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Vivek Ramakrishnan, Robert Dahlin, Omid Hariri, Syed A Quadri, Saman Farr, Dan Miulli, Javed Siddiqi
BACKGROUND: Seizures account for significant morbidity and mortality early in the course of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although there is sufficient literature suggesting short-term benefits of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in post-TBI patients, there has been no study to suggest a time frame for continuing AEDs in patients who have undergone a decompressive craniectomy for more severe TBI. We examined trends in a level-II trauma center in southern California that may provide guidelines for AED treatment in craniectomy patients...
2015: Surgical Neurology International
A Fadiel, J Song, D Tivon, A Hamza, T Cardozo, Frederick Naftolin
RATIONALE: Phenytoin (Dilantin(®); DPH) is used to treat epilepsy but causes estrogen agonist-antagonist-like side effects. We investigated the interaction of phenytoin with estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β by computational molecular docking, ER competition binding, transcriptional assays, and biological actions, comparing outcomes with estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and tamoxifen (TMX). EXPERIMENTAL: (1) The DPH docking to 3-dimensional crystal structures of the ERα ligand-binding domain (LBD) showed a high degree of structural complementarity (-57...
February 2015: Reproductive Sciences
Xiaoqin Wu, Jeremy L Conkle, Frederick Ernst, Jay Gan
Global water shortage is placing an unprecedented pressure on water supplies. Treated wastewater is a valuable water resource, but its reuse for agricultural irrigation faces a roadblock: the public concern over the potential accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) into human diet. In the present study, we measured the levels of 19 commonly occurring pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in 8 vegetables irrigated with treated wastewater under field conditions. Tertiary treated wastewater without or with a fortification of each PPCP at 250 ng/L, was used to irrigate crops until harvest...
October 7, 2014: Environmental Science & Technology
Stéphane Bayen, Elvagris Segovia, Lay Leng Loh, David F Burger, Hans S Eikaas, Barry C Kelly
Tools specifically validated for tropical environments are needed to accurately describe the behavior of chemical contaminants in tropical ecosystems. In the present study, sampling rates (Rs) were determined for the commercial pharmaceutical-type Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) with a 45.8cm(2) exposure surface for 35 Pharmaceutically Active Compounds (PhACs) and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs), of which eight compounds (albuterol, atorvastatin, diltiazem, dilantin, enalapril, norfluoxetine, risperidone and warfarin) were reported for the first time...
June 1, 2014: Science of the Total Environment
Shobhna Sharma, Hari Menon, Manju Sengar, Sumeet Gujral
A variety of lymphoma types have been reported in patients being treated with anticonvulsant therapy. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas have been reported twice as frequently as Hodgkin lymphomas. Association of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) with dilantin therapy is extremely uncommon. We report a case of Hodgkin lymphoma in a 25-year-old male patient who had been treated with diphenylhydantoin sodium for generalized tonic clonic seizures for 15 years. Patient presented with left cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy persisting for more than 2 years after cessation of treatment with diphenylhydantoin...
October 2013: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Shaman Gill, Amitabh Sagar, S Shankar, Velu Nair
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is an adverse reaction commonly occurring with antiepileptic agents. It was earlier referred to by various names such as dilantin hypersensitivity syndrome and anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. It is characterized by the triad of fever, skin eruption, and systemic involvement. DRESS syndrome has also been reported with a number of other drugs including allopurinol, minocycline, terbinafine, sulfonamides, azathioprine, dapsone, and antiretroviral agents such as abacavir and nevirapine...
July 2013: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Richard S Rhodes, Jim R Kuykendall, Catherine A Heyneman, Matthew P May, Alok Bhushan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of two phenytoin sodium suspensions in 0.9% sodium chloride solution for use in noninstitutional settings (where pharmacies are not present) to dispense phenytoin on a daily basis. A generic extended phenytoin sodium (Mylan) and a name brand phenytoin sodium (Dilantin) in suspension form were evaluated. Both suspensions were first assessed for degradation during frozen storage at designated time intervals. Frozen samples were compared with freshly prepared samples...
January 2006: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Xiaoqin Wu, Frederick Ernst, Jeremy L Conkle, Jay Gan
Reuse of treated wastewater to irrigate agricultural crops is increasing in many arid and semi-arid areas around the world. The presence of numerous pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in treated wastewater and their potential transfer into food produce such as vegetables poses an unknown human health risk. The goal of this study was to identify PPCPs that have a comparatively high potential for plant uptake and translocation. A total of 20 frequently-occurring PPCPs were compared for their accumulation into four staple vegetables (lettuce, spinach, cucumber, and pepper) grown in nutrient solutions containing PPCPs at 0...
October 2013: Environment International
Bhuminathan Swamikannu, Kishore S Kumar, Raghavendra S Jayesh, Senthilnathan Rajendran, Rajendran Shanmugam Muthupalani, Arvind Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Dilantin sodium (phenytoin) is an antiepileptic drug, which is routinely used to control generalized tonic clonic seizure and partial seizure episodes. A few case reports of oral squamous cell carcinomas arising from regions of phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth (GO), and overexpression of mitogenic factors and p53 have presented this condition as a pathology with potential to transform into malignancy. We recently investigated the genetic status of p53 and H-ras, which are known to be frequently mutated in Indian oral carcinomas in GO tissues and found them to only contain wild type sequences, which suggested a non-neoplastic nature of phenytoin induced GO...
2013: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Rania Livada, Jacob Shiloah
Gingival enlargement is common among patients and can be caused by a variety of etiological factors. The most common reason is poor oral hygiene and high bacterial load that leads to gingival inflammation and enlargement. Other implicated factors include systemic drugs, such as Phenytoin (Dilantin) taken by epileptic patients, Calcium Channel Blockers such as Nifedipine (Procardia) and Verapamil (Calan) for the treatment of hypertension, arrhythmia and angina. Another class of medication associated with gingival enlargement is immunosuppressive agents given to organ-transplant patients to prevent rejection of the new element, such as Cyclosporine...
