measure-electrophysiological-properties-of-bioengineered-hearts
#5
Betsy H Salazar, Kristopher A Hoffman, Anilkumar K Reddy, Sridhar Madala, Ravi K Birla
As tissue engineering continues to mature, it is necessary to develop new technologies that bring insight into current paradigms and guide improvements for future experiments. To this end, we have developed a system to characterize our bioartificial heart model and compare them to functional native structures. In the present study, the hearts of adult Sprague-Dawley were decellularized resulting in a natural three-dimensional cardiac scaffold. Neonatal rat primary cardiac cells were then cultured within a complex 3D fibrin gel, forming a 3-dimensional cardiac construct, which was sutured to the acellular scaffold and suspended in media for 24-48 h...
November 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150719/preoperative-optimization-for-major-hepatic-resection
#6
REVIEW
Sarah Walcott-Sapp, Kevin G Billingsley
PURPOSE: Major hepatic resections are performed for primary hepatobiliary malignancies, metastatic disease, and benign lesions. Patients with chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and steatosis, are at an elevated risk of malnutrition and impaired strength and exercise capacity, deficits which cause increased risk of postoperative complications and mortality. The aims of this report are to discuss the pathophysiology of changes in nutrition, exercise capacity, and muscle strength in patient populations likely to require major hepatectomy, and review recommendations for preoperative evaluation and optimization...
November 18, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150671/urothelial-cancer-proteomics-provides-both-prognostic-and-functional-information
#7
Guillermo de Velasco, Lucia Trilla-Fuertes, Angelo Gamez-Pozo, Maria Urbanowicz, Gustavo Ruiz-Ares, Juan M Sepúlveda, Guillermo Prado-Vazquez, Jorge M Arevalillo, Andrea Zapater-Moros, Hilario Navarro, Rocio Lopez-Vacas, Ray Manneh, Irene Otero, Felipe Villacampa, Jesus M Paramio, Juan Angel Fresno Vara, Daniel Castellano
Traditionally, bladder cancer has been classified based on histology features. Recently, some works have proposed a molecular classification of invasive bladder tumors. To determine whether proteomics can define molecular subtypes of  muscle invasive urothelial cancer (MIUC) and allow evaluating the status of biological processes and its clinical value. 58 MIUC patients who underwent curative surgical resection at our institution between 2006 and 2012 were included. Proteome was evaluated by high-throughput proteomics in routinely archive FFPE tumor tissue...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150644/therapeutic-effects-of-hepatocyte-growth-factor-overexpressing-dental-pulp-stem-cells-on-liver-cirrhosis-in-a-rat-model
#8
Xiao-Fang Cao, Shi-Zhu Jin, Liang Sun, Yuan-Bo Zhan, Feng Lin, Ying Li, Ying-Lian Zhou, Xiu-Mei Wang, Li Gao, Bin Zhang
Cirrhosis is the terminal stage of hepatic diseases and is prone to develop into hepatocyte carcinoma. Increasing evidence suggests that the transplantation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) may promote recovery from cirrhosis, but the key regulatory mechanisms involved remain to be determined. In this study, we overexpressed human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) in primary rat DPSCs and evaluated the effects of HGF overexpression on the biological behaviors and therapeutic efficacy of grafted DPSCs in cirrhosis...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150639/in-vitro-maturation-and-in-vivo-integration-and-function-of-an-engineered-cell-seeded-disc-like-angle-ply-structure-daps-for-total-disc-arthroplasty
#9
J T Martin, S E Gullbrand, D H Kim, K Ikuta, C G Pfeifer, B G Ashinsky, L J Smith, D M Elliott, H E Smith, R L Mauck
