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Lukas Ehlen, Jan Tödtmann, Sabine Specht, René Kallies, Jan Papies, Marcel A Müller, Sandra Junglen, Christian Drosten, Isabella Eckerle
BACKGROUND: Small mammals such as bats and rodents have been increasingly recognized as reservoirs of novel potentially zoonotic pathogens. However, few in vitro model systems to date allow assessment of zoonotic viruses in a relevant host context. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is a New World rodent species that has a long-standing history as an experimental animal model due to its unique susceptibility to human viruses. Furthermore, wild cotton rats are associated with a large variety of known or potentially zoonotic pathogens...
May 4, 2016: Virology Journal
Theresa Falls, Dominic Guy Roy, John Cameron Bell, Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault
The preclinical optimization and validation of novel treatments for cancer therapy requires the use of laboratory animals. Although in vitro experiments using tumor cell lines and ex vivo treatment of patient tumor samples provide a remarkable first-line tool for the initial study of tumoricidal potential, tumor-bearing animals remain the primary option to study delivery, efficacy, and safety of therapies in the context of a complete tumor microenvironment and functional immune system. In this review, we will describe the use of murine tumor models for oncolytic virotherapy using vesicular stomatitis virus...
2016: ILAR Journal
Angela Bernard, Céline Lacroix, Maria G Cabiddu, Johan Neyts, Pieter Leyssen, Raffaello Pompei
BACKGROUND: The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae is represented by several viral pathogens that are associated with human disease, namely Poliovirus 1, Enterovirus 71 and Rhinoviruses. Enterovirus 71 has been associated with encephalitis, while Rhinoviruses are a major cause of asthma exacerbations and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Based on the structure of both pleconaril and pirodavir, we previously synthesized some original compounds as potential inhibitors of Rhinovirus replication...
April 2015: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
Wadie D Mahauad-Fernandez, Philip H Jones, Chioma M Okeoma
Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2; also known as tetherin or CD317) is an IFN-inducible gene that functions to block the release of a range of nascent enveloped virions from infected host cells. However, the role of BST-2 in viral pathogenesis remains poorly understood. BST-2 plays a multifaceted role in innate immunity, as it hinders retroviral infection and possibly promotes infection with some rhabdo- and orthomyxoviruses. This paradoxical role has probably hindered exploration of BST-2 antiviral function in vivo...
November 2014: Journal of General Virology
Mani Anand, Sanjay D Deshmukh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2014: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Mihir M Thacker
Soft tissue masses are frequently seen in children. Although most are benign or reactive, soft tissue sarcomas (STS)-both rhabdomyosarcoma (most common) and non-rhabdo STS, do occur in the extremities. Appropriate evaluation of extremity soft tissue tumors often includes a biopsy as the clinical and imaging features may not be enough to establish a definitive diagnosis. Much needs to be done for improving the treatment of these rare but often devastating sarcomas. Given the small numbers of these cases seen at various centers, collaborative efforts should be made to further our understanding and improve the management of these challenging cases...
October 2013: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Markus Hoffmann, Marcel Alexander Müller, Jan Felix Drexler, Jörg Glende, Meike Erdt, Tim Gützkow, Christoph Losemann, Tabea Binger, Hongkui Deng, Christel Schwegmann-Weßels, Karl-Heinz Esser, Christian Drosten, Georg Herrler
Bats (Chiroptera) host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat) or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida) for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S) protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)...
2013: PloS One
E Randy Eichner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2011: Current Sports Medicine Reports
R Gordon Paul, R D Butler, A G Williams
The ciliate Dasytricha ruminantium possesses cilia over the entire surface. Both the oral and somatic kineties are composed of monokinetids comprising a kinetosome, a tangential ribbon of 5 transverse microtubules, a weakly convergent bundle of 5 postciliary microtubules, a short kinetodesmal fibre, and a single microtubule homologous to T(2) of other litostomate ciliates [15]. The reversed orientation of the kineties within and around the vestibulum may be a consequence of the evolutionary migration of the vestibulum from the anterior to the posterior of the cell...
April 14, 1989: European Journal of Protistology
S Campbell, A McBeath, C Secombes, M Snow, B Collet
Isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) were identified which are genetically similar yet, based on their isolation history were considered likely to differ in virulence in juvenile rainbow trout. An experimental infection study was performed in order to verify this hypothesis and provide an experimental infectivity model with which to investigate the basis for susceptibility of rainbow trout to this commercially important virus. Significant differences in mortality were obtained following both intraperitoneal (IP) injection and immersion challenges with an early marine (DK-M...
January 2011: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
R S Jadi, A B Sudeep, Satyendra Kumar, V A Arankalle, A C Mishra
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Since not much information on Chandipura virus is available, an attempt was made to study the growth kinetics of the virus in certain vertebrate, invertebrate cell lines and embryonated chicken eggs. METHODS: Comparative study of Chandipura virus (CHPV) growth kinetics in three vertebrate cell lines [Vero E6, Rhabdo myosarcoma (RD), Porcine stable kidney (PS) cell lines], two insect cell lines [Aedes aegypti (AA) and Phlebotomus papatasi (PP-9) cell lines] and embryonated pathogen free chicken eggs was conducted, by tissue culture infective dose 50 per cent (TCID(50)) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA)...