December 2012: Journal of the Michigan Dental Association
Rania Livada, Jacob Shiloah
Gingival enlargement is common among patients and can be caused by a variety of etiological factors. The most common reason is poor oral hygiene and high bacterial load that leads to gingival inflammation and enlargement. Other implicated factors include systemic drugs, such as phenytoin (Dilantin) taken by epileptic patients, calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine (Procardia) and verapamil (Calan) for the treatment of hypertension, arrhythmia and angina. Another class of medication associated with gingival enlargement is immunosuppressive agents given to organ-transplant patients to prevent rejection of the new element such as cyclosporine...
2012: Journal of the Tennessee Dental Association
Shilpa A Kinikar, Thomas Delate, C Mindy Menaker-Wiener, William H Bentley
BACKGROUND: Concerns that antiepileptic brand-to-generic interchange results in disruption of seizure control are widespread. However, little within-patient evidence exists examining such interchanges. OBJECTIVE: To compare within-patient seizure control before and after the interchange of a branded to a single-source generic phenytoin among patients with seizures in a managed care organization. METHODS: This was a pre-post, self-controlled, retrospective study...
May 2012: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Wei Li, Venkateswarlu Nanaboina, Qixing Zhou, Gregory V Korshin
This study examined effects of Fenton oxidation on trace level pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) commonly occurring in wastewater. The tested PPCPs included acetaminophen, atenolol, atrazine, carbamazepine, metoprolol, dilantin, DEET, diclofenac, pentoxifylline, oxybenzone, caffeine, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, iopromide, naproxen, propranolol, sulfamethoxazole, bisphenol-A and trimethoprim. Transformations of effluent organic matter (EfOM) caused by Fenton oxidation were also quantified...
February 1, 2012: Water Research
Marcia L Feldkamp, Lorenzo D Botto, Emmanuelle Amar, Marian K Bakker, Eva Bermejo-Sánchez, Sebastiano Bianca, Mark A Canfield, Eduardo E Castilla, Maurizio Clementi, Melinda Csaky-Szunyogh, Emanuele Leoncini, Zhu Li, R Brian Lowry, Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo, Paul Merlob, Margery Morgan, Osvaldo M Mutchinick, Anke Rissmann, Annukka Ritvanen, Csaba Siffel, John C Carey
Cloacal exstrophy presents as a complex abdominal wall defect thought to result from a mesodermal abnormality. Anatomically, its main components are Omphalocele, bladder Exstrophy and Imperforate anus. Other associated malformations include renal malformations and Spine defects (OEIS complex). Historically, the prevalence ranges from 1 in 200,000 to 400,000 births, with higher rates in females. Cloacal exstrophy is likely etiologically heterogeneous as suggested by its recurrence in families and occurrence in monozygotic twins...
November 15, 2011: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Eric C Wert, Sarah Gonzales, Mei Mei Dong, Fernando L Rosario-Ortiz
Enhanced coagulation (EC) using ferric chloride was evaluated as a pretreatment process to improve the efficiency of ozone (O3) for the oxidation of trace organic contaminants in wastewater. At the applied dosages (10-30 mg/L as Fe), EC pretreatment removed between 10 and 47% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the three wastewaters studied. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed that EC preferentially removed higher apparent molecular weight (AMW) compounds. Subsequent O3 testing was performed using an O3:DOC ratio of 1...
October 15, 2011: Water Research
Dominic P Lu, Winston I Lu, Gabriel P Lu
Phenytoin is an anti-convulsant and anti-arrhythmic medication. Manufactured by various pharmaceutical companies with various brand names, phenytoin (PHT) is also known as Dilantain, Hydantoin or Phenytek in the United States; Dilantain or Remytoine in Canada; Epamin, Hidantoina in Mexico; and Fenidatoin or Fenitron or other names elsewhere in the world. Phenytoin (PHT) is especially useful for patients suffering from intractable oral and facial pain especially those who exhibit anger, stress, depression and irrational emotions commonly seen in the patients with oral and facial pain...
2011: Acupuncture & Electro-therapeutics Research
Taylor Defelice, Phoebe Lu, Aaron Loyd, Rishi Patel, Andrew G Franks
We present a 40-year-old man with erythematous-to-violaceous, broken, reticulated patches on the upper chest, back, and extremities, which is consistent with livedo racemosa. The cutaneous findings appeared after an increase in dilantin dose and subsequently improved after a reduction in dilantin dose. Furthermore, antinuclear antibodies and antihistone antibodies were detected. We therefore believe that the livedo racemosa is a cutaneous manifestation of a drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. We review the distinctive features of livedo racemosa as well as its associations with several disorders...
2010: Dermatology Online Journal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1946: Diseases of the Nervous System
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1946: Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia
Shaun D Darrah, Shaun H Darrah, Jerry Chuang, Laura M Mohler, Xiangbai Chen, Erin E Cummings, Tiffany Burnett, M Christina Reyes-Littaua, Gary N Galang, Amy K Wagner
The mechanisms by which Dilantin confers anticonvulsant benefits may also be neuroprotective by attenuating the acute excitatory insult in cortical and subcortical structures when the drug is given in the acute phase after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, when Dilantin is used for prolonged periods, we hypothesized that it may impede recovery, synaptic plasticity may be impaired, and neuroprotective benefits may be lost. As such, we assessed the effect of daily chronic administration (75 mg/kg day 0 followed by 50 mg/kg daily i...
January 2011: Journal of Neurotrauma
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