Total disc replacement with an engineered substitute is a promising avenue for treating advanced intervertebral disc disease. Toward this goal, we developed cell-seeded disc-like angle ply structures (DAPS) and showed through in vitro studies that these constructs mature to match native disc composition, structure, and function with long-term culture. We then evaluated DAPS performance in an in vivo rat model of total disc replacement; over 5 weeks in vivo, DAPS maintained their structure, prevented intervertebral bony fusion, and matched native disc mechanical function at physiologic loads in situ...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150626/constructing-genetic-networks-using-biomedical-literature-and-rare-event-classification
#10
Amira Al-Aamri, Kamal Taha, Yousof Al-Hammadi, Maher Maalouf, Dirar Homouz
Text mining has become an important tool in bioinformatics research with the massive growth in the biomedical literature over the past decade. Mining the biomedical literature has resulted in an incredible number of computational algorithms that assist many bioinformatics researchers. In this paper, we present a text mining system called Gene Interaction Rare Event Miner (GIREM) that constructs gene-gene-interaction networks for human genome using information extracted from biomedical literature. GIREM identifies functionally related genes based on their co-occurrences in the abstracts of biomedical literature...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150495/small-dense-high-density-lipoproteins-display-potent-vasorelaxing-activity-reflecting-their-elevated-content-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate
#11
Laurence Persegol, Maryam Darabi, Carolane Dauteuille, Marie Lhomme, Sandrine Chantepie, Kerry-Anne Rye, Patrice Therond, M John Chapman, Robert Salvayre, Anne Negre-Salvayre, Philippe Lesnik, Serge Monier, Anatol Kontush
AIMS: Functional heterogeneity of HDL is attributed to its diverse bioactive components. We evaluated whether vasodilatory effects of HDL differed across HDL subpopulations, reflecting their distinct molecular composition. METHODS: Capacity of five major HDL subfractions to counteract inhibitory effects of oxidized low-density lipoprotein on acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was tested in a rabbit aortic rings model. Nitric oxide (NO) production, an essential pathway in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, was studied in SV40-transformed murine endothelial cells (SVEC)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150470/platelet-rich-plasma-in-achilles-tendon-healing-2-path-2-trial-protocol-for-a-multicentre-participant-and-assessor-blinded-parallel-group-randomised-clinical-trial-comparing-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-injection-versus-placebo-injection-for-achilles-tendon-rupture
#12
Joseph Alsousou, David J Keene, Philippa A Hulley, Paul Harrison, Susan Wagland, Christopher Byrne, Michael Maia Schlüssel, Susan J Dutton, Sarah E Lamb, Keith Willett
BACKGROUND: Achilles tendon injuries give rise to substantial long-lasting morbidity and pose considerable challenges for clinicians and patients during the lengthy healing period. Current treatment strategies struggle to curb the burden of this injury on health systems and society due to lengthy rehabilitation, work absence and reinjury risk. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous preparation that has been shown to improve the mechanobiological properties of tendons in laboratory and animal studies...
November 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150403/the-cortisol-reactivity-threshold-model-direction-of-trait-rumination-and-cortisol-reactivity-association-varies-with-stressor-severity
#13
Suzanne Vrshek-Schallhorn, Bradley M Avery, Maria Ditcheva, Vaibhav R Sapuram
Various internalizing risk factors predict, in separate studies, both augmented and reduced cortisol responding to lab-induced stress. Stressor severity appears key: We tested whether heightened trait-like internalizing risk (here, trait rumination) predicts heightened cortisol reactivity under modest objective stress, but conversely predicts reduced reactivity under more robust objective stress. Thus, we hypothesized that trait rumination would interact with a curvilinear (quadratic) function of stress severity to predict cortisol reactivity...