August 2010: Indian Journal of Medical Research
W B Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1912: Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine
Jacek Sein Anand, Paweł Chwaluk, Michał Sut
Four cases, including three adults and one child, suffering from acute poisoning with Tricholoma equestre were described. The patients had eaten from 100 to 400 grams of the mushroom within a few consecutive meals. After consuming about 1000 grams of Tricholoma equestre for 3-4 days, the subjects developed fatigue, muscle weakness, myalgia, and in two cases acute respiratory failure with the need of respiratorotherapy. Maximal serum CK was 48136 U/L in the adults and 306 U/L in children. Maximal serum levels of AST and ALT were 802 U/L and 446 U/L in adults and 39 U/L, and 56 U/L in a child...
2009: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Rafael Siqueira Athayde Lima, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Alexandre Braga Liborio, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical and biochemical syndrome that occurs when skeletal muscle cells disrupt and release creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myoglobin into the interstitial space and plasma. The main causes of rhabdomyolysis include direct muscular injury, strenuous exercise, drugs, toxins, infections, hyperthermia, seizures, meta-bolic and/or electrolyte abnormalities, and endocrinopathies. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 33-50% of patients with rhabdomyolysis. The main pathophysiological mechanisms of renal injury are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation, and direct myoglobin toxicity...
September 2008: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Erik De Clercq
Ever since the S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy, SAH) hydrolase was recognized as a pharmacological target for antiviral agents (J. A. Montgomery et al., J. Med. Chem. 25:626-629, 1982), an increasing number of adenosine, acyclic adenosine, and carbocyclic adenosine analogues have been described as potent SAH hydrolase inhibitors endowed with broad-spectrum antiviral activity. The antiviral activity spectrum of the SAH hydrolase inhibitors include pox-, rhabdo-, filo-, arena-, paramyxo-, reo-, and retroviruses...
2005: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Giovanni Cecchetto, Rita Alaggio, Patrizia Dall'Igna, Gianni Bisogno, Andrea Ferrari, Cosimo Gigante, Michela Casanova, Guido Sotti, Ilaria Zanetti, Modesto Carli
BACKGROUND: Treatment of initially unresectable nonrhabdo soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) in pediatric age is debated, due to their different chemosensitivity. The authors objective was to evaluate clinical features and treatment results observed in a series of Italian patients over a 24-year period. METHODS: Fifty-two patients age 8-18 years (median 8 years) were observed (1979-2002). Primary sites were on the lower limbs in 41 and on the upper limbs in 11 cases. Clinical TNM and surgical Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Staging systems were adopted...
November 1, 2005: Cancer
Gabriele Neumann, Hideki Ebihara, Ayato Takada, Takeshi Noda, Darwyn Kobasa, Luke D Jasenosky, Shinji Watanabe, Jin H Kim, Heinz Feldmann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Ebola virus particle formation and budding are mediated by the VP40 protein, which possesses overlapping PTAP and PPXY late domain motifs (7-PTAPPXY-13). These late domain motifs have also been found in the Gag proteins of retroviruses and the matrix proteins of rhabdo- and arenaviruses. While in vitro studies suggest a critical role for late domain motifs in the budding of these viruses, including Ebola virus, it remains unclear as to whether the VP40 late domains play a role in Ebola virus replication. Alteration of both late domain motifs drastically reduced VP40 particle formation in vitro...
August 2005: Journal of Virology
K K Conzelmann
"Reverse genetics" or de novo synthesis of nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses (Mononegavirales) from cloned cDNA has become a reliable technique to study this group of medically important viruses. Since the first generation of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA in 1994, reverse genetics systems have been established for members of most genera of the Rhabdo-, Paramyxo-, and Filoviridae families. These systems are based on intracellular transcription of viral full-length RNAs and simultaneous expression of viral proteins required to form the typical viral ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP)...
2004: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Marel C de Wit, Marian C Horzinek, Bart L Haagmans, Virgil E J C Schijns
Replicating viruses generally induce type 1 immune responses, with high interferon (IFN)-gamma levels and antibodies of the IgG2a isotype. In the present study we demonstrate the intrinsic ability of non-replicating virions to induce comparable immune responses in the notable absence of any adjuvant. Injection of inactivated pseudorabies virus, an alphaherpesvirus, by various routes into mice resulted in the generation of T helper (Th) 1 type immune response. Co-delivery of inactivated pseudorabies herpesvirus (iPRV) with protein redirected IgG1-dominated tetanus toxoid-specific responses towards an IgG1/IgG2a balanced response...
April 2004: Journal of General Virology
Corri Black, Hershel Jick
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology and characteristics of patients with clinically diagnosed rhabdomyolysis in the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database (GPRD), and to estimate the risk of rhabdomyolysis in general and that associated with lipid-lowering agents in particular. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: The GPRD. PATIENTS: A base population of patients aged 20-75 years. Intervention. Patients hospitalized with a computer-recorded code for acute myositis or myoglobinuria, or with "rhabdo" recorded in free text comments were reviewed for evidence of rhabdomyolysis...
December 2002: Pharmacotherapy
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