November 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150382/changes-in-fall-risk-and-functional-status-in-women-aged-50-years-and-older-after-distal-radius-fracture-a-prospective-1-year-follow-up-study
#14
Katie Crockett, Jonathan P Farthing, Jenny Basran, Vanina Dal Bello-Haas, Geoffrey Johnston, Charlene R A Haver, Catherine M Arnold
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. INTRODUCTION: Few studies have evaluated the course of recovery after distal radius fracture (DRF) when functional decline and fracture risk may be affected. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in overall functional status over the first year after a DRF in women aged 50 years and older. METHODS: Seventy-eight women were assessed for balance, balance confidence, lower extremity strength, gait speed, fall history, physical activity levels, and self-reported wrist pain and function (Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation) at weeks 1, 3, 9, 12, 26, and 52 after DRF...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150379/changes-in-maxillofacial-morphology-and-velopharyngeal-function-with-two-stage-maxillary-distraction-mandibular-setback-surgery-in-patients-with-cleft-lip-and-palate
#15
T Susami, Y Mori, K Ohkubo, M Takahashi, Y Hirano, H Saijo, T Takato
Maxillary distraction is increasingly used for the correction of severe maxillary retrusion in patients with cleft lip and palate. However, control of the maxillary movement is difficult, and the need to wear visible distractors for a long period of time causes psychosocial problems. A two-stage surgical approach consisting of maxillary distraction and mandibular setback was developed to overcome these problems. In this study, changes in maxillofacial morphology and velopharyngeal function were examined in 22 patients with cleft lip and palate who underwent this two-stage approach...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150326/concomitant-mitral-valve-procedures-in-patients-undergoing-implantation-of-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices-an-intermacs-database-analysis
#16
Jason O Robertson, David C Naftel, Susan L Myers, Ryan J Tedford, Susan M Joseph, James K Kirklin, Scott C Silvestry
BACKGROUND: Management of existing mitral valve (MV) disease in patients undergoing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation remains controversial. METHODS: Among continuous-flow LVAD patients with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation entered into the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) database between April 2008 and March 2014 (n = 4,930), outcomes were compared between patients who underwent MV repair (MVr, n = 252), MV replacement (MVR, n = 11) and no MV procedure (no MVP, n = 4,667)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150321/a-description-of-the-sequence-of-long-term-behavior-of-autogenous-boneblock-in-maxillary-sinus-augmentation-in-sheep-additional-morphologic-and-histomorphometric-evidence
#17
Sebastian Pohl, Robert Haas, Stefan Tangl, Christian Schuh, Georg Mailath-Pokorny, Veronika Pohl
OBJECTIVE: To document the behavior of autogenous bone block in sinus lift and surgical consequences. STUDY DESIGN: Twelve sinus lifts with autogenous hip bone blocks and simultaneous insertion of two implants in 6 adult female sheep. Polychrome sequential labelling and histologic and histomorphometric evaluation after 6, 16, and 26 weeks. RESULTS: Augmentation material in the apical third was almost fully resorbed after 26 weeks (P = ...
September 21, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150140/visual-pathways-from-the-perspective-of-cost-functions-and-multi-task-deep-neural-networks
#18
REVIEW
H Steven Scholte, Max M Losch, Kandan Ramakrishnan, Edward H F de Haan, Sander M Bohte
Vision research has been shaped by the seminal insight that we can understand the higher-tier visual cortex from the perspective of multiple functional pathways with different goals. In this paper, we try to give a computational account of the functional organization of this system by reasoning from the perspective of multi-task deep neural networks. Machine learning has shown that tasks become easier to solve when they are decomposed into subtasks with their own cost function. We hypothesize that the visual system optimizes multiple cost functions of unrelated tasks and this causes the emergence of a ventral pathway dedicated to vision for perception, and a dorsal pathway dedicated to vision for action...
October 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150070/decreased-expression-of-indolamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-childhood-allergic-asthma-and-its-inverse-correlation-with-fractional-concentration-of-exhaled-nitric-oxide
#19
Ying Hu, Zhiqiang Chen, Ling Jin, Mei Wang, Wei Liao
BACKGROUND: The tryptophan metabolic pathway mediated by indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan-degrading enzyme, plays an important role in controlling the development of allergic inflammation. The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is closely associated with the allergic state and is extensively used for the clinical evaluation of airway allergic inflammation. Clinical trials have rarely assessed the expression of IDO in childhood allergic asthma and its correlation with FeNO...
November 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149977/donor-smoking-and-older-age-increases-morbidity-and-mortality-after-lung-transplantation
#20
H H Schultz, C H Møller, M Zemtsovski, J Ravn, M Perch, T Martinussen, J Carlsen, M Iversen
BACKGROUND: The lack of lung transplant donors has necessitated the use of donors with a smoking history and donors of older age. We have evaluated the effects of donor smoking history and age on recipient morbidity and mortality with baseline values of pulmonary function and survival free of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) as morbidity variables. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 588 consecutive lung transplant recipients and their corresponding 454 donors...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
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